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Present-Day Impressions of Japan 





HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY, YOSHIHITO, EMPEROR OF JAPAN 



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HER IMPERIAL MAJESTY, EMPRESS SADAKO 



Present Decy Impressions 



OF 



CTAe HISTORY, PEOPLE. COMMERCE, 
INDUSTRIES and RESOURCES OF 



JAPAN 



JAPANS COLONIAJL EMPIRE 
KWANTUNG, CHOSEN 
TAIWAN KARAFUTO 



Compiler WHMORrONCAMERON 



i^ CLOSE ENCYCLOPEDIA 

MflurSTREET COmp^Tiy LONOO' 

CHICAGO YOKOHAMA SHA.NGK/ - 



Copyright 1919, by 
W. H. Morton Cameron 




Rl 






PREFACE 

A CLEAR and unbiassed presentation of those facts which will enable the reader to choose a 
safe way amidst the shoals of conflicting rumour and report, and read correctly those 
signs of the times indicative of Japan's potential future. Such is the useful object 
of this compilation. 

To that end every article has been contributed by an expert, each a keen student of Japan 
who has spent many years in the coimtr\', and who, guided by our polic\-, avoids on the one hand 
that laudatory note so characteristic of the official or subsidised publication, and on the other that 
too heavy and erudite style so much more effective as an inducement to sleep than as a medium of 
information. 

We have dealt with tables of statistics only where absolutely necessary, under the impression 
that the business man whom this book will chiefly interest, prefers information presented in the 
most assimilable form, as opposed to the befogging diagram and the formidable array of figures. 

Our statistics, too, are mainly comparative of the pre-war years with 1916 and 191 7, from 
which, by choosing the happy medium and making due allowance for the great progress we out- 
line on every hand, one may arrive at some understanding of what the normal de\'elopment 
will probably be during the period of reconstmction. 

The descriptions of commercial enterprises are, we think, no more appreciative than they ought 
to be, inasmuch as it is our good fortune to be able to present perhaps the most lengthy and truly 
representative list of reputable and (in many cases) notable houses that has ever been included 
in a book of this description on Japan. 

The commercial illustrations we regard as quite the most interesting feature of the compilation ; 
indeed, we have spared neither effort nor expense to make them so. What can be more interesting 
to the busy man who is already either connected with the country, contemplates business, or wishes 
merely to acquaint himself with the actual situation than the pictorial presentation of the c-ondi- 
tions under which the merchant in Japan operates; of the power, transportation, labour, machinery, 
and other facilities at his command? 

By the use of illustrations of a different nature, presenting the elementary or historical stages 
of the various industries; by the utilisation of tints varying with the subjects and the interpolation 
of attractive colour pages throughout, we have endeavoured to introduce sufficient variet}' to 
maintain the interest of the reader from cover to cover. 

In the arrangement of the subjects we have kept in view the same object, that of affording 
relief and contrast. Information relative to any enterprise will be found in connection with the 
city in which the concern is located, and, in addition thereto, some local colour which may ser\^e 
for further enlightenment. 

It is an important part of our policy not to accept a Government subsidy, nor have we relied 
to any degree upon Government departments for information. The book is in consequence entirely 
free from that bias so characteristic of the official publication, and, apart from the occasional error 
into which even an expert may fall, the information conveyed can be relied upon. 



I B t HaeB 



P K !•: F A (■ K 



Coiiliiiiicil 



To all import and export merchants and manufacturers who arc interested in any jiart of the 
Far East, and to business men generally, we believe that this volume not only has a message, but a 
significant message which each will have little difficulty in interjireting for himself. That all- 
important question — "What place will Japan occupy in the future markets of the world?" may 
perchance be answered through the medium of these pages. 

We have had no choice but to make enthusiastic reference from time to time to what has been 
accomplished, but it is far from our intention to convey the impression that Japan is prepared to 
rest on her laurels. The Japanese business man has been so long accustomed to look abroad, to 
make it his definite duty to study overseas business methods, etc., and adapt them to his purpose, 
that he cannot quietly view matters with complacency. He doubtless looks with pride on local 
developments, but his satisfaction is ever qualified by comparison with what is being done abroad. 

In this connection, the writer, in conversation with a prominent member of the "Megata" 
economic mission to the United States (1917), referred to the great development in Japan's industries 
since the war, and was surprised to hear that gentleman rather depreciatingly compare America 
and Japan commercially and industrially to the disadvantage of the latter. 

Such a comparison is manifestly unfair, but it was not the foreigner, who is usually much 
impressed, who made it, but a j^rominent representative of the \-ounger business men of Japan, 
already highly placed, whose utterance may be taken as significant of what the future leaders of 
the country' are thinking to-day, and valuable as a gauge to their ambitions. 

At the conclusion of our work, despite every effort to achieve the best, we could wish the book 
to be much better still, but trust that those who are inclined to criticise it adversely will stop a 
moment to consider what, after all, has been accomplished. 



W'U^ i.CWU'^^v, 



Compiler. 



• M-^ -^^av- ■ v■-:^- 



CONTENTS 



Chaptick 

I 



III 



IV 



VI 



VII 



VIII 



IX 



XI 



XII 



XIII 



THE IMPERIAL FAMILY OF JAPAN . 
Foundation of the Empire — The Emperor - 
peror Yoshihito — The Princely Families. 



Page 
3 



-The Imperial ronstitiition — 'l"he Late Emperor Mutsuhito — The Em- 



THE COUNTRY 

The Name — Position — Area — Coast Line — Orogra|)hy — Geology — Volcanic and Seismic Action — Hydrography — 
Climate — Flora and Fauna — Population — Table of Weights, Measures, and Moneys, with English, American, 
French, and German Equivalents. 

THE PEOPLE 

(A) The Age of Myths ( — to B. c. 660), Origin of the Japanese — Cosmogony — Archaeological Evidence — Dawn of 
Empire^ — Early Civilisation. (B) The Yamato Empire (b. c. 660 to 794 a. d.), Consolidating the Infant Empire — 
Expedition to Korea — Introduction of Buddhism — Beginning of Chinese Influence. (C) Period of Family Des- 
potism (794 to 1603 A.D.), the Fujiwara Bureaucracy — Rise of the Taira and Minamoto Clans, 794 to 1199 a.d. — 
The Shadow-shoguns, 1199 to 1334 a.d. — Arrival of Europeans and Christianity, 1334 to 1573 — Age of Usurpers, 
1573 to 1603. (D) The Tokugawa Period (1600 to 1868), The Eradication of Christianity — The Laws of leyasu — 
Fortign Relations in the Tokugawa Era — Reopening of Japan — Fall of the Shogunate. (E) The Era of Meiji 
(1868 to 1914), Early Reforms — Foreign Relations — Modern Japan. 

THE ARMY 

Army of Old Japan — Evolution of a Modern Army — Recruiting — Army Organisation — Mobilisation and Equipment 
— Army Finance. 



THE NAVY 

The Navy of Ancient Times — Birth of the Imperial Japanese Navy — The New Navy in War — Japan's Navy To-day 
— Finance — Education and Personnel — The Imperial Dockyards. 

FOREIGN EMBASSIES AND LEGATIONS 

The British Embassy — The United States Embassy — Ihe French Embassy — The Russian Embassy — The Italian 
Embassy — Germany — Austro-Hungary — The Netherlands Legation — The Spanish Legation — The Portuguese Le- 
gation — The Belgian Legation — The Swedish Legation — The Chinese Legation — The Siamese Legation — The 
Mexican Legation — Other Legations. 

THE DIPLOMACY AND FOREIGN POLICY OF JAPAN. By D, J. Evans, Managing Editor of "The Japan 
Chronicle" 

The Opening of the Ports — The Recognition of Japan as a Great Power — Japan's Policy in Korea — Japan's Policy 
toward China — Japan's Southward Expansion. 

THE FUTURE OF JAPAN. By the Hon. Y. Takegoshi, Ex-Member of the House of Representatives .... 
The Alliance of Races — Self-Government — Expansion beyond the Seas — The Japan-China War — The Japan- 
Russian War — Lessons of Historj'. 

BANKING, FINANCE, AND INSURANCE (Yokohama and Tokyo Section) 

Economics of Old Japan — Financial Pohcy of the Tokugawa Shoguns — Early Meiji Finance — The First Banks — 
Improvement of Monetary Organs — Currency Reform — Taxation and Revenue — The National Debt — Banks and 
Banking — Foreigii Banks — Loan Associations — National Wealth of Japan — Exchanges — Foreign Banks — Insurance 
Companies — Commercial Notices — A Short History of Coinage in Japan (By Dr. Yoshimasa Koga, F. C. S., Chief 
iVssayer at the Imperial Japanese Mint, Osaka). 

THE CITY OF TOKYO 

Origin, History, and Development — The New Tokyo — Municipal Administration — Tokyo Finance — Future of 
Tokyo — Commercial Notices. 

SHIPPING (Yokohama and Tokyo Section) 

History of Japanese Shipping — The Modem Era — The Position before the War — Leaders of the Industry — Capital 
Invested — Government Subsidies — The Shi|jbuilding Industry — Harbours — Commercial Notices. 

THE PORT OF YOKOHAMA 

History and Progress — Government, Finance, Comnit-ree, ami Industry 



26 



44 



52 



76 



«.? 



qo 



156 



168 



197 



- Commercial Notice. 



XIV 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (Yokohama and Tokyo Section) 203 

Trade in Old Japan — Beginnings of Trade with Europe — LTnlimited Trade — Causes of Trade Expansion — General 
Survey of Markets — Proportion of Raw Materials to Finished Articles — Principal Exports and Imports — Japan's 
Trade Pohcy — Commercial Institutions — Japan's Button Trade (By Mr. Emile Ott, of Messrs. Israel & Oppen- 
heimer, Ltd., Kobe) — Commercial Notices. 

ALACHINERY IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS 271 



■ I W I 



Chatter 
XV 



XVI 
XVII 

XVIII 
XIX 

XX 
XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 
XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 

XXVII 
XXVIIl 

XXIX 

XXX 

XXXI 

XXXII 

XXXIII 
XXXIV 



CONTENTS — Continued 

Page 

AGRICULTURE ^qs 

General Considerations — Intensive Cultivation — The Farmer's Lot — Agricultural Productivity — Stock-breeding — 
The Rice Industry (By Prof. Shosuke Sato of Tohoku Imperial University, Sapporo) — Origin and Development of 
Rice Culture — Economic Importance of the Rice Industry during Feudal Times — Rice in the Modem Market and 
in the National Economy — Rice Culture, its Extent and Varieties — Production and Consumption of Rice in Japan 
— Relation of the Price to Other Commodities and to Wages — How Rice is Grown in Japan — Conclusion — Com- 
mercial Industries — Commercial Notices. 

TEA 330 

Shizuoka — Tea (By Charles E. Atwood, Vice-President of the J. C. Whitney Company) — Commercial Notices. 

THE SILK INDUSTRY OF JAPAN. By Mr. Akira Shito, Director of the Imperial Japanese Silk Conditioning 

House 341 

History of the Industry — Modern Developments — Development and Improvement — Production — Filature Opera- 
tions — The Export Trade — Japan's Place in World Production — Commercial Notices. 

THE CITY OF NAGOYA 357 

FORESTRY 361 

Afforestation — Distribution — Forest Acreage and Revenue — Other Forest Products — Commercial Notice. 

FISHERIES 366 

Present Conditions — Annual Catches — Deep-sea Fisheries — Marine Manufactured Products — Commercial Notice. 

CONSTITUTION AND LAW OF JAPAN. By J. E. de Becker, LL. B., D. C. L 374 

Bases of Japanese Law — Constitution — Codes — Civil Code — Civil Procedure — Commercial Code — Criminal Code 
— Code of Criminal Procedure — Civil Law in General — Criminal Law — The Judiciary. 

EDUCATION. By Dr. J. Ingram Bryan, M. A., M. Litt., Ph. D. The Meiji University and the Imperial Naval 

College, and Japan Correspondent of the London "Morning Post' ' 384 

Remote Beginnings and Early Development — Education in the Tokugawa Era —Introduction of Modern Education 
— Japan's Educational System To-day — Outlay on Education. 

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 396 

The Japanese Language — Japanese Literature — Poetry and Drama. 

THE PROGRESS OF MEDICINE IN JAPAN. By Prof. S. Kitasato, M. D., F. R. S., London, etc 409 

History — Institutions for Medical Research — Medical Societies and Periodicals. 

THE FOREIGNER IN JAPAN. By Robert Young, Editor and Proprietor of "The Japan Chronicle" 411 

JAPANESE CHARACTERISTICS: THE PHYSICAL, THE MENTAL, AND THE MORAL. By Dr. J. Ingram 
Bryan, M. A., M. Litt., Ph. D. The Meiji University and the Imperial Naval College, and Japan Correspon- 
dent of the London "Morning Post" 4'4 

Physical Characteristics — Mental Characteristics — Moral Characteristics. 

JAPANESE ARTS OF SELF-DEFENSE. By E. J. Harrison, F. R. G. S 425 

JAPAN AS A TOURIST LAND. By W. B. Mason, Joint-Author of "Murray's Handbook to Japan," etc., and Corre- 
sponding Member for Japan of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society 430 

THE CITY OF KYOTO 438 

The Old Capital — Kyoto in Modern Times — Municipal Finance — Industry and Commerce — Commercial Notices. 

RELIGION 445 

Historical Outlines — Shinto — Confucianism — Buddhism — Christianity. 

MINES AND MINERALS 461 

Mining in Old Japan — New Era in Mining — Rapid Development — Mineral Production in Detail — The Future — 
Condition of Miners — Commercial Notices of Mining Companies — The History of Oil in Japan (By A. P. Scott, 
Managing Director, Rising Sun Petroleum Co., Ltd.) — Commercial Notices of Oil Companies. 

NATIONAL ARTS AND CRAFTS. By Dr. J. Ingr.\m Bryan, M. A., M. Litt., Ph. D. The Meiji University and the 

Imperial Naval College, and Japan Correspondent of the London " Morning Post " 495 

Dawn of Art — The Cradle of Japanese Art — The Bronze Workers — Other Metals — Ivory and Wood Carving — 
Ceramics — Cloisonne Enamel — Lacquer — Weaving and Embroidery — Pictorial Art — Minor Considerations. 

THE CITY OF OSAKA 510 

Antiquity — Modem Osaka — City Government — Finance — Industries and Trades. 

BANKING, FINANCE, AND INSURANCE (Osaka and Kobe .Section) 517 



jaWBdSSd^^ 



CONTENTS 



Continued 



Chapter 
XXXV 



XXXVI 
XXXVII 



XXXVIII 

XXXIX 

XL 

XLI 

XLII 

XLIII 

XLIV 
XLV 

XLVI 

XLVII 

XLVIII 

XLIX 



Page 



LABOUR CONDITIONS 539 

Sudden Transformation — Phenomenal Growth of Cities — Japan Necessarily Industrial — Serious Aspects of the Situ- 
ation — Unhealthy Conditions — Moral Dangers — Rights of Labour — Labour Unions Barred — Strikes Frequent — 
Wages in Japan — Future of Japanese Labour. 



547 
540 



THE PATENT SYSTEM. By Morio Nakamatsu, Esq., ex-Director of the Imperial Japanese Patent Office . . . 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

Industry in Old Japan — Forms of Industry — Operatives — The Cotton Industry — The Woollen Industry — The 
Brewing Industry — Machine-making— Ceramics — The Lacquer Industry — The Silk Industry — Other Industries 

— Commercial Notices. 

THE CITY OF KOBfi 654 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (Kob^ and Osaka Section) 661 

SPORTS AND RECREATIONS IN JAPAN 706 

Golf — Yachting — Rowing — Horse Racing — Dramatics — Music. 

PRESS AND PERIODICAL LITERATURE 710 

News in Old Japan — Introduction of Modem Journalism — Make-up and Content of Leading Japanese Newspapers 

— "The Japan Chronicle" — "The Japan Advertiser" — "The Japan Gazette." 



SHIPPING (Osaka and Kob^ Section) 



717 



LI 

LII 
LIII 

LIV 

LV 



OTHER IMPORTANT TOWNS OF JAPAN 762 

The City of Wakayama — The City of Niigata — The City of Sendai — The City of Kanazawa — The City of Hiro- 
shima. 

GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS 768 

Brief History — Railway Nationalization and its Results — New Departures since Railway Nationalization — Some 
Statistics Showing the Progress of the Government Railways. 

POSTS, TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, ROADS, RIVERS, AND BRIDGES 777 

I. Post Offices: Courier System of Old Japan — Advent of a Modern Postal System — Development of Postal Busi- 
ness. II. Telegraphs and Telephones: Early Development — Telegraph and Telephone Rates and Revenue. 
III. Roads, Rivers, and Bridges. 

GOVERNMENT MONOPOLIES 783 

The Tobacco Monopoly — The Salt Monopoly — The Camphor Monopoly — The Opium Monopoly — Commercial 
Notices. 

THE CITIES OF MOJI AND SHIMONOSEKI 789 

THE CITY OF NAGASAKI 805 

JAPAN'S COLONIAL EMPIRE: THE PROVINCE OF KWANTUNG 812 

How Acquired — Area, Population, and Government — Agriculture, Industry, and Trade — Finance and Banking — 
Education — Communications — Dairen — Commercial Notices. 

JAPAN'S COLONIAL EMPIRE: CHOSEN (KOREA) 838 

Ancient Relations with Japan — Modern Relations with Japan — The Annexation of Korea by Japan — Reforms 
Inaugurated — Modern Regime — Area and Population — Forests and Fisheries — Agriculture and Industry — Com- 
mercial Notices — Minerals and Mines — Trade and Commerce — Commercial Notices — Communications — Finance 
and Banking — Banking and Currency — Commercial Notices — Education — Keijo (Seoul) — Commercial Notices. 

JAPAN'S COLONIAL EMPIRE: TAIWAN (FORMOSA) 869 

History — Area, Physical Features, and Population — Administration — Finance — Commerce and Trade — Industry 
— Communications — Education — Commercial Notices. 

JAPAN'S SUGAR INDUSTRY 888 

Sugar Production in Japan Proper — Sugar Production in Formosa — Commercial Notices. 

JAPAN'S COLONIAL EMPIRE: KARAFUTO (JAPANESE SAGHALIEN) 898 

History — Area, Physical Features, and Population — Commerce and Industry — Communications — Administration 
and Finance. 

THE AINU. By the Venerable Archdeacon John B.\tchelor 902 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 908 

INDEX OF COMMERCIAL NOTICES AND PORTRAITS 927 



aam^mA I 




FUJI-SA.N AT DAWN 



I. The Imperial Family of Japan 

Foundation of the Empire — Thr Emperor — The Imperial Constitution — The Late Emperor 
MuTSUHiTo — The Emperor Yoshihito — The Princely Families 



According to Japanese history 
the Empire has maintained perfect 
independence since its foundation 
more than 2,500 years ago; and the present 
Emperor, Yoshihito, is the 122nd sovereign 
in the imperial line who has occupied the 
throne in unbroken succession since its 
establishment. It must be remembered, 
however, that competent scholars can not 
carry the authentic history of Japan farther 
back than about half way over the course 
ascribed to it in local annals, as no reli- 
ance can be placed on any date or report 
of Japanese tradition prior to the opening 
of the fifth century A. D. The Japanese 
Empire was no doubt founded at a very 
remote period, and most probably there was 
some substantial basis for the long-estab- 
lished tradition; but the glimpses of the 
country and its people obtained through 
contemporary Korean and Chinese records 
disclose, not an organised and peaceful state 
of society in Japan, but segregated clans or 
tribes practically illiterate and barbarous, 
the southern elements leading, with prospects 



of becoming sovereign. Thus the formal 
establishment of the Japanese Empire cannot 
be dated beyond the Christian era. From 
the time that the capital was established 
at Yamato in the early Christian era until 
the present day, there is no doubt that the 
Imperial House has reigned in unbroken 
succession, though at times there were 
rebellions and a divided dynasty, with the 
ruler in exile; and sometimes the succession 
had to be kept up by adoption. 

THE EMPEROR 
According to the Japanese system of 
government the Emperor is the head and 
centre of the organisation of the Empire. 
The distinction between sovereign and sub- 
ject is vital and permanent, and has been 
definitely fixed since the establishment of the 
imperial throne; from which time it has been 
fully accepted that the sovereign is sacred 
and his person inviolable, an attitude never 
relaxed in spite of even modern ideas. The 
Japanese maintain these propositions not- 
withstanding that, as already mentioned, in 



the nation's history we see emperors seized 
and banished, being left to die in exile. On 
the whole, however, the tenet that the 
Emperor is sacred has been observed; obedi- 
ence to him has been absolute and he has 
been and is treated as a god incarnate on the 
earth, representing the divine ancestors. 
The religion of Japan is simply ancestor 
worship; and the Emperor rules not in his 
own right but as the representative of the 
Imperial Ancestors. Japan is veritably a 
theocracy ruled by gods innumerable. The 
Imperial Ancestors are worshipped, not 
because they are the ancestors of the present 
sovereign, but because they are the sover- 
eigns of the ancestors of the Japanese people. 
To some this might seem like the essence of 
self- worship; and when one looks at a Shinto 
shrine and finds the chief object on the altar 
is a mirror, the assumption might seem to 
receive confirmation. But the whole thing is 
very human. Man naturally turns with awe 
and reverence to his creator, which by the 
logic of his religion must extend back to the 
Heavenly Father. The Empire of Japan ia 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 





THE EMPEROR KAMMU, ONE OF THE EARLY 
RULERS OF JAPAN — THE EMPEROR DAIGO. 
BOTH FROM PAINTINGS IN THE IM- 
PERIAL MUSEUM, TOKYO 

one great family of which the Emperor is the 
father and head, the representative of heaven 
and earth. Indeed, Japanese views of deity 
and of the Imperial Family would make the 
Almighty a Japanese, just as the ideas of 
some of the ancient Hebrews would make 



God a Jew and the Jews alone his chosen 
ones or children. The Japanese claim that 
the rule of their Emperor has been divine 
and that history affords no instance of falli- 
bility; no Emperor has ever ruled despoti- 
cally or arbitrarily, but always as the divine 
father of his people. As the rulers have 
always shown the greatest consideration for 
the people, the people have always evinced 
the utmost loyalty and respect for the sov- 
ereign. 

It is, of course, very difficult for an Occi- 
dental mind to appreciate fully just what is 
the relation between the Japanese people and 
the Imperial House. It is doubtless the 
most intimate possible for the human mind 
to conceive. To say that the Japanese 
believe in the divine right of riders is to 
put the case much too mildly. To convey 
to a Western mind any adequate conception 
of the place occupied by the Emperor of 
Japan in the hearts of his subjects and the 
degree of reverential awe with which he 
continues to be invested, even in these 
materialistic times, is no easy thing to at- 
tempt in mere words. One has to live in 
the midst of this mystic loyalty and breathe 
its atmosphere for years to realise what it 
means. The Emperor of Japan is not only 
the vicegerent of the ancestral gods on earth, 
but is himself a god by virtue of his divine 
descent, a god who rules, guides, guards, 
and keeps his people with unbounded com- 
passion and infallible widsom, a task possible 
only to one who has inherited the attributes 
of omnipotent and benevolent ancestors in 
heaven. To the people of Japan the Emperor 
is just as much a god as Christ is to the 
Christians; and with far more immediate and 
practical powers. There is no other poten- 
tate on earth who receives .such veneration 
and service as the ruler of Japan. He is to 
them their heavenly father, present with 
them on earth to share their joys and sorrows, 
and to whose support all achievement is due. 
Such a view of deity no doubt comes as a 
shock to the pious-minded Occidental ; but 
the Japanese seem to regard it as far more 
rational than the Western notion of deity. 
If it be objected that the Japanese view of 
faith and loyalty assumes too much of 
mortals, it will be replied that the Emperor 
is just as much a heavenly father to his 
people as Jehovah is to the European. The 
Occidental can not claim that his god has 
done more for him and his country than the 
divine ruler of Japan has done for his country 
and people. The religious people of Europe 
say that they are the children of their 
Heavenly Father; they claim the Almighty 
as their first ancestor. If man is the child 
of God he is of divine descent and can be a 
god. The Japanese go farther and insist 



that the divine succession has never been 
broken and that they are still connected 
with the original creator through their divine 
ruler on earth. Such, at least, is the con- 
ception of deity and sovereignty that the 
European must be able to grasp before he 
can appreciate what the Emperor of Japan 
is to the nation. 

In the ancient days the emperors of 
Japan, as the descendants of the ancestral 




IM.\GE OF THE EMPRESS JINGO-KOGO. 

COLOURED WOOD, I FOOT 2 INCHES IN 

HEIGHT. EARLY FUJIWARA PERIOD (888- 

1068 A. D.), OWNED BY YAKUSHI-JI, 

A TEMPLE IN NARA-KEN 

gods, themselves administered the affairs of 
state. As time went on the divine ruler 
began to rule more and more through his 
agents. First there was the Fujiwara fara" ■ 
which attained to martial fame and cc.i- 
sequent great influence at the Imperial 
Court, and from which the imperial con- 
sorts have ever since been selected. Later 
the political power passed into the control 
of great military clans like the Taira and 
the Minamoto, and finally to the shoguns. 
If it be suggested that this seems like a 
usurpation of imperial prerogative, it may 
be replied that it is no more so than in 
those European countries which hold the 
divine right of kings yet entrust their ad- 
ministration to governments authorised by 
the sovereign. Even in the Church, God is 
said to rule through regularly commissioned 
officers, of which system the Papacy is, 
perhaps, the best example. But no occupant 
of the papal chair was ever believed so in- 
fallible as the Emperor of Japan. The great 
clans and latterly the shoguns did not make 
themselves more independent of imperial rule 
than the Pope of Rome has often done of 
the Almighty. The military clans respected 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




HER LATE MAJESTY THE EMPRESS DOWAGER SHOKEN 



THE LATE EMPEROR MEIJI TENNO 



ihe Imperial Court and observed the ad- 
ministrative power in such form as was en- 
trusted to them by the Emperor, and in the 
exercise of their power there existed a 
formality transmitted by the court. A time 
at 'ved, liowever, when the people preferred 
to nave the direct rule of the divine ruler. 
Like the Reformation in Europe, the Re- 
storation in Japan was a reversion from in- 
direct to direct relation with the divine 
head. With the Restoration of imperial 
rule the statecraft that came between the 
Emperor and his people was done away with, 
a change as great and as vital as the aboli tion 
of priestcraft in the reformed churches of 
Europe. With the central power presiding 
over aU public affairs there was reestablished 
that direct relationship between the ruler 
and people that existed at the foundation 
of the Empire. 

" Those able to appreciate the force of what 
ilias been said may be able to understand 
t i<^ meant by the claim that, in spite of 
Rebels and exiled emperors, the Japanese have 
Iways b(;en loyal to the Imperial House, and 
hat nev'.'r once through the long history of 
the country has the supreme authority of 
the Emperor been questioned. Even the 
most arrogant of Japanese rebels would not 



have admitted that he was up in arms 
against the Emperor. Rebellions were always 
against bad officials who were accused of 
abusing the imperial power entrusted to 
them. If it be asked why this was not left 
to the Emperor, as being his concern chiefly, 
the answer might come that the followers of 
God do not leave the punishment of the 
enemies of heaven to divine interposition. 
Even during the centuries when the Emperors 
of Japan would seem to have been reduced 
to political and administrative impotence by 
successive dynasties of military usurpers, 
they still remained theoretically the final 
source of all executive authority and the 
sole fountain of honour. No act, not even 
of the most powerful and arbitrary regent, 
backed though it might be by irresistible 
militar>' strength and efficiency, was valid 
unless he was fortified by the commission of 
the Emperor, who himself had not a single 
soldier to enforce his commands. Military 
leaders who held the commission were always 
loyalists, though they might overturn all 
existing government. Those without the 
imperial commission were always rebels, 
though they held the reins of government in 
their own hands. Thus it wiU be seen that 
the Japanese do not regard the Emperor as 



any the less divine or infallible or omnipotent 
because his will has not always been obeyed, 
any more than religious people in the West 
regard ungodliness as a reflection on the 
Deity. After a divine manner the Emperors 
of Japan have left the people to choose for 
themselves whom they would serve, and for 
the most part the people have responded to 
the trust. 

THE I.MPERIAL CONSTITUTION 
With the restoration of direct relations 
between sovereign and people a constitution 
was granted, not creating any new principle 
or policy, but stating and defining the divine 
principles that had regulated the relations 
of sovereign and people from the beginning. 
As Japanese history was affirmed to afford 
no instance of imperial tyranny or oppression 
of the people, the portion of the constitution 
relating to the Imperial House was formed 
on a basis of great elasticity; w-hile all that 
referred to the rights and duties of the people 
was embodied in coded laws. Unlike the 
constitutions of other countries that of 
Japan is a divine covenant, not the result 
of coercion nor accorded as a right, but 
simply as a voluntary gift and blessing from 
the divine ruler to his people. By the 



P R K S E N T - n A Y IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



terms of the Imperial Constitution the im- 
perial power remained as before, or strengtli- 
cned rather than impaired; while rights of 
honour, liberty, life, property, and religion 
were freely bestowed on the people. The 
Emperor exercised his administrativ-e power 
through the two Estates of the Realm, the 
Peers and the Commoners, both vested with 
extensive powers, but both of which ever 
bow to the imperial will, however much 
among themselves they may be given to 
division and disputation. 

The name usually given to the Emperor is 
Tenno Heika, or Divine Ruler. The desig- 
nation Mikado, or August Door, is seldom 
used except among foreigners, though when 
it is spoken it shows the reluctance felt by 
the Japanese in using the imperial name. 
The title Kolei, a Chinese word, meaning 
King of Kings, is sometimes used; while 
Kinri, Dairi, and Chutei all describe the 
palace and are intended to signify the Em- 
peror personally, as we do when we say "the 
bench" instead of the judge." Tenno, how- 
ever, is the title by which the ruler of Japan 
is most commonly known among his people, 
and also Tenshi, both implying his divine 
descent as well as his all-seeing wisdom and 
supreme authority. The Empress is referred 
to as Kogo Heika, or Imperial Consort. 

THE LATE EMPEROR MUTSUHITO 
The late Emperor, Mutsuhito, was the 
first ruler for nearly a thousand years to 
come before the public and exercise direct 
rale over the people, former sovereigns carry- 
ing on the administration by proxy and 
themselves livmg in the most profound 
seclusion, the imperial, feet never being 
allowed to touch the earth. During his rule 







A MORE RECENT PHOTOGR.^PH OF HIS L.M'E 
MAJESTY THE EMPEROR MEIJI TENNO 

Japan became a modern state and attained 
the position of a first-class power in the 
comity of nations; all of which is ascribed 
to the virtues of the sovereign. When he 
ascended the throne in 1867 at the age of 
sixteen he found his country in the throes 
of rebirth from expiring feudalism. Tlie 
nation was regarded by the powers of the 
world as an isolated and self-centred ana- 
chronism; but the young ruler, surrounding 
himself by the choicest spirits of his time, 
determined upon a thorough and radical 
reform. Out of the seclusion to which the 
shogunate had consigned him he emerged 
upon a plane of triumphant and enlightened 
rule, breaking the shackles of feudalism and 
setting the people free. He found his 



country a nation of 30,000,000 ignorant and 
unhappy subjects; and after fort3'-five years 
of illustrious rule he left a vast Empire 
extended in territory and having more tlian 
70,000,000 people. Well was his reign en- 
titled the Meiji Period, the Age of Enlighten- 
ment; and after his demise the great Emperor 
was permanently given the posthumous desig- 
nation of Meiji. The material, mental, and 
moral progress of Japan during the reign of 
the Emperor Meiji owed much to imperial 
solicitude and direction. The profound 
personal interest taken by the Emperor in 
the welfare of the people may be illustrated 
by one of the imperial poems, the late sov- 
ereign having been one of the greatest poets 
of the nation: 

Teru ni tsukd 

Kumoru ni tsuketd 
Omou kana 

Waga tamigusa no 

Uye wa ikani to! 

I Whether it rain or shine 
I have one only care; 
The burden of this heart of mine 
Is how my people fare') 

Taller and more robust than the majority 
ot his subjects, with dark complexion and 
pronounced features, the late Emperor always 
seemed grave and impassive, ever maintain- 
ing the austere dignity of one whose ancestry 
is of heaven. vSeen by the present writer on 
various occasions, social and official, the 
same outward expression of grave dignity 
remained without change through many 
years. To all Japanese he appeared more 
like a god than a man. They took the 
keenest interest in every detail of his life, 
so far as the public was permitted such in- 
formation. The late Empcroi had many 




THE APPROACH TO THE IMPERIAL P.\L,^CES, TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



I 



detached palaces, but he did not often occupy 
them, seldom taking a lioHday, even in the 
heat of summer. He refused to complain of 
winter cold or summer heat, so long as the 
toiling multitudes of his Empire had to 
endure all weathers, this idea being expressed 
in one of the imperial poems. The Emperor 
always arose at six in the morning, bathed 
and had breakfast before seven, his food 
being the simplest. After satisfying his 
physician that he was physically fit for the 
day, the pure white habutai kimono was 
put off for the uniform of a generalissimo of 
the Imperial Guards. He insisted on this 
even in the heat because the army officers 
had to wear it. At ten the Emperor entered 
his study to receive official reports and papers. 
At one o'clock he took luncheon, usually 
native dishes, and then lay down until two. 
The afternoons were spent in the study or 
in riding. At six the Emperor dined with 
the Empress; and the evenings were spent 
in poetry together. At nine, the physician 
again appeared, and after massage the Em- 
peror retired. His late Majesty's hobbies 
were poetry and gardening. 

The late Empress, who, like her predeces- 
sors through so many centuries, belonged to 
the Fujiwara family, also traced her descent 
direct to the gods, as the Fujiwara were 
descendants of the Imperial House. She 
belonged to the Ichijo branch of the family 
and showed in every line of her features the 
refined and intellectual characteristics of 
those who trace unmixed descent from the 
highest nobility of old Japan, which are 
better preserved in the women than in the 
men. She was the first Empress to appear 
among the people and take part in public 
functions. The influence of the good Em- 
press Haruko over the women of Japan was 
remarkable, especially in the way of education 
and charity. In Japanese history her name 
will shine no less brightly than that of her 
illustrious spouse, the Emperor Meiji, as an 
ideal of devotion and duty. 




THE EMPEROR YOSHIHITO 
The present Emperor, Yoshihito, is the 
122nd in the imperial line. He was born 
August 31, 1879, being the third son of the 
late Emperor. He was declared Imperial 
Crown Prince on November 3, 1889, and 
succeeded to the throne on July 30, 191 2, at 
the moment of the demise of his father. 
The formal ceremony of public accession to 
the throne did not take place until Novem- 
ber, 1914, owing to national mourning. On 
the loth of May, 1900, while still Prince 
Imperial, he was married to the Princess 
Sadako, fourth daughter of Prince Kujo, 
born June 22, 1884, the results of the union 
being four sons. 



H. I. H. CROWN PRINCE HIROHITO 



The succession to the throne of Japan is 
regulated b^' the Imperial House Law, passed 
as supplementary to the Imperial Consti- 
tution in 1889 under the Emperor's sign- 
manual. It declares that "the Imperial 
Throne of Japan, enjoying the grace of 
heaven, and everlasting from ages eternal in 
unbroken line of succession, has been trans- 
mitted through successive reigns," and that 
while "the fundamental rules of the Imperial 
family were established, once and for all, 
when the foundations of the Empire were 
laid, and are even at this day as bright as 
the celestial luminaries," it was desired "to 



establish a House Law for posterity by which 
the Imperial House should be founded in 
everlasting strength and its dignity forever 
maintained." This law provides for the 
succession to the throne by male descendants 
in the male line, by the imperial eldest son 
or the imperial eldest grand.son, by younger 
sons of the Emperor in order of birth, failing 
an eldest son or grandson; by the Emperor's 
brother or his descendants or by his uncle or 
his descendants, or, failing these, by the 
nearest member of the imperial family. It 
is clear that in the above law two of the 
nation's most ancient customs were departed 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



from: empresses were excluded from the 
throne and the succession was limited to 
male descendants of absolute lineage. An 
empress or a princess is permitted to act as 
regent during the minority or permanent 
incapacity of the Emperor from illness, if 
there is no prince of age or capacity to 
undertake the duties. It is remarkable that 
women should be thus excluded from the 
tlirone, since some of the most illustrious 
sovereigns of old Japan were empresses. 
The male succession in direct line is now, 
however, well assured, as the present ruler 
is the son of the late Emperor, and has four 
sons, his two elder brothers having died in 
infancy. 

The Emperor Yoshihito is the first really 
modem ruler that Japan has had, as he was 
educated in a modern way and has established 
his family and houseliold on a modern basis. 
The former Emperor was brought up after 
the manner of old Japan; but the education 
and training of the new Emperor combine 
the best of the old with the best of the new 
and modem. At the age of eight he entered 
the primary department of the Peers' 
College, and passed through all the grades 
up to the high school with marked ability. 
As a youth he was somewhat delicate in 
constitution, but by persistence in care for 
his health and in outdoor life and activity 
the Emperor is now robust and hale. Upon 
leaving the Peers' College the Prince con- 
tinued his education at the Aoyama Palace 
under private tutors. Up to the time of his 
accession to the tlirone the Imperial Prince 
gave most of his mornings to hearing special 
private lectures from eminent scholars and 
professors, showing a special aptitude for 
Chinese and Japanese classics. Of foreign 
languages he preferred French, in which he 
made some progress. From a professional 
point of view the young Emperor is a soldier, 
though he is an officer of the navy as well. 
While yet Crown Prince he used to take his 
seat in the House of Peers and show unabated 
interest in the affairs of state. Thus it may 
be said that the new Emperor of Japan has 
had a thorouglily modem education, attend- 
ing the public school, mixing daily with com- 
panions selected for him, and making himself 
familiar with the duties of the high position 
he was destined to fiU. On attaining man- 
hood he neglected no opportunity of gaining 
further knowledge of his country and people, 
travelling to various parts of the Empire, 
even to Korea. During his trips inland he 
proved to be an excellent pedestrian and 
mountain climber, often outspeeding his 
companions and appearing unannounced 
among the rustic villages. The present 
writer, who has had the honour on more than 
one occasion of taking luncheon in the same 




H. I. H. FIELD MARSH.\L PRINXE S.\D.\N.^RU 
FLSHIMINOMIY.\ 

room with His Majesty when he was Crown 
Prince, noticed how genial he always was 
with those about him, as well as being modest 
and dignified in manner. It is said in Japan 
that once when the late Emperor and the 
Crown Prince were in conversation together, 
the father said to the son: "In the past those 
in high estate have shown themselves ig- 
norant of those below them, and were often 
haughty and arrogant. I pray you let it 
not be so with you. At all times be ready to 
help yourself." This wise counsel the Prince 
always has carefully observed; and now that 
he sits on the throne of his illustrious father 
the young Emperor is ever solicitous of the 
welfare of his people. When officials are apt 
to be too officious in repressing the free- 
dom of the public during imperial journevs, 
it is said the Emperor expresses a desire that 
his presence shall not delay traffic or interrupt 
public business longer than actually necessary. 
As a prince mixing among his companions he 
always endeared himself to them by his 
modest and unassuming ways; as a soldier 
he was distinguished for his careful observance 
of the military regulations, even joining the 
mess and partaking of the rough fare of the 
soldier, to the astonishment and admiration 
of the officers and men. Once during 



manoeuvres when a private was thrown from 
his horse and none of the officers appeared 
to notice it, treating it as an incident un- 
worthy of attention, the Crown Prince leaped 
from his saddle and helped the fallen soldier 
to his feet, to the amazement of those 
standing by. When they expressed great 
awe at what he had done he replied: "I too 
am a soldier!" On another occasion he was 
taken out hunting and shot a stag. On 
seeing the beautiful animal lying dead before 
his camp the Prince wrote the following 
poem : 

Omoshiroku 

Uchi wa shitsuredo 
Naku shika no 

Koe kiku toki wa 
Aware nari keri! 

( For my own amusement 
The fatal shot I fired; 
But when I heard the doe's lament 
The pleasure all expired!) 

Thus the people of Japan look upon their 
young Emperor as not only brave and noble 
but benevolent and tender-hearted as well. 
Her Majesty, the young Empress Sadako, 
reveals the same imperial qualities that make 
her a gracious ornament to the throne and a 
mother to her people. As a student at the 
Peeress' College she showed untiring ability 
in the acquirement of all knowledge, and was 
distinguished for her humble and womanly 
demeanor. She walked to and from school 
like ordinary folk, and never fell below her 
form in school. She was one of the most 
admired and beloved of pupils by the teachers, 
to whom she never forgot to show marked 
kindnesses. The young Empress finds time 
for attending public functions like Red Cross 
Society meetings and so on, but most of her 
time is devoted to her children. The eldest. 
Prince Hirohito, was born April 29, 1901, and 
proclaimed Crown Prince September 9, 1912. 
He has graduated from the Peers' College, 
is still taking private lessons, and is already 
a Lieutenant of the Army and of the Navy. 
The second of the imperial sons, Prince 
Yasuliito, was born June 25, 1902, and is 
still at school. Prince Nobuhito, the third 
son of Their Majesties, was born January 3, 
1905, while the last son. Prince Takahito, was 
born December 2, 1915. The sons of the 
Emperor are brought up with certain com- 
panions selected for them from among the 
sons of noble families; and they have good 
times like other boys, going to school or 
plajdng in the imperial gardens, being up to 
all the mischief of boyhood. Not infre- 
quently the imperial parents join in the 
children's fun and add to an afternoon's 
pleasure. The story goes that one day the 
Imperial Princes were found in a pond 
hunting tadpoles, up to their eyes in mud, 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



9 



to the consternation of the attendants. 
Thus the young Emperor and Empress rep- 
resent the true Japanese family: keen and 
ifitelligent with regard to all that concerns 
the welfare of the nation, and in character 
and habits simple and unostentatious, win- 
ning the same sympathy and devotion so 
lavishly bestowed on past rulers. 

THE PRINCELY FAMILIES 
As members of the imperial family the 
princes and princesses of the blood also take 
an important place. The Emperor has four 




H. I. H. PKINCE KOTOHITO KANINNOMlY.\ 

sisters living. The Princess Masako married 
Prince Takeda, the Princess Fusako married 
Prince Kitashirakawa, the Princess Nobuko 
married Prince Asaka, and the Priijcess 
Toshiko is the consort of Prince Higashi- 
kuni. Besides the imperial family there are 
some fourteen princely families who are of 
the imperial line, divided into two classes: 
the Shinno, or imperial princes, and the O, 
or ordinary princes. The term "O" means 
a suzerain king, like the King of Burmah, 
for example, or one of the rulers in Egypt. 
There are four families of Shinno, the Im- 
perial Princes of Arisugawa, Fushimi, Kannin, 
and Higashi Fushimi, to whose descendants 
the succession to the throne falls in the event 
of failure in the direct line. 

The oldest of the princely families is that 
of Prince Fushimi, founded by a son of the 
Emperor Shuko (1349-1352), and the present 
head is the twenty-first of the line. It is 



remarkable that from this house have sprung 
all the other princely families except that of 
Prince Arisugawa, which would have become 
extinct had not the Emperor appointed his 
third son, Nobuhito Takamatsu-no-miya, to 
succeed the late Prince Arisugawa. The 
eighteenth Prince Fushimi was Sadayoshi 
who had four sons, the eldest of whom, 
Prince Kuni-iye, succeeded him, and the 
other three founded the princely houses of 
Yamashina, Nashimoto, and Kuni. Prince 
Kuni-iye had fourteen sons, nine of whom 
became the heads of houses. The second 
succeeded his father, becoming the twentieth 
Prince Fushimi; and he, having no children, 
was succeeded by his seventh brother, who 
is the present prince. The eldest son founded 
the house of Kitashirakawa, the third that 
of Komatsu, and the fifth that of Kwacho. 
The first Prince Kitashirakawa was succeeded 
in turn by two of his brothers, the fourth and 
sixth sons of Prince Kuni-iye. The eighth 
son succeeded as the sixth Imperial Prince 
of Kannin, and the ninth as the second 
Imperial Prince Higashi Fushimi. Thus the 
present heads of the houses of Fushimi, 
Kannin, and Higashi Fushimi are Shinno, and 
those of Yamashina, Nashimoto, Kuni, Kita- 
shirakawa, and Kwacho are O princes; but all 
are direct descendants by blood of the Prince 
Sadayoshi and have the Emperor Shuko as 
their common remote ancestor. Prince 
Fushimi is a marshal of the Imperial Army, 
commanded the First Army Division in the 
war with Russia, and has visited England. 
The house of Arisugawa was founded by 
Prince Yoshihito, son of the Emperor Go- 
Yozei (1587-1612), and has had four sons 
of emperors as heads, the present head being 
the third son of the present Emperor. The 
family of Kannin was founded by a son of 
the Emperor Higashiyama (1687-1710). 
The founder of the house was followed by 
four successors of his own blood, but the 
fifth head of the house, being childless, 
adopted a son and was succeeded by the 
present holder of the title. Prince Kotohito, 
one of the younger sons of Prince Kuni-iye. 
The last of the imperial princely houses is 
that of Higashi Fushimi. The title was 
originall)' conferred after the Restoration on 
Prince Akihito, the third son of Prince 
Kuni-iye, who played a distinguished part 
in the latest stages of the civil war. While 
holding this title, Prince Akihito adopted 
his bi-other Yorihito, thirteen years younger 
than himself, as his heir, but subsequently 
another title, that of Komatsu, was con- 
ferred upon him, and that which he origi- 
nally held passed at once to his adopted 
heir, who accordingly became the second 
Prince Higashi Fushimi. Prince Komatsu 
died in 1903; and being childless, and his 



adopted heir being already in possession of 
another title of equal degree, that of Ko- 
matsu, as an imperial princedom, became 
extinct; but it has been revived as that of 
a marquisate, in the ranks of the ordinary 
nobility, and conferred on the youngest son 
of the late Prince Kitashirakawa. The late 
Prince Komatsu was one of the few Japanese 
princes who distinguished himself by going 
abroad for an education, and in later years 
he again visited England on imperial missions. 
Some may be curious to know how it is 
that the sons of subsequent emperors of 




VISCOUNT YOSHIN.\0 H.\TANO, MINISTER OF 
THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 

Japan have not founded princely houses. 
But it has been the custom for younger sons, 
if there were any, to retire to a monastery 
and lead a celibate life, so as to avoid rival 
claimants to the throne. The monastery at 
Ninnaji in Kyoto was considered a benefice 
for priests of princely birth and was succes- 
sively ruled by thirty-three princely abbots. 
Four other princely houses of Japan are 
those of Kayo, Takeda, Asaka, and Higashi 
Kuni, the heads of which are scions of the 
house of Fushimi and blood descendants of 
Prince Sadayoshi, the houses being founded 
by his grandsons, all the sons of Asahito, 
first Prince Kuni. The house of Takeda 
was founded by the third prince of Kita- 
shirakawa who descended from the eldest 
son of Sadayoshi. Of the princely houses 
that of Arisugawa is now nearest the imperial 
family in line of succession, as the head of 
it is third son of the present Emperor. 
The ties of relationship that exist between 
the various princely houses are much too 



lO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




COUNTRY SCENES 



involved to be further gone into here ; but as 
they frequently figure prominently in war 
and peace one is usually interested in know- 
ing what they are. All the princes of adult 
age take a very active part in public life. 
As members of the House of Peers they 
take part in the debates and vote, and in 
social functions they are usually prominent. 
While the members of princely houses can 
not be said to take the same part in war 
and peace that is taken by the noble families 
of England, there are notable exceptions, 
such as those of Prince Arisugawa and 
Prince Kitashirakawa who lost their lives 
during the war with China. Members of 
the imperial family cannot be arrested or 
summoned before a court of law except with 
the consent of the Emperor, though they 
can be civilly sued before the Court of 
Appeal in Tokyo, but their presence is not 



required. The Emperor can deprive them 
of their ranks and titles if they should prove 
unworthy; and they cannot marry with- 
out the consent of the Emperor, nor are 
they allowed to marry outside of certain 
families. 

As already mentioned the four daughters 
of the late Emperor married four of these 
princes of the blood. Prince Fushimi is 
married to a daughter of the late Prince 
Arisugawa, Prince Higashi Fushimi to a 
daughter of Prince Iwakura, Prince Kannin 
to a daughter of the late Prince Sanjo, and 
Prince Kayo to a daughter of the Marquis 
Daigo, all members of the old court nobility 
of Kyoto and connected with the Fujiwara 
family. The young Imperial Prince of Ari- 
sugawa is not yet married, but his prede- 
cessor was married to a daughter of the late 
Marquis Mayeda, Prince Kuni is married to 



a daughter of Prince Shimadzu, and Prmce 
Nashimoto to a daughter of the Marquis 
Nabeshima, all great feudal families. The 
princely houses receive an annual allowance 
from the Civil List, varying from £3,000 to 
£1,000, which leaves them to some degree 
dependent on the Emperor. The Emperor's 
own allowance from the Civil List is 
£500,000, but he enjoys a larger amount 
than this from Crown Lands and invest- 
ments. 

The Emperor and the Imperial Princes 
reside in Tokyo, though they have their own 
villas in various summer places. While the 
imperial palace in Tokv'o is on a scale of 
becoming art and splendour it is very limited 
in comparison with the palaces of European 
sovereigns. The Japanese, however, admire 
this elegant simplicity as representative of 
national spirit and taste. 





THE INLAND SEA, FROM A POINT NEAR ONOMICHI 

II. The Country 

The Name — Position — Area — Coast Line — Oro(,raphy — Geology — Volcanic and Seismic 

Action — Hydrography — Climate — Flora and Fauna — Population — Table of Weights, 

Measures, and Moneys, with English, American, French, and German Equivalents 



THE country which Europeans call 
Japan is known to the people them- 
selves as Dai Nippon, or Nihon, 
which means "Great Sun-source Land," 
hence the term, "Land of the Rising Sun." 
The name Japan had its origin with Marco 
Polo, the distinguished Venetian traveller 
who found his way to China toward the close 
of the thirteenth century, and learned of a 
great empire still farther eastward which the 
Chinese called Jih-pen and he Zipangu, 
gu meaning kuo or country, which, they 
assured him, was rich in gold, even the 
houses being decorated with it. Marco Polo 
carried this news back to Europe, where it 
excited no small interest, eventually induc- 
ing Christopher Columbus to set out in 
search of a westerly route to the East, when 
he came upon the New World instead of 
Old Japan. Thus Japan was indirectly the 
cause of America's discovery. Up to the 
year 670 A. D., however, the Empire of 
Japan was officially known as Yamato, the 
name of the province wherein the first 
emperor established his capital. After this 
time the official designation of the Empire 



was Dai Nippon, referring to the whole 
nation, and not the main island only, as 
some foreigners supposed. 



POSITION 



\ 



The Empire of Japan is situated on the 
northwest side of the Pacific Ocean, just off 
the coast of China; and, with the exception 
of the peninsula of Korea, consists of an 
oblong group of islands extending crescent- 
like down the coast from 50° 56' N. latitude 
below the Kamchatka peninsula, south- 
westward to 21° 48' N. latitude, near the 
Phihppine Islands, a distance of over 2,000 
miles. The most westerly point of the 
Empire is in Hokoto in the Pescadores, 119° 
20' E. longitude; and the most easterly 
point is on the Island of Shumoshuto in the 
Kurile group. Province of Chishima, 150° 
32' E. longitude. The Empire of Japan 
thus extends over 29° o' 8" of latitude and 
37° 12' of longitude. (See map.) 

AREA 
Although the Empire includes some 3,000 
islands only 541 are habitable, while no more 



than six are of any extent and importance, 
viz., Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, 
Formosa, and Saghalien, or Karafuto, as it 
is known to the Japanese. Of these by far 
the largest and most important is Honshu, 
the main island, sometimes called Hondo, 
and situated midway in the archipelago ex- 
tending like a bow for 1,130 miles down the 
coast of the continent from northwest to 
southwest. The upper portion of the bow 
has a length of 590 miles, bent toward the 
Pacific, while the southern half bends for 
540 miles toward the coast of Korea, behind 
the islands of Shikoku and Kyushu. Next 
to Honshu in size though not in importance 
comes Hokkaido, formerly called Yezo, to 
the north of the main island. It is a terri- 
tory of bracing climate and fertile soil, but 
sparsely settled and still in process of colo- 
nisation from the southern islands. In order 
of size and importance then follow Kyushu, 
Shikoku, Formosa, which was ceded to Japan 
by China as a result of the war of 1894, and 
the southern half of Saghalien, ceded by 
Russia as the result of war in 1905. The 
more important of the smaller islands are 



12 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Sado, Oki, Tsushima, Iki, Oshima, Awaji and 
the four archipelagoes known as the Kuriles, 
called Chishima by the Japanese, the Benin 
Islands (Ogasawara in Japanese), and the 
Luchu group, which the Japanese call Okin- 
awa. The peninsula of Korea, called Chosen 
by Japan, was annexed to the Empire owing 
to political complications in 1910 and has 
added considerably to the area and popula- 
tion of the territory of Japan. The total 
area of the Empire is now something over 
253,929 square mUes, divided into the several 
islands and their dependencies as follows: 



case the geological formation is more broken 
and the coast line serrated, resulting in the 
formation of numerous gulfs and inlets, while 
the comparatively unbroken line of the coast 
along the Japan Sea affords few sheltered 
harbours or safe anchorages. It naturally 
follows that trade has gravitated toward the 
area washed by the Pacific where communi- 
cations, with the passing of time, have im- 
proved both by land and sea. There are at 
present sixty harbours open to foreign ship- 
ping and capable of accommodating steam- 
ships. 



Name 



Honshu ... 

Hokkaido 

Formosa (Taiwan) 

Kyushu 

Shikoku 

Luchu (55 islands) 

Chishima (Kuriles, 31 islands). 

Sado 

Tsushima 

Awaji 

Oki 

Hokoto (Pescadores) . . . . 

Iki 

Ogasawara (Bonins, 20 islands) 

Saghalien (Karafuto) 

Chosen (Korea) 




Area, Square Miles 



81,843.88 

30,299.87 

• 13,851-99 

15,600.54 

7,036.48 

935-18 

6,028.48 

335-73 
266.53 
218.67 
130.46 
47.62 

51-43 

26.82 

13.154-00 

84,102.00 

Total. . . .253,929.68 



COAST LINE 
The coast line of Japan, omitting Sag- 
halien which has not yet been accurately 
determined, and Chosen, is 18,340 miles in 
length, being a proportion of one mile to 
eight square miles of area, a ratio unusually 
large owing to the country consisting wholly 
of islands. The proportion of area to coast 
line of the major islands may be represented 
as below: 



Though the northern coast of Honshu is 
unusually rocky, contributing to lack of 
good harbours, there are coastal indentations 
like the Bay of Aomori and the Sendai Gulf 
farther south. This portion of the coast is 
also noted for the beautiftd Bay of Matsu- 
shima with its numerous pine-clad islets, a 
region of fairyland very attractive to tourists 
and ranked among the three most celebrated 
examples of scenic beauty in Japan. Off 



Name 


Extent of 
Coast Line 


Area of 
Island 


Proportion of Area 

to One Mile of 

Coast Line 




Miles 


Square Miles 


Square Miles 


Honshu and dependencies . . . 
Kyushu and dependencies . . . 


6,040 

4,507 
1,650 

1,535 
896 


87,450 
15,920 

7,037 
30,300 

13,851 


14.6 

3.51 
4.26 

19 74 
16.18 


Hokkaido and Chishima .... 
Formosa, excluding Hokoto . 



It is obvious that Kyushu has the greatest 
proportion of coast line to area, with Shikoku 
second, Honshu third, Formosa fourth, and 
Hokkaido fifth. 

Very marked differences characterise the 
coasts of Japan facing the Pacific as compared 
with those on the Japan Sea. In the former 



this northeast coast lies the fifth deepest 
sea-bed in the world, the descent being 
4,655 fathoms. Proceeding southward the 
coast is more or less unbroken until reaching 
the mouth of the River Ton^, passing which 
the Boshu Peninsula is turned, leading into 
Tokyo Bay, which faces south. At the head 



of this bay, which is some twenty miles long, 
stands the capital of the Empire, but owing 
to shallow water large ships will not be able 
to enter until the new Tokyo harbour is 
completed. Consequently foreign trade is 
carried on at the port of Yokohama, some 
twenty miles to the southwest. Other 
smaller ports on this coast are Yokosuka, 
one of the chief naval stations with extensive 
dockyards, and Uraga, which also has ship- 
building yards. Between Mizaki and the 
Peninsula of Izu extends far inland the great 
Bay of Sagami, with its seven Isles of Izu, 
and the famous Fujisan dominating the 
whole. Around the base of Fuji run the 
rivers Oi and Fuji on their way to this body 
of water. The next important indentation 
on this coast is the fair Bay of Isi with the 
port of Yokaichi at the head, and the city 
of Nagoya not far away. From there past 
Cape Irakozaki the coast is dangerously 
precipitous, a menace to navigation, until 
entering the Kii Channel leading to the 
extensive Bay of Osaka with the nation's 
commercial metropolis of the same name at 
the head, and the important port of Kob6 
to the left. Turning thither one faces the 
entrance to the wonderful Inland Sea with 
its innumerable islands, having a coast line 
of more than 700 miles. From here passage 
may be made to the Pacific tlirough the Kii 
Channel, the Naruto Straits on the southeast, 
or to the Japan Sea through the Straits of 
Shimonoseki at the southwestern extremity 
of Honshu. Following the coast of Honshu 
along the Japan Sea, few important bays or 
harbours are found, as already indicated, 
except the Bay of Wakasa where are the 
ports of Maizuru, Miyazu, and Tsuruga, 
the first reserved as a naval station, and 
the latter used as the port of departure for 
Vladivostock and the Trans-Siberian railway. 
In this bay also lies the noted scenic region 
of Amanohashidate, another one of the three 
most beautiful places in Japan. Farther 
north are the ports of Naoyetsu and Niigata, 
around the Noto Peninsula, and then the 
circle of the main island is completed at 
Aomori, the gateway to the northern island. 
As to the coast line of Shikoku there is 
no feature meriting special mention. The 
island is bounded on the north by the Inland 
Sea and the southeast coast of Honshu, and 
on the south it faces the Pacific and the 
Island of Kyushu. Shikoku has numerous 
small bays, and the coast bears evidence of 
extensive subsidence of the sea at some 
remote period. The coast of Kyushu is 
remarkably irregular with numerous small 
islands, and bays that extend far inland. 
On the Pacific lies the deep Bay of Kago- 
shima with its pretty old town of the same 
name, having steamship connection with 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



13 




CAVES AT MATSUSHIMA TO WHICH HUDDHIST 

PRIESTS OF MORE THAN TWELVE 

HUNDRED YEARS AGO RETIRED 

TO STUDY 

the outlying islands. On the rocky east 
coast harbours are rare. To the extreme 
south lies the beautiful harbour of Nagasaki, 
the Naples of the Orient; and farther west 
the Sasebo naval station. Hokkaido is 
rectangular in shape, with mountain ranges 
running parallel to the coast line. South of 
the island is Hakodate harbour, having con- 
nections with the main island. The Pacific 
coast of the island has long stretches of sand 
dunes thrown up by the violence of the 
wind and sea. Along this coast lies the port 
of Otaru. The Island of Saghalien extends 
like a monster fish up along the Russian 
littoral, half belonging to Russia and half to 
Japan. There are several bays along its 
serrated coast, the most important of which 
is Otomari. But the coast of the island is 
generally devoid of good anchorages. For- 
mosa, which runs north and south, with a 
slight inclination to southwest, is high and 
rocky on the east coast, and sloping toward 
the west. The waters are deep on the 
elevated side and shallow on the other. 
The best harbour is Keelung in the north, 
while Tamsui is another port, with other 
inlets of less importance in the south. For- 
mosa is not very distant from the Philippines. 
On its western coast lie the forty-seven 
islands of Hokoto; and between Formosa 
and Kyushu stretch the Luchu Islands, over 
fifty in number, while the Kuriles, or Chis- 
hima, away in the north, reach from Hok- 
kaido to Kamchatka. 

OROGRAPHY 

Japan is as noted for its mountains as for 
its numerous islands, which cover nearly the 
whole of the country in well-defined ranges. 



taking up at least seven-eighths of tlie total 
area, though there are extensive plains in 
Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu. Tokyo 
stands on the plain of Musashi which is 
included in the Kwanto plain where also 
stands Yokohama; while the great cities of 
Osaka, Kyoto, and Kob6 are on the plain of 
Kinai. The plain of Tsukushi is in Kyushu 
and covers large coal deposits. Among the 
more important of the great mountain ranges 
of the country is the chain which, rising in 
north Saghalien and running southwest 
across Hokkaido, goes through Honshu. 
Another range runs from southwest to 
northwest and forms the south wing of 
middle Japan. This range originates in 
China and, crossing the China Sea, passes 
through Formosa, branching off through 
Kyushu on one side and through Lake Biwa 
on the other, finally joining the range from 
Saghalien. The centre of Honshu thus 
forms a meeting ground for not only the 
important ranges of the island but for tliose 
of the Empire, forming the divisions known 
as North and South Japan and diversifying 
the country in climate and characteristics if 
not in soil. The tract of country facing the 
Pacific abounds with aqueous rocks and has 
few volcanoes, while the western side of 
Japan shows an extremely complicated 
geological formation with numerous vol- 
canoes. 

There are three princijial volcanic ranges 
in the Empire. One runs along the line 
which divides the country into north and 
south, extending from the Mariana Islands 
across the Bonin group to Izu and Honshu, 
and is known as the Fuji Range. The 
second, known as the Kurile Range, runs 
from Chishima through Hokkaido to Hon- 
shu, while the third, or Kirishima Range, 
commences in Formosa and passes through 
the Luchu Islands to Kyushu, the chief 
vents being Sakurajima, Kirishima, and 
Asosan. From these ranges rise various 
important peaks, the highest of which are 
Mount Niitaka in Formosa (14,240 feet) ; 
Fujisan in Honshu (12,365 feet); Akaishi in 
Shinano (10,214 feet); Shirand (10,212 feet); 
Ontak6 (10,128 feet); and the volcano of 
Asama (8,900 feet). The peaks of the Hida 
Range in Shinano are unusually fine; and, as 
they are covered with snow during the 
winter months and far into the summer, 
have been called the Japanese Alps. Of 
course Fujisan is the queen of mountains to 
all Japanese, towering golden-crowned into 
the illimitable blue, with her eight beautiful 
lakes at the base. Owing to the volcanic 
nature of so many mountains in Japan the 
country abounds in hot springs, which have 
become popular watering places, the most 
important of which are Kusatsu, Shiobara, 



Ikao, Atami, Shuzcnji, Hakon^, all in Hon- 
shu; and Dogo in Shikoku, Beppu in Ky- 
ushu, and Hokuto in Formosa. There are 
more than a hundred of these spas in all, 
and the majority contain sulphur, saline 
matter, or iron. Many of these hot springs 
have won a wide reputation for their cura- 
tive properties for rheumatism and skin 
diseases. 

GEOLOGY 

Japan is probably for the most part a 
newer geological formation than the main- 
land of East Asia, though the subject has 
not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is 
obvious, however, that the country is rising 
on the Pacific side and subsiding on the 
coasts of the Japan Sea, suggesting that the 
archipelago was formerly a part of the ad- 
jacent continent. This conviction is con- 
firmed by the fact that the coasts of Japan 
slope toward Asia while suddenly descending 
to abysmal depths on the Pacific side. The 
configuration of the archipelago, stretching 
like stepping stones between the continent 
and the northern islands, and between the 
southern extremity and Korea, also indicates 
a possible connection with the mainland in 
remote geological ages. The innumerable 
disturbances in stratification experienced 
by the framework of the islands, as well as by 
the sedimentary formations, render the study 
of stratification and the mutual relations of 
strata very difficult, if one would reach that 
degree of accuracy demanded by science. 
Japanese scientists, however, have classified 




(upper) YABAKEI VALI-EY, KYUSHU (lOWER) 

GEMBUDO CAVE, A BAS.\LTIC FORMATION 
ON THE COAST OF THE JAPAN SEA 



H 



PRESENT-DAY IxMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



ims 



V ^*^<l¥^ 




n 



ill 



VIEWS OF THE SHORE NEAR ONOMICHI AND MATSUSHIMA 



the geological formation of the country as 
follows: 



Sedimentary Rock 



Archaean 
Palaeozoic 
MesoEoic 
Cainozoic 



Older Period 
Later Period 



Total 



Igneous Rock 



Total . . 
Grand Total 



Per Cent 

■ 3.78 
10.24 

7-95 

■ 45-84 



67.81 



Per Cent 

. 11.27 

20.92 



32.19 



It is obvious that Japan consists largely 
of igneous rocks, particularly in the Kurile 
Islands, Kyushu, and the northern part of 
Honshu. The principal rocks seem to fall 
into three main divisions: Plutonic rocks, 
more especially granite; volcanic rocks, 
principally trachyte and dolerite; and Palae- 
ozoic schists; while hmestone and sandstone. 



particularly of the Mesozoic strata, are 
strikingly deficient. Often the old crj'stal- 
line rocks are for long distances overlaid by 
also very old schists and quartzites, striking 
generally in the main direction of the islands 
northeast to southwest. The older regions 
appear to reach an average height of from 
3,000 to 3,700 feet, but at times as high as 
6,000. In some districts Mesozoic sand- 
stone and limestone are found in con- 
nection, more frequently iti Tertiary for- 
mations, but volcanic masses break through 
and overlay all these rocks and deposits in 
nimierous places. Often they fill up the 
gaps between them and appear to prevail 
for long distances, though frequently they 
form only the higher summits of the older 
mountains. 

The basis of the islands consists of granite, 
syenite, diorite, diabase and related rocks, 
porphyry appearing comparatively seldom. 
Often the granite prevails for long distances 
as the chief rock; and then again it often 
forms the foundation for thick strata of 
schist and sandstone, itself only cropping 
out in valleys of erosion, river boulders. 



rocky projections along the coast, or in 
mountain ranges or ridges. This is the case 
in Kyushu, and especially in Shikoku. In 
the composition of the mountains of Honshu 
granite plays a prominent part. In the 
Peninsula of Chikoku this rock forms a con- 
tinuous mass, appearing in innumerable 
places in the interior and toward the coast. 
Old schists, free from fossils and rich in 
quartz, overlay it in parallel chains through 
the whole length of the peninsula, particularly 
in the central and higher ridges, sometimes 
bearing such ores as copper and magnetic 
pyrites. These schist ridges are rich in 
quartz and show considerable disintegration 
to a depth of thirty or more feet, resulting 
in pebble and quartz sand which affords 
scant nourishment to the scrub pines that 
try to cling to such foundations. In the hill 
country on the borders of Ise, Owari, Mikawa, 
and Totomi on the one side, and Omi, Mine, 
and Shinano on the other, granite frequently 
forms dark grey and much disintegrated 
rock projections above schist and diluvial 
quartz pebbles. The feldspar of a splendid 
pegmatite and its products of disintegration 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



15 



on the borders of Owari, Mine, and Mikawa 
form the raw material of the extensive ke- 
ramic industry of this district with head- 
quarters at Seto. The meridional mountains 
of Shinano are principally of granite, which, 
together with Plutonic rocks, especially 
diorite, hems in the valleys of the Kisogawa, 
Saigawa, and many other rivers in the 
district, whose clear waters flow over granite. 
In the \'icinity of Nikko also, especially 
along the upper valley of the Daiyagawa and 



neighbouring mountains, this granite appears 
with porphyry in large, pale flesh-coloured 
crystals of orthoclase, dull triclinic feldspar, 
quartz, and hornblende. In the border 
range of Kotsuk^ and Echigo there are also 
interesting varieties of geological formation. 
The Tertiary and alluvial deposits form a 
deep and friable mould easily worked and 
very prolific, this being the chief source of 
the nation's agriculture. Along the banks 
of rivers occur Quaternary argillaceous soils 



of an alluvial nature, which are still more 
fertile; and as they lie low for the most part 
they are well adapted to irrigation and con- 
sequently to rice culture. 

VOLCANIC AND SEISMIC ACTION 
J.\PAN is indeed a land of volcanoes, having 
more than fifty still active, with numerous 
craters for the present quiescent. These 
vents for subterranean forces are found along 
throe clearly defined ranges, known as the 




MOLNT ASA.MAYAM, AN .VCTIVI-: VOLCANO — LNZEN HOT SPRING, KYUSHL — HOT SPRINGS, KVUSHU- 

COUNTRV AT SAKURAJIMA, AFTER A VOLCANIC ERUPTION 



-ASPECT OF DEVASTATED 



i6 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Kuri]e, the Fuji, and the Kirishima Ranges, 
which exliibit about two hundred craters. 
The Fuji and Kirishima Hnes of force seem 
to show activity alternately. For several 
years such craters as Asama, Oshima, and 
Yakedake in the Fuji Range were marked 
by the most conspicuous activity, but after 
the year 19 14 activity shifted more to the 
Kirishima Range, with violent outbursts of 
volcanic force in Kyushu. In 1915 the 
strain returned to the Fuji Range and the 
great crater of Yakedake re-awoke to violent 
energ>-, with resultant subsidence of action 
in the Kirishima Range. The most noble as 
well as the most remarkable of Japan's 
volcanoes is Asama, some eighty miles north 
of Tokyo in the Province of Shinshu, its 
giant cone soaring nearly nine thousand feet 
above the surrounding hills, with great 
masses of copper-hued firnie ever rising 
sk>'ward. At present it ejects nothing more 
harmfid than showers of ashes and pebbles, 
but in 1793 a fatal eruption occurred when a 
lava stream poured out which destroyed a 
whole primeval forest and several villages. 
The land for miles around was buried to a 
depth of from two to four feet in showers of 
pumice and scoria. In recent years Asama 
has shown signs of further activity, but 
Japanese scientists are assured that there 
are no indications of violence. The last 
eruption of Fuji was in 1707; and though the 
base of the cone is warm and abounding in 
hot springs, there appears to be no sign of 
a retuni to activity. The largest volcano in 
Japan is Asosan in Kyushu, whose crater is 
about fourteen miles in diameter, though 
the active portion is not so large or imposing 
as the crater of Asama. Fugendake is 
another volcano in Kyushu, rising above 
the hot springs of Unzen. In 1914 the 
V'Olcano on Sakurajima near Kagoshima burst 
into violent fury, forcing out lava to a depth 
of over two thousand feet above sea level 
and kiUing fifty-seven persons, several others 
being killed by the resultant earthquakes. 
Agatsuma erupted with disastrous effect in 
1903 when two geologists were killed, and 
Bandaisan exploded with similar effect in 
1888. 

Japan may also be called a land of earth- 
quakes, if an average of more than four a 
day throughout the year be sufficient to 
justify this description, though happily few 
of them are of any importance. For some 
time now the country has been experiencing 
about 1,365 shocks annually; and during a 
period of 21 years, ending in 1905, more 
than 30,680 shocks were felt, omitting minor 
vibrations detected only by the most delicate 
instruments. As subterranean changes in 
Japan are constant, the frequency of these 
minor shocks is welcomed as a tendency to 



remove weak cleavages and bind the strata 
sufficiently firm to prevent severer ones. It 
is when seismic disturbances are unusually 
rare that the danger of disastrous earth- 
quakes in Japan is greater. As has been 
already indicated, the seismologists of Japan 
have established the fact that the districts 
bordering on the Pacific are slowly but 
perceptibly rising, while those on the Japan 
Sea are undergoing subsidence. On the 
axis of the central mountain range the whole 
main island appears to be twisting toward 
China. During the last 300 years Japan has 
been visited by no less than 108 shocks of 
a more or less disastrous nature, seven of 
them particularly so. Every Japanese ex- 
pects to experience one severe earthquake 
during a lifetime. From the year 1885 to 
1909 Japan experienced as many as 37,642 
earthquake shocks, an average of 1,506 per 
annum for 25 years. Mild shocks passing 
unnoticed except by the seismograph occur 
daily. During the last 500 years earth- 
quakes in which 5,000 or more persons were 
killed occurred as follows: 



members of the household each with a lamp, 
all silently gazing in terror at each other, 
wondering what it was all about, the shock 
having subsided even before they reached 
the hall. 

The regions along the Pacific coast of 
Japan exhibit distinctly different seismo- 
logical phenomena from the opposite coast, 
being more subject to secular movements 
of a severer nature and affecting a more 
extensive area, while the shocks on the 
coast of the Japan Sea are more of a local 
character. Along the Pacific coast the 
shocks originate in the great ocean depths 
just off Japan, and are not infrequently 
attended by destructive tidal waves. The 
districts least liable to experience seismic 
disturbances are Kotsuke, Hida, Tajima, and 
some parts of central Japan, while the wide 
plain of Musashi, where Tokj-o stands, and 
the region about Sagami, are most given to 
such \-isitations. The Japan Earthquake 
Commission, which has given more time to 
the study of this subject than any other 
scientific body, under the able supervision 



Date 



1505 
1596 
1703 
1707 
1792 
1844 

1855 
1891 
1896 



Jan. 31. 
Dec. 30, 
Oct. 28. 
Feb. 10. 
May 8 . , 
Nov. II 
Oct. 28. 
June 15 



Pl.\ce 



Tokaido 

Pacific Coast 

Tok>'o and vicinity . . . 
Coasts of Shikoku, etc 

Hizen, Higo, etc 

Shinano 

Tokyo 

Mino, Owari 

Sanriku districts 



Houses i 
Destroyed 1 



Deaths 



20,162 
2,2900 
12,000 
34.300 
50,000 
22,501 
13,073 



20,000 
5,000 

5.233 
5.000 
15,000 
12,000 
6,500 
7.223 



As to the above calamities the earthquakes 
of 1707, 1792, and i8g6 were accompanied 
by great tidal waves, which in some measure 
explains the abnormal loss of life; but 
numerous shocks have been omitted in 
which from 500 to 4,000 fatalities occurred. 
To the resident of Japan the minor shocks 
are scarcely less alarming than the greater 
ones, for w-hen a shock begins one never 
knows what it is coming to. Consequently 
preparations have to be immechately made 
to face the worst. With the introduction of 
electric lamps in most of the towns and 
villages of Japan there is not the same danger 
from fire as prevailed when oil lamps were in 
use; but every Japanese house has its hibachi, 
or small brazier for charcoal fire, which is 
sure to cause a conflagration should the 
timbers of the house be precipitated upon it. 
The writer has grim recollections of having 
been hurled a few inches above his seat 
while quietly reading at night, jumping to 
his feet and seizing the lamp from the table, 
rushing into the hallway only to meet other 



of Professor Omori, the greatest authority 
on Japanese seismology, estimates that the 
country has experienced 2,006 earthquakes 
of an important character since the begin- 
ning of the nation's authentic history. For 
the last thirty j'ears or so Tokyo alone has 
had an average of ninety-six shocks a year, 
excluding those too mild for personal ex- 
perience; but during the last fifty years the 
capital has suffered but two shocks of any 
great severity. The lesident of Tokyo 
experiences at least one perceptible shock a 
week on an average. The last serious disturb- 
ance was in 1894 when twenty-four lives were 
lost. Needless to say, the frequency of 
secular movements in Japan has caused 
the national architectiu'e to assume a dis- 
tinct tj'pe calculated to withstand the strain 
of constant temptation to sway. Professor 
Omori is of the opinion that if regions ex- 
posed to earthquakes abroad, such as Italy, 
gave the same degree of attention as the 
Japanese to proper construction of houses, 
fatalities from seismological disturbances 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



17 




would be reduced. Nearly all the greater 
structures now erected in Japanese cities are 
built after plans supposed to be earthquake- 
proof, a claim which the first severe shock 
will doubtless put to the test. Certainly the 
Japanese, with their ages of experience, 
have achieved more efficient means of pre- 
caution than other nations with regard to 
safety from earthquakes; for in the severe 
shock of 1891 out of a population of 165,339 
in the city of Nagoya only 190 persons 
perished, whereas in the Reggio earthquake 
in Italy in 1908 the victims numbered over 
100,000, the difference being largely due to 
wiser plans of house construction. In 1880 
the Japan Seismic Society was founded under 
the united auspices of Professor John Milne 
and Professor Ewing, assisted by the late 
Professor Sekiya who gave his life a martyr 
to the science in the eruption of Mount 
Azuma in 1903. The work has been very 
efficiently carried on by Drs. Kato, Tana- 
kadate, and Omori. The seismograph in- 
vented by the society is one of the most 
accurate instruments of the kind known to 
modern science and has opened the way to 
the creation of a science of seismology. 
The proceedings of the Japan Seismic Society 
in twenty volumes are universally regarded 
as the most valuable contributions to this 
science. With her more than two hundred 
craters of which fifty are active Japan might 
be supposed to suffer from earthquakes chiefly 
on this account, but that there is any neces- 
sary connection between frequency of telluric 
movement and volcanic energy has not been 
clearly established, though there can be no 
doubt that active volcanoes act as safety 
valves, places situated near them seldom 
having suffered from seismic disaster. 

HYDROGR.\PHY 
Since the islands which form Japan are 
narrow, and divided in the middle by moun- 



AM.\N0H.^SH1DATE 

tain ranges, the rivers are short and generally 
swift, but the proximity of the sea to all 
parts of the country and the great conden- 
sation of vapour on all the mountain peaks 
keep the country always well watered, and, 
at times, destructive floods occur from 
overflow of river banks. What the rivers 
lack in depth and length, however, they 
often make up in width, though for the 
greater part of the year the actual stream 
covers but a small area of the bed. Ad- 
vantage has been taken of this to construct 
great hydro-electric plants, which supply 
light and power to towns and cities for 
miles around. The shallowness of the 
rivers is a great hindrance to inland navi- 
gation, on which so much of the countn,' 
still depends for transportation. 

The two moimtain ranges which intersect 
in Hokkaido form four distinct watersheds, 
from which numerous streams flow down 
through extremely fertile plains. The River 
Ishikari, which runs west, is the largest 
stream in Japan, being over 400 miles in 
length, of which about 100 miles are navi- 
gable for small ships. Other rivers of the 
island are the Teshio, 192 miles; the Tokachi, 
120 miles; while the Kujiro is 80 miles. In 
Honshu the Abukuma and the Kitakami flow 
into the Pacific, being 175 and 150 miles long 
respectively. Other rivers in the northern 
part of Honshu are the Omono, 173 miles; 
and the Mogami, 140 miles. In middle 
Honshu the Shinano River flows 215 miles 
through the fertile plains of Echigo mto the 
Sea of Japan, and is navigable to small 
steamers for some 90 miles. The Jinzu and 
the Imizu, about 150 miles each, and the 
Kuzurin, 78 miles, are too swift for navi- 
gation. Such rivers as the Kino, Katsura, 
Ton6, and Oi near Tokyo are made to 
furnish electric energy for lighting, traction, 
and other purposes, only lack of capital 
hindering further application of this force. 



The Tond flows eastward into the Pacific for 
a distance of some 200 miles, watering an 
area of about 770 square miles, the largest 
plain in Japan. The Edo, a branch of the 
Tone, flows into Tokyo Bay, as also does the 
Sumida, 73 miles, navigable for the greater 
part. The River Fuji, which rises in Kai, 
flows around the base of the celebrated 
mountain of the same name, over a course 
of 125 miles, when it falls into the Bay of 
Suruga; while the Kiso, which rises in the 
Kiso Mountains, after meeting the waters of 
the Hida and Nagara, turns westward and 
enters the Bay of Is^ after a journey of 130 
miles. The Jodo flows from Lake Biwa past 
Kyoto into the Bay of Osaka; and the River 
Kamo runs for 85 miles in the same direction, 
having its source in Yamato. The only 
stream of importance in Shikoku is the 
Yoshino, about 150 miles in length. The 
rivers of Kyushu are extremely tortuous, like 
the hills whence they rise, the most impor- 
tant being the Chikugo, 85 miles, and the 
Kawauchi, 112 miles. The largest stream in 
Formosa is the Dakusuikei, 96 miles in 
length, and, like most of the rivers of the 
island, not suited to navigation. 

The lakes of Japan, though for the most 
part merely basins of water of seismic or 
volcanic origin, are often extremely pictur- 
esque in scenery, the largest being Lake 
Biwa in Omi, with a circumference of about 
180 miles. Other moderately extensive lakes 
are the Towada in Mutsu, with circum- 
ference of 37 miles; Inawashiro in Inashiro, 
33 miles; while Chuzenji above Nikko, 
Hakon^ near Mount Fuji, Lake Suwa in 
Shinano, and the eight small lakes of 
Fujisan, are all famous beauty spots form- 
ing attractive summer resorts. In Hok- 
kaido the largest lake is Saruma, with a 
circumference of about 50 miles, while 
Lakes Doya and Onuma are noted for 
charming scenery. 



i8 



PRESR NT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OP JAPAN 



CLIMATE 

The climate of Japan, as might well be 
expected from the countrj^'s extraordinary 
projection north and south, varies to a con- 
siderable degree according to locality and 
in general characteristics, the districts bor- 
dering on the Pacific being much milder 
than those on the coast of the Japan Sea, 
as the former shores are washed by the 
equatorial currents and protected by moun- 
tain ranges from cold winds. The so-called 
knto-shco, or Black Current, divides at the 
southern extremity of the archipelago, one 
portion sweeping back into the Pacific 
through the Straits of Tsushima, and the 
other northward along the Pacific coast of 
Japan. This renders the chmate on the 
eastern side of the islands remarkably 
temperate, colder in winter and warmer in 
summer than that of England. In the 
northern part of Honshu as well as in Hok- 
kaido and Saghalien the degree of cold is 
something severe during the winter months, 
especially in January' and February, when 
30° below zero is not infrequently registered 
on the west coast and a depth of from 5 to 
10 feet of snow experienced. Here the ther- 
mometer often goes as low as 21° above 
zero during the coolest nights in summer; 
and only the hardiest grains and fruits can 
thrive, while there is plenty of skiing and 
skating in season. The lowness of winter 
temperature is no doubt dne to the bitter 
winds that sweep across this part of Japan 
from the Siberian plains. The yearly mean 
temperature noted at the meteorological 
station at Sapporo in Hokkaido is 44° F. 
In the more southerly portions of Honshu, 
on the other liand, as well as in Shikoku and 
Kyushu, winter seldom lasts longer than two 
months, January and February alone being 
recognised as winter months, though some- 
times there may be occasional frost and 
snow till the beginning of April. Tokyo and 
Kyoto have a mean annual tempeiaturc of 
57° F., while Nagoya, Sakai, and Okayama, 
in the same island, have one degree more, 
Osaka and Kobe having 59° F., and Naga- 
saki 60° F. The farther one goes north- 
ward on the main island the yearly average 
is, of course, lower, being 50° F. at Ishino- 
maki and 50° F. at Aomori. The more 
southern portions of Honshu and the Islands 
of Shikoku and Kyushu experience hot and 
humid summers, when the atmosphere is 
unpleasantly oppressive and the mercury 
registers from 90° to 100° F. in the shade, 
which is much more unbearable than the 
same degree of heat in a less humid atmos- 
phere. Periods of transition between sum- 
mer and winter are short in the north, and 
toward the south are more and more pro- 
longed at the expense of winter. The short- 



ness of the winter in the south somewhat 
compensates for the extreme heat of mid- 
summer. Oranges and semi-tropical fruits 
gladden the eye everywhere. Though the 
south seldom sees enough snow to cover the 
ground, the more elevated mountain peaks 
may be white all winter. In Formosa, of 
course, with its lower half in the torrid 
zone, the temperature is steadily high, the 
mean annual temperature of Taihoku being 
71° F. The following are the official figures 
of the Japan Meteorological Bureau up to 
Tgi2, given in Centigrade: 



typlioons generally come in the rainy season 
in August and September, and often cause 
great floods, since the wind is accompanied 
by heavy rains. Fortunately not many of 
the great winds cause damage, but the more 
violent of them wreck shipping, destroy 
buildings, flood thousands of acres of land, 
doing great injury to crops and roads, as 
well as causing loss of life. 

Rainfall. — The rainfall in Japan is more 
than that of England and America, and in 
some districts four times greater, but happily 
the number of wet days in the year is less. 



Monthly Average Temperature of Japan 



Month 



January 

February .... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 
December . . . 

Average . 

JVIaximum 

Minimum 



3 
o 



157 
14.0 
16.9 
20.7 
23.8 
26.6 
27.9 

27-7 
26.2 

23-3 
19.6 
16.7 



21.6 



370 



■z 






16.4 
15-8 

179 
20.8 

23 I 
26.0 
27.9 

27-7 
26.7 
24.0 
20.7 
174 



22.0 



351 



5-2 



4.2 
4.0 

7-5 
13 -4 
17-5 
21.8 
25.8 
27.2 
23.2 
16.9 
II .2 

6.3 



14.9 



37-6 



-7.1 



ni 
M 
IS 

■z 



15 



36.7 



— 5-2 



o 
o 



c 
Z 



-1-4 

-1-5 
2.6 

9 7 
14.6 
18.9 
22.8 
24.0 

19-7 

12.9 

6.6 

1 .0 



13 



36.6 



— 8.1 



36.3 



— 16.4 



1.5 
1 .2 

4-5 
10.4 
15.0 
193 

23.5 
25-5 
21.3 

I5-I 
9-4 

4-1 



-03 
0.0 

2.9 
9.0 

134 
17-4 
20. 9 
22.9 
19.6 
13.6 
7-7 

2-3 



12.6 



39 I 



—9 7 



10.8 



34-8 



— 13.6 



•a 

o 



—3-1 

— 2.6 

0.7 

6.4 

10.4 

14 
18 
21 

17 
II 

5 

— o 



8.3 



— 

— 5 

2 

3 

6 
9 

14 
17 
15 
10 

4 

— I 



5-5 



33-5 



— 21 .7 



31-4 



—22.7 



Winds. — During the colder season which 
sets in with September and ends in April, 
Japan is visited by northern and western 
gales from the continent, due to low atmos- 
pheric pressure on the Pacific which is often 
down to 750 m.m., while on the mainland 
the pressure maintains an average of 772 
m.m., a difference of 22 m.m. In the warm 
season from May to September the pressure 
on the Pacific rises to 767 m.m. or so, while 
that on the continent falls to 762 m.m., 
caiising a southwest wind of mild velocity. 
Suttsu in Hokkaido experiences the fiercest 
gales, the average being about 29 feet per 
second. Soya, Akita, Choshi, and Yoko- 
suka also have . to endure strong winds. 
Kumamoto, Gifu, Tokaichi, and Tsushima 
are least exposed to violent winds, the 
average in these places being not more than 
7 feet a second. A peculiar feature of the 
Japanese climate is its liability to periodic 
gales, known as typhoons, which generally 
originate in the Philippines. These hurri- 
canes usually visit Japan between June and 
October, and their force not infrequently 
attains a velocity of 70 miles an hour. The 



and the cloudless beauty of the blue sky is 
much more characteristic of Japan than of 
Europe. The average annual rainfall for 
the whole of Japan reaches 1,570 m.m. 
The rainiest spot in the Empire is Oshima in 
Kyushu, which experiences a rainfall of 3,400 
m.m. a year; and next comes Koshun in 
Formosa with 2,600; Taihoku, 2,400; while 
the districts least exposed to rain are Abash- 
iri, 715 m.m.; Soya, 840; Sapporo, 970; 
Nagoya, 1,190; and Okayama 1,080 m.m. 
In Japan it rains or snows on an average of 
150 days a year, but the sunshine of the 
remaining 215 makes up for it all. The 
most delightful months of the year, as far 
as climate goes, are April and May, and 
November and December, when bright days, 
with an agreeable atmosphere, prevail. The 
most unpleasant season is that known as 
the tsiiyti, or bai-u, which means "rainy 
season," from the middle of June to the 
beginning of July, due to the presence of 
low pressure areas in the Yangtze Valley in 
China, proceeding northeastward. 

Generally speaking the climate of Japan is 
less bracing and more trying to the European 



PRESENT-DAY IMPkESSIONS OF lAPAN 



19 




JAPANESE WOMAN PRAYING AT THE 
FAMILY ALTAR 



than his own. One cannot do more than 
half the amount of work in Japan that he 
can do at home without feeling greater loss 
of energy; and persistence in trying inevi- 
tably brings on "Japanese head," an affec- 
tion resembling nervous prostration, peculiar 
to the country, which always involves being 
invalided home. All foreigners, therefore, 
while in Japan have to be careful not to 
indulge in a greater degree of mental or 
physical exertion than the climate allows. 
It has been said that the lack of bracing 
qualities experienced in the climate of Japan 
is due to absence of ozone, owing to Japan's 
forming the main conductor of the terrestrial 
electric current, which follows the Rockies 
and the Andes through North and South 
America and returns through the Japanese 
ranges. How much of scientific truth there 
is in this opinion the writer does not under- 
take to say. For those who suffer from the 
exigencies of climate in Japan there are 
attractive hill resorts and watering places 
where refuge can be comfortably had from 
the oppressive heat of summer or when in 
need of rest, without being obliged to travel 
far. The most common affections arising 
from the climate of Japan are catarrh, 
consumption, rheumatism, and brain troubles, 
but many of these may be as much due to 
ignorance of sanitation and hygiene as to 
climate. The average Japanese ages earlier 
than the European and American, but 
whether the climate has anything to do 
with this is uncertain. One is, however, 
convinced that the tendency of the Japanese 
to extremes of nervous insensibility on the 
one hand and uncontrollable excitability on 
the other is in some measure the effect of 
climate. At the same time it must be ad- 
mitted that Japan has as many centenarians 
in proportion to population as most countries, 
the last census giving 4,252 males and 4,655 
females as over one hundred years of age; 



hut it must be assumed that many of these 
probably could not remember the exact date 
of their birth. The Japanese climate on the 
whole agrees admirably with foreign children, 
which do not, as in India, have to be sent 
home for recuperation. Their elders, how- 
ever, find that to ensure permanent fitness of 
condition they must take a year at home 
every seven years or so, some of the mission- 
ary societies insisting on furlough every five 
years. 



in any part of Jajjaii |)roper, not even in 
Kyushu, though it is cultivated in small 
quantities in the south, planted in March 
and cut in September, after but six months 
of vegetation. At the end of September 
the rice fields begin to fade, and by the end 
of October autumn tints dominate the land- 
scape, surpassing in beauty even the boasted 
colours of North American forests. The 
tints of the Japanese maple in autumn are 
particularly beautiful; and it assumes the 



Average Monthly Rainfall and Snowfall in Jap\n 
(In Millimetres) 



Month 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May.. 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 

Days of rain or snow 






91.0 
130.7 
175-8 
137.6 
204.9 
241.2 
207.0 
246.9 

233-2 

102.7 

72.6 

93-1 



1940.1 2154.2 






136.8 
130.8 
149.9 
169.9 
258.6 
284.7 

183-7 
289.0 

183-9 
166.8 

144-4 
100.2 



185 






51-5 

49-4 

104-5 

151-4 

T27.8 

189-5 
163-7 
186.9 
185.0 
128.6 

74-3 
44.8 



377-4 



140 



78.9 

81.7 

130.1 

196.6 

1 80. 1 

294-9 

245-3 

77-5 

210.9 

117. 6 

85-4 

85-4 



1884.4 



164 



o 
>> 

o 



57-1 
58.0 
109.2 
131.8 
156.9 
153-8 
143-3 
145.2 
210.6 
1 80. 1 
100.3 
54-1 



1500.4 



146 



ac 
Z 



56.2 

50.5 

54-0 

68.2 

86.8 

108.5 

167.4 

98.8 

133. 1 

77.5 

50.3 

530 



1004.; 



176 



96.3 
125.2 
104.6 
106.0 

82.8 
132-9 
156-9 
130.9 
186.6 

146.3 
182.5 
232.6 



1793-5 



237 



49-3 

45-5 

75-9 

88.5 

122.4 

117.6 

145-I 

"7-3 

165. 1 

1 19.6 

58.4 

45-8 



■a 
o 

a 



55-8 
57-7 
64.1 

69-3 

80.1 

89.9 

138.0 

129.3 

168.4 

114.2 

95-8 

79-3 



1 150.5 1 142.0 



152 



191 



28.5 
21. 1 

43.7 
70.2 

97.9 
90.6 

85-9 
94-0 
134-5 
88.1 
79.2 
62.0 



825-7 



156 



FLOR.\ AND FAUNA 
(.4) Flora 
The wealth, variety, and luxuriance of 
Japanese vegetation make the country one 
of the most interesting outside the tropics 
to the student of plant life. That the 
nation itself has been so dependent on the 
vegetable and plant world for existence has 
always rendered the subject of wide interest 
to" the people themselves. The Chinese 
system of medicine, which was almost wholly 
adopted in early Japan, demanded a thorough 
knowledge of plants, and developed a famil- 
iarity with and a love of flowers imequalled 
elsewhere. The cold season of Hokkaido 
limits the period of vegetation there to 
about five months in the year, while in mid- 
Japan the season is six, and farther south, 
seven months, when the growths of all 
woody plants are interrupted, including 
even evergreens. As in all countries of low 
temperature and regularly recurring periods 
of suspended growth, the trees of Japan 
exhibit distinct year rings. Even as far 
south as Tokyo the palm flourishes only 
under careful protection, and oranges are 
produced only m the more fully sheltered 
valleys. The sugar cane does not thrive 



same rich colouring when budding out in 
spring. By the end of October the decid- 
uous trees are leafless, and but few plants 
then refrain from winter rest, among them 
the camillia, whose blossoming time is No- 
vember and December, the last buds finally 
fading before the severe frost. Another 
camillia, called the Japonica, prolongs its 
flowering time to April. With December the 
grass has everywhere faded, and all the green 
fields turn a dull grey, changing the entire 
aspect of the country, which has been for 
many months so verdant. The plum blos- 
som, which is a favourite with the Japanese, 
comes out in the south as early as February, 
announcing the approach of spring; but in 
the north its delicately tinted flowers are 
not seen before March and often run into 
April. The most beautiful blossom of April 
is the Japanese cherry, but the number of 
flowering plants at this season is still less 
than three per cent of the nation's flora. 

The most important winter crops are 
barley, wheat, and rape, which are sown in 
drills and rows at the end of October and 
show a vigourous blade in November and 
early December when their development 
ceases until waked by the warm sun of 



20 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



spring. The barley and rape make rapid 
growth from April onward, and are ready 
for harvest in June, with the wheat harvest 
some two weeks later. In the south the 
transition from winter to spring is much less 
marked and rapid than in the north, where 
everything quickly recovers its verdure with 
the return of spring. Another reason why 
spring is not so marked in the south is 
because the deciduous trees of groves and 
woodlands are so often mixed with ever- 
greens that their change to spring attire is 
not so readily noticeable. By the beginning 
of May the fields of the south are in full 
summer dress and the song of the Japanese 
nightingale is again heard. Then spring 
showers are frequent and plenteous; and 
vegetation soon shows a variety ana luxuri- 
ance that suggest the tropics. 

The geographical distribution of Japanese 
plants is decided apparently by the geological 
formation of the countiy and the nature of 
the soil, producing a different vegetation 
according as the place is sand dune, fresh- 
water land, plains, bush or hill country, 
highlands and mountains. The number of 



sand and salt plants is very great, while 
marine flora are still more varied and plenti- 
ful, many being used as food. Japan has no 
heaths or moors, and consequently the 
plants usually associated with such places 
are wanting, especially peat mosses; but the 
wet rice lands have a peculiar vegetation of 
their own, starwort and pondweed being 
prominent. In Japan the hills are terraced 
and cultivated to a height and degree un- 
surpassed in any other country-, but seldom 
higher than from 300 to 900 feet above sea 
level. Most of the hills are covered with red 
pine and low brushwood, but in places are 
quite bare. How barren and dry the soil of 
some of the hills is may be inferred from the 
scrubby conditions of the pines that try to 
subsist on them. Trees of juniper, azalea, 
and rose grow among the hill grasses, the 
latter being known as coarse bamboo grass. 
In early summer when everything is green 
and the scent of pine resin mingles with the 
perfume of wild flowers, and the grating and 
chirping of cicadas on the trunks and 
branches of the pines echo above the hum- 
ming and buzzing of innumerable insects 



among the wild flowers, the scene is animated 
and delightful in the extreme. The red- 
flowered azalea often sets the hills ablaze 
with colour and presents a sight uniquely 
picturesque. The plains are for the most 
part given over to the growing of rice, there 
being practically no fallow or meadow land. 
But the higher hills are often not unlike 
meadows in their lack of trees and in their 
wealth of wild flowers, running up to 1,500 
or even 3,000 feet, the more beautiful of 
the flowers being the mountain lilies, the 
azaleas, and wild roses. 

Unlike the forests of Europe those of 
Japan have a great variety of trees and 
shrubs of all ages; and it is but seldom that 
one finds such foliaceous growths as oaks 
and beeches forming a forest by themselves. 
The unusual number of parasitic and climb- 
ing plants reminds us of the virgin forests 
of the tropics. There is indeed no doubt 
that the forests of Japan show a greater 
number of variously mingled trees than 
those of North America. To name the con- 
stituents of a Japanese forest would be to 
enumerate at least half the entire flora of 




VIEWS IN KORAKUEN PARK, OKAYAMA, ON THE INLAND SEA 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



21 



the world. In the higher mountains, as one 
proceeds northward, with the exception of 
conifers, there are few evergreens, and these 
chiefly shrubs. The principal constituents 
of such a deciduous forest are oaks, beeches, 
hornbeams, maples, birches, horsechestnuts, 
magnolias, azaleas, walnuts, elms, planes, 
ashes, alders and so on, all of which flourish 
best in the middle part of the Empire. The 
great number of climbers one can do no 
more than refer to, but some of them are 
very beautiful, especially the wistaria, which 
is often found climbing a hundred feet above 
the earth on trees or cliffs. The multi- 
formity of a Japanese foliaceous forest is 
further increased by divers kinds of conif- 
erous trees, especially firs, pines, and 
cryptomerias, according to altitude. The 
red pine and the black pine are the most 
common conifers in Japan, found especially 
in the lower levels and sandy places, like 
dunes and barren hills. Another of this 
family is the Alpine dwarf fir which prefers 
the higher altitudes. At a height of from 
1,500 to 3,000 feet is found the handsomest 
of Japanese conifers, the cryptomeria, which 
furnishes the most esteemed wood for build- 
ing and industrial purposes. This noble tree 
is the pride of temple groves, an ornament 
wherever found, and the constant theme of 
national poets. The mountains of Shinano 
possess fine forests of these cypresses, of 
which there are two kinds, the sugi or red 
cypress, and the hinoki or white cypress, 
which attain usually a height of about sixty 
feet and a diameter of three. Firs and 
larches grow at an altitude up to 7,000 feet, 
though the forest limit is usually about 
6,000 feet, growth depending on circum- 
stances of wind and sun. Since growth in 
Japan frequently depends more on wind and 
sun than on temperature one often finds 
the beautiful Japanese Alpine bell growing at 
surprising altitudes. The flora of the higher 
mountains is, therefore, a mixture of Alpine 
and northern plant forms, the species being 
such as are found widely in sub-arctic regions 
of the Old and the New World; especially 
common are they in the shady woods of the 
north temperate zone, ascending to greater 
elevations farther south. A small number of 
species, however, are peculiar to Japan. 
The origin of these has undoubtedly been in 
Siberia and Kamchatka, the seeds being 
borne southward by currents and monsoons, 
though probably some were carried by birds, 
especially by the ptarmigan. 

With the exception of a few plants, like 
tobacco and potatoes, most of the cultivated 
products of Japan have been derived from 
China, though it is possible some are in- 
digenous, such as the lotus. Hemp, cotton, 
and silk, which formed the chief material for 



clothing in China, early came to Japan, as 
well as rice for food and tea for drink. The 
catalogue of endemic vascular plants of 
Japan, however, is a long one; and the great 
difference in their genera is astonishing. In 
the enormous number of monotype genera 
Japan stands alone among extra-tropical 
countries, with a remarkable mixture of 
species peculiar to the country, as well as 
such forms as are distributed over China, 
the Himalayas, tropical India, North Europe, 
Siberia, and North America, the extra- 
ordinary luxuriance and variety being due 
for the most part to high temperature, fertile 
soil, and abundant rainfall. Japan's close 
connection with the Kurile Islands in the 
north and the Luchu Islands in the south, 
as well as with Korea, offers every attraction 
for the immigration of Asiatic flora from the 
north, west, and south, the intervals between 
islands being bridged by sea currents and 
winds. The more northern forms easily 
found their habitat by pushing toward the 
higher mountains with the assistance of 
valley winds, the migration and develop- 
ment probably taking place after the glacial 
period. 

To sum up, it may be said that existing 
flora in Japan number: 

Species 
Phanerogamia, or flowering plants 3,200 
Cryptogamia, or flowerless plants 

and ferns 300 

Algae, or seaweeds 400 

For fuller information as to the various 
trees, plants, and vegetables of Japan, the 
readei is referred to the chapters on Forestry. 
Tea, and Agriculture. 

(B) Fauna 
The animal world of Japan is indeed 
scarcely less remarkable for interest and 
variety than the nation's flora, extending 
from anthropoid apes down to simple pro- 
tozoa, species whose morphological relation 
or correspondence to other species may be 
separated widely in space and time. The 
land fauna undoubtedly came originally from 
China, Korea, and Manchuria, and belongs 
for the most part to pateoarctic types, of 
which most of the Japanese mammalia, birds, 
and insects are but modifications, indicating 
that Japan has been more recently connected 
with the continent northward than south- 
ward. Though assuredly related to its 
neighbours of the northern half of Asia, the 
fauna of Japan has its own peculiar stamp, 
not, perhaps, so pronounced in the various 
classes of animals. There is an absence of 
several continental genera and a great vari- 
ation of common species, with a persistence 
of others which in other countries have to 
be reckoned with extinct types. Japan is 



quite an exception to the rule that the 
fauna and flora of islands are poorer than 
those of the neighbouring continent; for the 
insect world alone surprises the scientist by 
the great wealth of forms and individuals, of 
which he may find more in a day's walk than 
he could find in the whole British Isles, 
with which Japan is sometimes compared in 
point of size. 

Marine Fauna. — The sea fauna is particu- 
larly rich in species of fish, Crustacea, and 
MoUusca, as well as in individuals, due 
doubtless to the inter-mixture of northern 
and southern marine fauna by sea currents 
and their effect on climate. Thus while the 
land fauna maintains its relation to that of 
the continental temperate zone, the marine 
fauna represents tropical and sub-tropical 
species as well, some of which are to be met 
with also in Malayan and Indian waters. 
At the same time there occur numerous 
species endemic to Japan. As fish forms 
one of the chief items in the national dietary 
of Japan much attention has been devoted 
to the subject. The country is certainly one 
of the most remarkable in the world for the 
number and variety of its fish, those appear- 
ing in the market alone reaching over six 
hundred species. Even the inland waters 
offer abundant quantities of trout, carp, shad, 
and eel. Japanese fish seem to migrate with 
the season, as do the birds, a fact that has to 
be borne in mind if one is not to make 
mistakes in studying the piscifauna of the 
islands. The Sea of Japan has been called 
the kingdom of the mackerel tribe, and with 
truth, as there are about forty species of 
this fish alone. One of the best fish is 
known as lai, a bream of beautiful deep red 
colour but with white meat. Tunny and 
bonito are also plentiful, some of which weigh 
over a hundred pounds. The haddock 
family has many relations; as also has the 
sole. Salmon is a very important fish, 
too, of which there are several species, 
ascending the lower rivers of the more 
northern coasts in autumn in enormous 
numbers and affording occupation and food 
to thousands. Herring is also abundant, as 
well as cod, sardine, and eel. Rays, sharks, 
and whales also abound in Japanese waters, 
and are used as food. It would be quite 
impossible in the space at our disposal even 
to enumerate in any lucid manner the great 
variety of fish found in Japanese waters, of 
which there are at least 1,230 species; and 
of amphibians at least 22 species. On the 
coasts of the Japan Sea there is a peculiar 
cuttlefish of phosphorescent quality which 
lights up the sea at night and affords 
amusement to fishermen to catch. Among 
Crustacea, crabs and lobsters, which are 
really crawfish, as well as crawfish and 



22 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




RECEPTION ROOM IN A JAPANESE HOME OF THE HIGHER CLASS 



shrimp, abound. The hst of Mollusca is 
also long, of which at least 1,200 species have 
been classified. Among the more common 
are mussels, oysters, clams, auks, and 
himdreds of the snail variety. Most of the 
Japanese sea molluscs point to the Indian 
Ocean and the Malay Archipelago as their 
place of origin, but many are allied to the 
California coast. A considerable number of 
the marine moUuscs of Japan form a valu- 
able addition to the nation's food. Among 
Echinoderms sea urchins and starfish have 
numerous species, mostly related to those in 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Corals, 
rock-corals, and glass-sponges are also to be 
found, more especially in the southern waters. 
(For further information turn to the article 
on Fisheries elsewhere in this volume.) 

Mammals. — Even a slight zoological 
knowledge of Japan soon reveals the fact 
that the country possesses a great variety 
of mammalian life. The red-cheeked ape is 
among the older and more familiar inhabi- 
tants of the islands, being found as far north 
as the Straits of Tsugaru. Of bats there 
are some ten or more species, though they 
differ from those of Europe. There are no 
hedgehogs, but there are six species of 
insect-eaters. Moles, shrew-mice, and river- 
rats abound, and the common rat in millions, 
being a frequent conductor of pestilence. 
Of Camivora Japan affords such specimens 
as bears, of which there are three species, 
wolves and martens, though no wild cats, 
tigers or any of the tropical Camivora. The 
flesh of the bear is eaten; and the animal is 



held sacred by the Ainu. The badger and 
fox are common, the latter being enrolled 
among the figures guarding such shrines as 
those to Inari, the god of rice. The animal 
is believed to have powers of witchcraft and 
to take possession of women. While Mar- 
supials are not well represented, there are 
numerous species of rodents, like squirrels and 
flying squirrels, as well as the rats already 
mentioned. Hares also are found, those in 
the moimtains changing colour with winter. 
The wild boar is another interesting denizen 
of the mountain forests, affording sport to 
huntsmen and food to the people. The 
Japanese deer, or antelope, is a beautiful 
animal with eight-branched antlers, and 
found in various parts of the country. 
Among domestic animals, birds, and insects, 
Japan has the horse, a rather stunted animal, 
the cow, pig, dog, cat, rabbit, fowl, duck, 
pigeon, silkworm, and bee; the ass, mule, 
sheep, and goose being absent. The Japanese 
bantam and large gamecock arc celebrated. 
Birds. — In birds, too, Japan is remarkably 
rich, possessing more than four hundred 
species, most of them being of palasoarctic 
type and almost a quarter of them peculiar 
to the country. While the greater number 
of Japanese birds agree with the same 
species in Europe, the jay, cuckoo, and robin 
exhibit slight differences in size and colour. 
Sparrows, crows or ravens, and swallows 
are among the more common birds, as well as 
kites, falcons, and eagles. The uguisu, or 
Japanese nightingale, is more like the 
English whitethroat, though its song is 



musical enough. Its back is olive-green and 
the breast grey and white. The golden- 
crested wren prevails in woods, with numer- 
ous companions of the tomtit family. The 
Japanese finch sings well; and a species of 
lark called the hibari. The water-ousel lives 
in remote places like mountain streams. 
One of the most beautiful of Japanese birds 
is the kiji. or pheasant, of which there are 
two species found in most of the hilly dis- 
tricts. Among waders, cranes and herons 
are plentiful and pretty, being mentioned 
frequently in the national literature. Wild 
ducks of various kinds abound, too, especially 
the teal, flocks of which frequent even the 
moats of the imperial palace in Tokyo un- 
molested. The mandarin drake is famed in 
Japan for its beauty. Wild geese and kindred 
water fowl are numerous, with cormorants 
and gulls beyond ntimber. 

Reptiles. — These are no more prominent 
in Japan than in China, as the country has 
no more than thirty-four species, though 
their relation to Indian, North American, 
and North European reptiles is interesting. 
The seven marine members, three turtles 
and four sea snakes, suggest a tropical origin, 
coming, as they no doubt do, on the Black 
Current to the southern coasts of the archi- 
pelago. There are also two species of 
fresh-water turtles, which occur in the rivers 
and ponds of southern Honshu, and in ,Shi- 
koku and Kyushu, being regarded by the 
people as a symbol of longevity. There are 
several kinds of snakes, all harmless save 
the niamushi, or \-iper, a small green snake 
which is very poisonous, but which is, never- 
theless, often eaten as a remedy against con- 
sumption, or made into snake wine for the 
same purpose. Of lizards there are three 
species, and of frogs and toads several. The 
giant salamander of Japan engages our 
special interest because of its limited field of 
distribution and its relation to fossil species. 
It frequents clear mountain streams at a 
height of 1,200 to 3,000 feet, and feeds on 
trout, the larvs of insects, and batrachians. 

1 11 seels and Spiders. — In Japan insects 
thrive abundantly, and are for the most part 
related to kindred species on the continent, 
there being more than twenty thousand 
species recorded. Everywhere beetles and 
butterflies glow with richness and variety of 
colour, and prevail in species too numerous 
to mention. Ground beetles and stag beetles 
are abundant. Fireflies are placed in cages 
as toys to emit light at night, while any 
insect that can emit a strident note is also 
caged for its music. The butterflies are too 
wonderful for description, there being over 
four hundred species, many of them of 
tropical colouring. Moths are still more 
numerous and varied, and Japan is the 



PRESKNT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



23 



paradise of the entomologist. Wasps, bees, 
hornets, and ants abound innumerably. 
Gadflies, biting gnats, and mosquitoes are 
in millions untold, while the common house 
fly is a pest wherever odours invite. These 
are confined to season and altitude, but the 
ubiquitous flea defies all circumstances and 
makes himself a perpetual guest. Happily 
there are no bed-bugs, except as brought from 
China. Of Neuroptera Japan has a mar- 
vellous variety, the dragonfly being one of 
the most beautiful of the more than one 
hundred species. Grasshoppers, locusts, and 
crickets also flourish in their season. Several 
species of mantis, too, exist, though, owing to 
their quiet habits and similarity of colour to 
environment, they are seldom seen. The 
Japanese cicada is much in evidence during 
the heat of summer when he always insists on 
being heard, making an ear-splitting noise. 
Termites, together with tree-bugs and spi- 
ders, are also abundant. 

The species of fauna found in Japan and 
those peculiar to the country may be sum- 
marised as follows: 

Species 

Mammals 80 

Peculiar to Japan 30 

Birds 400 

Reptiles 34 

Amphibians 22 

Fishes 1,230 

Insects 20,000 

Dragonflies over 100 

Ants over 100 

Cicadas over 38 

Butterflies over 400 

Spiders over 1,000 

Mollusca over 3,000 

Crustacea over 70 

POPULATION 

The crime of sterility, mooted in some 
countries, can not be brought against the 
Japanese, for the nation is increasing at the 
rate of over 700.000 a year, and that without 
any assistance from immigration. The birth 
rate at present is nearly 4 per 100 of the 
population, which is greater than any other 
country except Germany. The birth rate of 
males exceeds that of females, there being an 
average of 105 of the former to 100 of the 
latter, but the death rate among males is 
sufficiently greater to compensate in a large 
measure for the difference. Taking a de- 
cennial period for which accurate figures are 
available, the growth of population may be 
seen in table at top of this page. 

The birth rate may be clearly seen by 
surveying the decennial period from 1897 to 
1906, as shown in table at foot of this page. 
The table will prove all the more interest- 
ing if it be borne in mind, also, that the 
period includes the years of the war with 











Increase 


Rate 


Year 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Previous 
Year 


OF 

Increase 


1899 


22,330,112 


21,930,540 


44,260,642 


496,787 


1-4 


1900 


22,613,177 


22,202,821 


44,815,980 


555,338 


I 


25 


1901 


22,933,469 


22,503,590 


45,437.032 


621,052 




39 


1902 


23.233.676 


22,788,833 


46,022,476 


585,444 




29 


1903 


23,601,640 


23,131,236 


46,732,876 


710,400 




54 


1904 


23.834.398 


23.381,237 


47,215,635 


482,754 




03 


1905 


24,047,953 


23,626,518 


47,674,471 


458,830 





97 


1906 


24,312,779 


23,848,062 


48,160,825 


486,365 




01 


1907 


24,643,017 


24,172,702 


48,815,694 


654,869 




36 


1908 


25.045.,3,S9 


24,541,884 


49.587.243 


771,549 




58 



Russia. Notwithstanding the losses from 
war it will be seen that the average yearly 
birth rate was 1,432,431, or 3.03 per 100 of 
population. 

As to the death rate, the number of deaths 
from 1897 to 1906 was 945,102, the rate being 
2.07 per 100 of population, greater among 
males than females, as will be seen from the 
first table on next page. 

The present population of the Japanese 
Empire, representing the latest census returns 
which are up to the end of 1915, amounts to 
approximately 74,000,000, distributed ac- 
cording to provinces and dependencies as 
follows : 

Hokkaido 2,256,633 

Tokyo 3,361,484 

Kyoto . . 1,324,765 

Osaka . 2,578,576 

Kanagawa. . . 1,272,972 

Hyogo . 2,214,932 

Nagasaki, . . . 1,163,595 

Niigata . 2,112,185 

Saitama 1,375,471 

Gumma . 1,042,279 

Chiba . 1,426,404 

Ibaraki 1,365,478 

Tochigi 1,066,184 

Nara 606,843 

Miy6 . . 1,086,220 

Aichi 2,178,345 

Shizuoka 1,521,531 



Yamanashi 613,907 

Shiga 712,076 

Gifu 1,165,199 

Nagano 1,525,897 

Miyagi 947.658 

Fukushima 1,408,608 

Iwate 896,679 

Aomori 865,118 

Yamagata 1,068,696 

Akita 997,876 

Fukui 651,053 

Ishikawa 819,847 

Toyama 923,620 

Tottori 473,163 

Shiman^ 762,135 

Okayama 1,271,225 

Hiroshima 1,706,087 

Yamaguchi 1,107,994 

Wakayama 775,116 

Tokushima 758,073 

Kagawa 767,682 

Ehime 1,024,179 

Kochi 691,759 

Fukuoka i,953,i78 

Oita 972,465 

Saga 704,742 

Kumamoto 1,318,502 

Miyazaki 622,249 

Kagoshima 1,434,321 

Okinawa 549, 116 

Formosa 3,392,063 

Saghalien 35,823 

Korea 13,125,027 

Total 73,995,030 











Births 


Births 


Year 


Males 


Females 


Total 


PER 100 
OF 

Population 


OF M.\LES 
PER 100 

Females 


1897 


683,941 


650,184 


1. 334. 1 25 


3 09 


105.19 


1898 


696,137 


673.501 


1,369,688 


313 


103 


36 


1899 


714,025 


674.052 


1,388,077 


3 04 


105 


93 


1900 


728,648 


693.271 


1,421,919 


317 


105 


03 


1901 


770,425 


732.936 


1,503.361 


3-31 


105 


11 


1902 


774.484 


738,606 


1,513,090 


3 29 


104 


86 


1903 


765.705 


727.842 


1.493.547 


3.20 


105 


20 


1904 


740,241 


704,066 


1.444.307 


3.06 


105 


14 


1905 


738,175 


718,868 


1.457.039 


3.06 


102 


68 


1906 


728,768 


670,435 


I, .399.203 


2.91 


108 


70 



24 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 











Deaths 


Deaths 


Year 


Males 


Females 


Total 


PER TOO 
OF 

Population 


OF Males 
PER 100 
Females 


1897 


452,383 


424.454 


876,837 


2.03 


106.58 


1898 


459,307 


435,216 


894,524 


2.04 


i05-,54 


1899 


478,255 


456,301 


934,566 


2. II 


104,96 


1900 


467,359 


447,190 


914,557 


2.03 


104 -53 


1901 


470,712 


457,857 


928,578 


2.03 


102.82 


1902 


488,615 


473,476 


962,097 


2.09 


103.41 


1903 


474,195 


459,633 


933,834 


2.00 


103.17 


1904 


524,670 


474,946 


999.621 


2.12 


110.26 


1905 


544,167 


500,682 


1.044.855 


2.09 


108.68 


1906 


484,675 


476,872 


961,551) 


I 98 


lOI .64 



CiTV 


1916 


1906 


Houses 


Population 


Houses 


Populatii.i-N 


Tokyo . . . 


519.735 
300,768 

91,105 
82,966 

97,114 
102,421 

23,551 
46,786 

37,592 

33,759 


2,050,126 

1,395,823 

509,380 

397,574 
452,043 
442,167 
161,174 
167,130 
129,804 
128,342 


501,000 
278,777 
81,136 
78,438 
84,438 
96,539 
23,816 

40,952 
28,613 
21,676 


1,440,121 
1,226,590 
442,462 
394,303 
378,331 
378,197 
176,480 

142,763 
110,994 
100,679 


Osaka.... 


Kyoto .... 


Yokohama 

Nagoya 

Koh6 

Nagasaki 

Hiroshima 

Kanazawa , 

Kur6 







Year 


Married 


Divorced 


Married 
PER 100 


Divorced 
PER 100 


1897 


365,207 


124,075 


8.45 


2.87 


1898 


471,298 


90,465 


10 


77 


2,27 


1899 


297,428 


66,626 


6 


72 


I 51 


1900 


346,590 


63,926 


7 


70 


1.42 


1901 


378,637 


63,593 


8 


33 


I 41 


1902 


394,378 


64,311 


8 


57 


1.40 


1903 


371,187 


65,571 


7 


97 


1.40 


1904 


399,218 


64,016 


8 


46 


1.36 


1905 


351,260 


60, 1 79 


7 


37 


1.26 


1906 


353,274 


65,510 


7 


34 


1.36 


1907 


433,257 


61,193 


8 


88 


I 25 



The density of population in various divi- 
sions of the Japanese Empire may be in- 
dicated thus: 



Division 


Population 
PER Square 
Ri (5-9552 
Sq. Miles) 


Population 

PER 

Family 


Honshu (Middle) 
Honshu (North).. 
Honshu (West).. . 
Shikoku 


3,315 
1,430 
3,347 
2,692 

2,782 
2,201 

3,284 


5 
6 

5 
5 
5 

5 


56 
62 

14 
40 
80 

17 

18 


Kyushu 

Okinawa 

Hokkaido 



The average density, tlierefore, per square 
ri of the entire area of Japan, is 1,809, w-hich 
is somewhat less than that of the British 
Isles and in excess of the density of popula- 
tion in Italy, Germany, and France. 

Though agriculture is still the principal 
occupation of the people there is a steady 
drift toward the city, especially of the 
young, who are attracted by what they deem 
the less exacting life of industry and trade. 
Ten years ago some 16 per cent of the popu- 
lation resided in cities of over 10,000 inhabi- 
tants, while to-day more than 25 per cent of 
the population is urban. Indeed, it is not 
too much to say that at least 30 per cent of 
the population is now in cities, gravitation 



being especially toward such industrial and 
commercial centres as Osaka, Tokyo, Nagoya, 
Kobe, and Nagasaki, while the country is 
further depopulated by the numbers that 
are attracted to Formosa, Korea, Manchuria, 
California, and the outlying dependencies of 
the Empire. The second table on this page 
will indicate the rate of growth in the prin- 
cipal cities. Thus all, with the exception of 
Nagasaki, have shown remarkable growth in 
the decade under review, the exception being 
due chiefly to the removal of trade from Nag- 
asaki to Moji. Minor towns exhibiting an un- 
usual increase of population are Sapporo, 
the capital of Hokkaido, Otaru in the 
same island, Moji already mentioned, 
Yokosuka, Sendai, Okayama, Sasebo, and 
Wakayama. 

The people of Japan are divided officially 
into various classes, the four principal ones 
being the Kwozoku, comprising the imperial 
family only, whose spirits are entitled to 
worship after departing this life; the Kwuzoku, 
or nobles; the Shizoku, or gentry; and the 
Heimin, or common people. Other classes 
are chokunin, or government officials ap- 
pointed by imperial mandate; and sonin, or 
officials appointed by government depart- 
ments. Of nobles there are about 5,000; of 
gentry nearly 2,000,000, and of commoners 
more than 40,000,000, tile rest being of no 
class. In addition there are some 20,000 
Ainu aborigines in the northern territories, 
and about 115,000 savages in Formosa. 
The number of foreigners residing in Japan 
is nearly 20,000, of whom British, Americans, 
and Chinese are by far in the majority. 

A good deal has been said about the ratio 
of marriage to divorce in Japan, the country 
having long had the unenviable reputation 
of showing the largest divorce rate in the 
world. Happily the figures, though still 
large, are on the decline, as the third table 
on this page will indicate. 

It may be questioned, however, whether 
the rate of diminution in divorce is as great 
as the above figures suggest, for divorce in 
Japan is still very easy, nothing more being 
necessary than a declaration by two reput- 
able witnesses at the local police office that 
the divorce has taken place by mutual con- 
sent, judicial divorces being comparatively 
rare; but it is doubtful whether all the 
divorcees go to the trouble or publicity of 
having the separation thus registered Still 
there is no doubt that the new civil code 
issued in 1898, requiring all marriages to be 
registered and divorce noted officially, has 
influenced in some appreciable measure the 
rate of divorce in Japan. Whether Japan 
will ever return to the old ratio of one 
divorce to every three marriages remains to 
be seen. 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



25 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEYS, WITH ENGLISH, 
AMERICAN, FRENCH, AND GERMAN EQUIVALENTS 



Japan 


Great Britain 


United States 
OF America 


France 


Germany 


Ri 


2.44030 Miles 


2.44029 Miles 


3.92727 Kilo- 
metres 


3.92727 Kilo- 
meter 


Ri (marine) 


1.15152 Miles 


1.15151 Miles 


1. 853 1 8 Kilo- 
metre 


1. 853 1 8 Kilo- 
meter 


Square Ri 


5.95505 Square 
Miles 


5-95.'iOi Square 
Miles 


15.42347 Kilo- 
metres Carrds 


15.42347 Quad- 
rat-kilometer 


Cho = 10 Tan 

= 3,000 Tstibo 


2.45064 Arres 


2.45062 Acres 


99-17355 Ares 


99-17355 Ar. 


Tsubo 


3-95369 Square 
Yards 


3-95367 Square 

Yards 


3-30579 Centi- 
ares 


3-3"579 Quad 
rat-meter 


Kokii = 10 To 

= 100 Sho 


4.96005 Bushels 


47-65389 Gallons 

(Liquid) 
5.1 1902 Bushels 
(Dry) 


1.80391 Hecto- 
litre 


1.80391 Hekto- 
liter 


Koku (Capacity 
of vessel) 


y^g of one Ton 


y-Q^ of one Ton 


y de Tonne 


y'j Tonne 


Kwan = I, oon 

Moiintic 


8.26733 lbs. 

(Avoir.) 
10.04711 lbs. 

(Troy) 


8.26733 lbs. 

(Avoir.) 
10.04711 lbs. 

(Troy) 


3.75000 Kilo- 
grammes 


3.75000 Kilo- 
gram m 


Kin = 160 Monnm 


1.32277 lbs. 


1.32277 lbs. 


0.60000 Kilo- 


0.60000 Kilo- 




(Avoir.) 

1.60754 lbs. 

(Troy) 


(Avoir.) 

1.60754 lbs. 

(Trov) 


gramme 


gramm 


Momme 


2.1 1644 Drams 
2.41 131 Dwts. 


0.13228 Ounce 

(Avoir.) 
0.12057 Ounce 

(Troy) 


3.75000 Gramme 


3.75000 Gramm 


Yen = 100 Sen 


2s. 0.5821!. 


0.49X4 Dollar 


2.583 Francs 


2.0924 Mark 



The value of Yen is as follows: — 

Prior to December, 1885 

From January, 1886, to September, 18 
Subsequent to October, 1897 



. . .Gold Yen (0.4 Momme of pure gold) 
17. .Silver Yen (6.7 Momme of pure silver) 
. . . . Gold Yen (0.2 Momme of pure gold) 




THE FISHERMAN SPEARS A S.\LMON TROUT 



The question of emigration becomes one 
of absorbing interest in view of Japan's 
enormous annual increase in population; 
and the majority of the nation is convinced 
that some outlet must be found for the 
surplus. Inducements are offered for settle- 
ment in the outlying territories and colonies, 
but the average Japanese does not care for 



the cold of Hokkaido and Manchuria, nor 
the torrid heat of the southern islands. He 
prefers America, South America, Australia, 
and Canada. It is a question, therefore, 
whether the activities of Japan's surplus 
population can be concentrated on the 
regions of the Far East and devoted 
wholly to the development of the nation's 



new territories. There is at present grave 
dissatisfaction with the restrictions against 
immigration from Japan enforced in Amer- 
ica and the British colonies, and most 
Japanese are persuaded that these must 
be removed and Japanese immigrants 
placed on a level with those from 
the countries of Europe. 







.3*Cw 






.'/ ^if 



"^'i^K^,- 



Hl.MEJl CASTLE 



III. The People 



(A) The Age of Myths ( — to b. c. 66o), Origin of the Japanese— Cosmogony — Arch.'E. 
OLOGiCAL Evidence — Dawn OF Empire — Early Civilisation. (B) The Yamato Empire 

(b. C. 660 to 794 A. D.), CONSOLIDATING THE InFANT EmPIRE — EXPEDITION TO KoREA — INTRO- 
DUCTION OF Buddhism — Beginning of Chinese Influence. (C) Period of Family 
Despotism (794 to 1503 a. d.), The Fujiwara Bureaucracy— Rise of the Taira and 
MiNAMOTO Clans, 794 to 1199 a. d. — The Sh adow-Shoguns, 1199 to 1334 a. d. — Arrival 
of Europeans and Christianity, 1334 to 1573 — Age of Usurpers, 1573 to I603. 
(D) The Tokugawa Period ( 1600 to 1868), The Eradication of Christianity — 
The Laws of Ieyasu — Foreign Relations in the Tokugawa Era — 
Reopening of Japan — Fall of the Shogunate. (E) The Era of 

MeIJI ( 1868 to 1914), EaRLY RefORMS — FoREIGN RELATIONS — 

Modern Japan 



(A) THE AGE OF MYTHS 

— 10 B. C. 660 

ORIGIN 

THE origin of the Japanese, more 
than that of most peoples, is lost in 
the mists of antiquity. Oriental 
ethnologists and anthropologists, however, 
for the most part agree in ascribing 
the birth and rise of the race that now in- 



habits the islands of Japan to the blending of 
two streams of immigration that set in to- 
ward the archipelago in prehistoric time, the 
one from the continent of East Asia and 
the other from Malaya and the islands of 
the Pacific. The southern colony, together 
with intermittent infiltrations from the con- 
tinent, settled on the island of Kyushu, par- 
ticularly in the northern part, while the 
adventurers from the north, most of whom 



were of Korean, Chinese, Mongolian, and 
Indonesian extraction, peopled the west 
coast of Idzumo. The southern contingents, 
pirates from the wild islands of the Pacific, 
being very warlike and aggressive, pushed 
their borders steadily northward, subduing 
if not wholly absorbing the less spirited but 
more highly civilized colonists of Idzumo, 
while exterminating almost wholly the 
savage aborigines that lay between. A 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



27 



capital was finally established at Kashiwa- 
bara in Yainato under their leader, Jummi 
Tenno, who became first emperor of the 
newly formed empire in is. c. 660. 

It may be no more than a mere assumption 
to suggest that the more salient streams of 
immigration gave rise to the subsequent clans 
which are found to have been so marked a 
feature of Yamato civilisation and govern- 
ment, as was the case in ancient Britain; V)ut 
in all probability the incessant wars between 
the contending tribal settlements led to tlie 
preeminence of warriors who succeeded in 
founding great families or clans under whom, 
as in other countries, the commonalty 
gathered for protection. 

As the two main streams of immigration 
perforce more and more harmonised and 
blended into a united nation called the 
Yamato, they waged relentless war against 
the savage Ainu, as the latter in turn did 
against the aboriginal koropok-guru (cave- 
dwellers), or tsiichi-gitma (earth-spiders), as 
the Yamato called them, which doubtless 
were the first human inhabitants of the 
islands. Thus the Yamato extended their 
boundaries ever northward, partly subduing 
and partly exterminating the native peoples, 
until the whole of the main island and Kyushu 
were brought under imperial rule. 

That the above contentions have some 
basis in reason and fact is clear from the 
following considerations. The great equa- 
torial current from the south, which does so 
much to moderate the climate of Japan, 
divides at the southern extremity of the 
archipelago, one part sweeping toward the 
Korean coast and into the Pacific through 
the Straits of Tsushima, while the other 
moves up the coast of Shikoku and the main 
island and into the mid-Pacific, modifying 
the temperature even as far as the coast of 
the United States. The significance of these 
currents, however, is not so much that they 
have given Japan a climate of peculiar soft- 
ness and moderation, but that they have 
been the highways of immigration peopling 
the islands of the rising sun. The ktiro-siwo, 
or Black Current, brought the wild tribes of 
the Pacific islands, and the Tsushima current 
hastened the stream of migration from the 
Asiatic continent, thus making that complex 
mixture of races that now comprise the 
people of Japan. 

COSMOGONY 

The above hypothesis is confirmed by 
Japanese tradition, and tradition again by 
archseology. According to Japanese mythol- 
ogy there were two original deities, male 
and female, named Izanagi and Izanami, 
from whom in direct line the Emperor of 
Japan is descended through the daughter of 




IWINTING OF .WCIENT GODS (KASUG.\ MIO-JIN) 
IN THE IMPERIAL MUSEUM, TOKYO 

the first divine pair, Amaterasu-Omikami, 
the Sun Goddess. As Izanagi and Izanami 
appeared one day on the bridge of high 
heaven, reclining on the clouds, in order to 
witness the raging of the depths beneath, 
Izanagi, the male principle, happened to let 
his richly decorated lance touch the sea, 
upon which the latter straightway parted, 
the land appeared, and the drops falling 
from the lance became islands. The first 
land to appear was the Island of Awaji on 
which the divine couple settled, as did 
Adam and Eve in Eden. From the same 
creative act seven other islands arose and 
bore thenceforth the name Gyashima, or 
Great Eight Islands: Honshu, Kyushu, Shi- 
koku, Sado, Tsushima, Oki, and Iki. The 
fact that Hokkaido is not mentioned indi- 
cates that it was unknown to the myth- 
makers, who were naturally unacquainted 
with the more northern limits of the archi- 
pelago. But even in the best regulated 
households there are troubles; and so the 
divine couple at last quarrelled, the husband, 
Izanagi, retiring to the land of Idzumo. 
The incident, though mythical, is no doubt 
based on the fact of the constant collision 
between the insular and the continental im- 



migrants, which was probably a marked 
feature of the early colonisation of the 
islands. When Japanese mythology further 
intimates that Susano-Omikami and his elder 
sister, Amaterasu-Omikami, son and daughter 
of the first divine pair, had a quarrel, like 
the first two offspring of Adam and Eve, the 
brother being driven to Idzumo, as Cain was 
to the land of Nod, it is probably a repetition 
of the first legend, both suggesting the 
monstrous regimen of woman even at that 
early date. In fact, all Japanese mythology 
tends to confirm the conviction that in the 
settlement of the islands the southern im- 
migrants vanquished the northern, which 
renders the nature and origin of the southern 
race a subject of great interest. 

In Japanese mythology the southern race 
is represented as two tribes; the Oyama-zumi, 
or mountain-dwellers, ami the Honosuserino- 
mikoto, or coast men. Doubtless the new- 
comers, being fresh from the parent country, 
were better equipped for war, and drove the 
coast dwellers into the mountains, as the 
Romans did the Britons, and as the English 
colonists did the Indians in America. 

ARCH^OLOGICAL EVIDENCE 
Arch.bology tends to emphasise the truth 
of the above tradition, as well as to throw 
some light on the origin of the races indicated. 
Fragments of pottery known as yayoi are 
supposed to represent the early immigrants 
who came up on the Black Current, as they 
are found chiefly in Kyushu and Shikoku, 
and even as far north as mid- Japan. The 
fact that they have some remote resemblance 
to utensils found in Java and Sumatra affords 
interesting inferences. It is probable, on the 
other hand, that the more recent coast- 
dwellers were of Malayan origin. The name 
Hososuserino-mikoto, by which they are 
referred to in Japanese mythology, means 
"blazing fire," which possibly suggests a 
very warlike temperament. Landing on the 
coasts of the Island of Kyushu, these Malay- 
ans probably made their centre in Satsuma. 
One tribe of these, called the Hayato, seems 
to have worn clothes not unlike those in 
Oceania. They were fond of dancing, and 
were noted rebels, as may be inferred from 
references to them in the legends of old 
Japan. These Kyushu tribes were doubtless 
of large, thickset build, brachycephalic, flat- 
nosed, with thick lips and mouth, examples 
of which can be seen among even the noble 
famiUes of Satsuma to-day. 

As to the tribes that came over by way 
of Tsushima and settled on the Idzumo 
coast, it is evident that they also varied to a 
considerable extent, and had their clans, the 
chief of which were the Idzumo people who 
make Susano-Omikami, son of Izanagi and 



28 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Izanami, their ancestor. There was also a 
tribe known as the Tajima, headed by 
Amano-hibokotono-mikoto, and another tribe 
called the Tenson. It is obvious that the 
Idzumo tribe came from Korea, as may be 
inferred from the legends recorded in the 
ancient fudoki, or provincial oflficial records 
of Idzumo, where it is said that Susano-O 
went to Korea. This people most probably 
had acquired a considerable degree of 
culture before immigrating to the islands, 
associated, as they must have been, with 
the civilisation of China, and skilled in 
metallurgy, weaving, and agriculture. 
Amano was possibly the son of a Korean 
king of Shiragi. The tribe which he led to 
the shores of Idzumo no doubt came into 
collision with the tribes already there, as 
did the Danes and Saxons in Britain, and 
after much strife they were in turn very 
likely brought into subjection to the Tenson 
people, the superior of all the other tribes 
in spirit, skill, and general civilisation. 
This race was of Mongolian or Palasian 
stock, dolichocephalic, of slender stature, 
with long face and nose, and small mouth. 
Japanese scientists are not quite agreed 
as to whether the superior race came from 
the north or the south. There is good author- 
ity for beheving that the insular and con- 
tinental tribes which peopled the north 
coast of Kyushu were of quite superior 
stock, estabhshing a sea kingdom known as 
the Wadatsumi, there being no archaeological 
remains to show that this tribe settled in 
the south of the island. Moreover, the cult 
of phallic worship which persisted for so 
many centuries in Japan, and is not even 
yet quite extinct, coincides remarkably with 
similar ctdts in Borneo, and no doubt had its 
rise in Polynesia, spreading over India, 
Phoenicia, Greece, Egypt, and other countries. 
The mathematics of Japanese mythology also 
suggests a southern origin. In ancient Japan 
they had a system of counting by eight, 
which probably arose from omitting the 
thumbs when counting on the hands, a 
custom which exists in Borneo where a 
sacred value is attached to the number eight. 
Also in many ways Japanese physiognomy 
resembles that of the natives of the Philip- 
pines and the Tonga Islands. The customs 
of colouring the teeth and of cockfighting 
which prevailed in Japan were of Polynesian 
origin. The architecture of the two races is 
also somewhat alike, especially in thatching 
and the elevation of the floor and general 
openness. These facts, of course, do not 
tend to discredit the fact of immigration 
from Korea to Idzuma from which direction 
the more superior of the Japanese race 
probably came, especially the Tenson, which 
some Japanese regard as the imperial race. 



iJ 






vv 



■1<- 



■^ -^iS' 



r 







SHIIR.\ MIO-JIX, ONE OF THE .\NCIENT GODS. 

FROM A PAINTING IN THE IMPERIAL MUSEUM, 

TOKYO 

On the whole it seems safe to conclude 
that the southern and northern streams of 
immigration clashed and struggled until 
fusion was finally complete and that unity 
achieved which now characterises the people 
of Japan. It cannot be denied, however, 
that the uniformity is not so complete as to 
have wholly obliterated the original diver- 
gences of race and tribe, for reversion to 
type is common, and enters even into politics 
and caste in modern Japan. Archeology 
further reaffirms the tradition of the Japanese 
and the Ainu as to the existence of cave- 
dwellers, or earth-spiders, who inhabited the 
islands before the Ainu and their conquerors, 
and who were of a culture approaching that 
of the neolithic period. The kitchen remains 
and stone implements found simultaneously 
in Japan, Saghalien, and the Amur region 
show that a similar culture prevailed in all 
these countries, suggesting the northern 
origin of the Ainu and their predecessors, 
though such high authorities as Dr. Gordon 
Monroe think the Ainu may have had a 
more southern origin. One must at least 
infer that the Ainu conquered the cave- 
dwellers or real aborigines, and were in turn 
themselves conquered by the Yamato. Thus 
the Japanese race is a mixture of Mongolian, 



Annamese, Malayan, Javan, and Indonesian 
bloods, though their philological relations are 
chiefly with the continent of East Asia. 

D.\WN OF EMPIRE 
Most of the tales with regard to the es- 
tablishment of the Empire and its first ruler 
must be regarded as mythical, though un- 
doubtedly there are some substrata of truth 
in them. Although there are no authentic 
historical records before the sixth century 
A. D., the Japanese believe that their 
Empire has enjoyed an unbroken and in- 
dependent history of 2,570 years. While 
this obviously requires more faith in mythol- 
ogy than the modern world is prepared to 
approve, archaeology affords ample ground 
for inferring that Japanese history and civil- 
isation extend far behind the nation's written 
records. The numerous objects of highly 
developed art and utility that have come 
down to us from prehistoric time in Japan 
suggest at once a state of society so well 
advanced that it must have had its origin 
centuries before the beginning of recorded 
annals. When objects indicating a highly 
evolved stage of civilisation are found in the 
Japan of the seventh century it is not too 
much to suppose them the fruits of a social 
system that had birth at least a thousand 
years before. Yet it must not be forgotten 
that Japanese civilisation, like the national 
system of writing, came for the most part 
ready-made from China, and soon dominated 
the semi-civilised tribes crowding upon the 
shores of the archipelago from the continent 
and the islands of the Pacific. Consequently 
the Yamato civilisation developed much more 
rapidly than it could have done unaided. 

The Kojiki, or Record of Ancient Matters, 
is the oldest of Japan's historical records, but 
nevertheless mostly of a mythical nature; 
yet it very probably has some grain of histor- 
ical truth in the assertion that the first 
emperor was the direct descendant in the 
fifth generation of the Sun Goddess, Ama- 
terasu Omikami. His original home is in- 
dicated as at the base of Mount Takachiho, 
in the Province of Hyuga in Kyushu, whither 
his ancestors had descended from on high. 
He led an expedition northward; and after 
many long travels by sea and land, including 
some miraculous adventures, he reached the 
land of Yamato in central Japan where 
Kyoto now stands, establishing his capital 
at a place between Osaka and Nara. There 
he reigned seventy-five years, at last passing 
away at the age of one hundred twenty-seven. 
Divested of its mythical elements this prob- 
ably means that the first ruler was the chief 
of a body of immigrants which landed in 
Kyushu; and having established a base on 
the island, finally pushed authority as far 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



29 




IRON HELMET RECOVERED FROM DOLMEN IN 

YECHIZEN PROVINCE. IN THE 

IMPERIAL MUSEUM, TOKYO 

north as the central portion of Honshu, 
meeting the men from Idzumo on the way. 
The first chieftain, like the vikings of Europe, 
was undiscouraged by storms and other 
dangers, but jiroceeded on his way, laying 
waste the land and exterminating the Ainu 
and the tsuchi-guma wherever they opposed 
his march, until he met and overcame the 
more highly civilised tribes of the north. 
After the establishment of the capital at 
Kashiwabara in Yamato the prowess of the 
conquerors was chiefly bent on subduing the 
Ainu and other northern savages, who in- 
habited inaccessible places and stubbornly 
contested every step of the imperial advance. 
Since archsological remains of the Ainu are 
found as far south as Kyushu it is supposed 
that they one time inhabited the whole of 
the archipelago and were driven north by 
the immigrants. But who the Ainu are and 
whence they came remains an unsolved 
problem, in spite of extensive research. A 
study of their language, as compared with 
that of Japan, shows that the two tongues 
have but little in common, though mutually 
borrowing from each other. The traditions 
of the Ainu themselves indicate a northern 
origin. Up the rivers and bays of the 
islands they came two thousand years ago 
in their rude dugouts, and assaulted the 
heights occupied by the unknown race now 
extinct. They won their way south until 
they met the Yamato and so were finally 
turned back by the legions of Jimmu Tenno. 
It is clear, however, that through the seventh 
and eighth centuries they were still not fully 
subdued, as expeditions were often sent 
against them. Indeed, relations between the 
Yamato and tlie Ainu were much the same as 
those prevailing to-day between the Japanese 
and the savages in Formosa, or as between 
the Romans and Picts in ancient Britain. 

EARLY CIVILIS.\TION 
The state of civilisation prevailing in 
Yamato from the days of Jimmu Tenno 



down to the beginning of recorded history 
in the sixth century A. D. may be inferred 
from the Kojiki, the Nihongi and other 
ancient chronicles, whose mythical nature 
need not nullify their evidence as to the 
current condition of society. The Yamato 
of the mythic period long knew how to work 
in iron, for they made swords and lances 
and other objects of metal. One of the 
southern tribes had bronze implements, 
some of which have been found in archaeolog- 
ical remains. Though pestle and mortar, 
scythe and shuttle, are mentioned, nothing 
is said of the saw and axe which must have 
been quite as common. There is mention of 
houses, temples, palaces and other buildings, 
which appear to have been along the banks 
of rivers and the seacoast. Ropes seem to 
have been used in place of nails, as is still 
often the custom in Japan, even for fastening 
together the frames of houses, of which the 
floors were on a level with the ground, afford- 
ing access to reptiles and other creeping 
things. The roof was of straw thatch in 
which an opening was left for smoke to 
escape. Houses had windows and skin mats, 
doors had hinges, and there is mention of 
silk. Cleanliness was apparently regarded 
as important, bathing being common. The 
main food was meat, fish and rice, but beans, 
millet, and barley are also mentioned. 
Food was served in pottery or on leaves. 
Dress showed some degree of elegance, and 
included jackets, loose trousers, girdles, hats, 
bracelets, and necklaces, the material of 
clothing being chiefly hemp or bark. Horses 
and domestic fowls were kept, and the 
cormorant was used for fishing. There is 
no reference to cats, pigs, or sheep. The 
orange is mentioned as having come from 
the land of eternity. The people as yet 
knew nothing of tea, fans, porcelain, lacquer, 
carriages, chronology, money, medicine, or 
letters. They made no difference, as many 
Japanese still do, between blue and green; 
and there was no difference between the word 
for sister and for wife, as marriage with 
sisters was common, especially if she were 
the child of a different mother, as must often 
(or perhaps always) have been the case in 
a polygamous society. The custom still 
prevails in Siam. There was no marriage 
ceremony; and a citizen could have as many 
wives as he liked. Burial was conducted 
with due ceremony; and the house of a 
deceased master was abandoned. Coffins 
were of wood; and frequently the retainers 
of great personages were buried alive with 
their masters, the heads being left above the 
earth. This custom prevailed down to 70 
A. D., when clay figures were substituted for 
living forms. But the idea of it being the 
duty of the dependent to die with the 



master still obtains in Japan, as was seen 
in the action of the late General Baron Nogi, 
who deliberately took his life to depart with 
the late Emperor Meiji. In the later ages 
of mythical Japan the dead were interred in 
dolmens, many of which yet remain to in- 
dicate the state of civilisation contempo- 
raneous with them. Some of these dolmens 
are of gigantic proportions and of a megalithic 
construction that puzzles the mind of the 
modern engineer to know how such mono- 
liths were lifted into place. In these dol- 
mens are found fragments of pottery, bronze 
harness decorations, bronze mirrors, and 
gold rings. Treachery and dishonesty appear 
to have marred the social and moral life of 
the ancient Yamato, examples of which are 
numerous in the ancient chronicles. 

(B) THE YAMATO EMPIRE 

B. C. 660 to 794 A. D. 

CONSOLIDATING THE INFANT EMPIRE 
In Japanese history, even after the veil of 
legend has been lifted and tradition begins 
to assume a more tangible form there is still 
a remarkable absence of reliable data by 
which the ancient heroes can be disrobed of 
the myths that enshroud them. As has 
already been indicated, according to the 




IRON CUIRASS RECOVERED FROM A DOLMEN 

IN VECHIZEN PROVINCE. IN THE 

IMPERIAL MUSEUM, TOKYO 

ancient chronicles, Jimmu Tenno, the first 
emperor, set up his capital at Kashiwabara 
in Yamato whence he subdued the tribes of 
the neighbouring districts. He was the 
founder of the imperial dynasty that still 
rules Japan, of which the present Emperor 
Yoshihito, is the 122nd in direct succession. 
Jimmu means "Prime War Spirit," and 
Tenno means "King of Heaven," and every 
emperor of Japan has the latter title. As 



30 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



imperial palladia the first emperor left to 
his successor the three divine symbols given 
him by the divine ancestors; the sacred 
mirror, the sacred sword, and the sacred 
jewel, which each ruler of Japan has since 
received in turn, and without which no one 
can ascend the imperial throne of the nation. 
The three sacred treasures were handed down 
in order by the succeeding ten emperors; but 
in the reign of Sujin Tenno facsimiles of them 
were made, and the originals deposited in the 
imperial shrine erected at Ise, which was 
built in honour of Tensho Daijin, the pos- 
thumous name of the ancestor who first con- 
ferred the sacred treasures on the Imperial 
House. This shrine thenceforth became the 
central altar of worship for the whole Empire, 
as it stUl is, thousands making pilgrimages 
to it from all parts of the country. The 
tenth emperor, Suiin Tenno (b. c. 90 to 30), 
like Jimmu Tenno, was a remarkably en- 
lightened sovereign, who subdued his foes, 
promoted civilisation and first introduced a 
system of irrigation for rice fields, as well as 
instituted ta.xation and regular religious wor- 
ship. In his reign, for the first time, Japan 














ONE OF THE FINEST -VND OLDEST SPECIMENS 
OF ANCIENT JAP.^NESE ARMOUR, TRADI-- 
TIONALLY SAID TO HAVE BEEN' WORN BY 
GENERAL MINAMOTONO YOSHIIJE 



came into contact with Korea, then under 
the suzerainty of China. The peninsula at 
that time was divided into various petty 
kingdoms, one of which appealed to Yamato 
for aid against oppression from the north. 
The Yamato empire sent an envoy to inter- 
view the offender and his mission was success- 
ful, which shows the respect in which the 
Yamato country was held at that period. 
The kingdom of Mimana offered compen- 
sation for aggression on its southern neigh- 
bour by sending tribute to Yamato, and 
thus began a dependency which extended to 
other Korean states, and was the seed which 
sowed the policy leading to the annexation 
of the peninsula 1942 years later. The 
succeeding emperor, Suinin, (b. c. 29 to 70 
A. D.), distinguished his reign by constructing 
great rice warehouses and abolishing the 
cruel custom of having retainers buried alive 
with the body of their master. The Emperor 
Keiko (71 to 130 a. d.) was an active 
prince who had much to do with suppressing 
the Kumaso tribe in Kyushu, in which war 
his younger son. Prince Yamatodake, became 
a great hero, whose name still lives in national 
legend. He it was who also subdued the 
Yemishi tribes of the northern plains between 
Yedo Bay and the mountains of Nikko, in 
fact the whole kwanto countr\'. In crossing 
the Bay of Sagami he lost his beautiful wife, 
Tachibana Hime, who flung herself into the 
angry sea to appease the wrath of Kompira 
(Neptune) and aUay the waves that threat- 
ened to engulf her husband's boat, thus 
becoming a perpetual example to faithful 
wi\-es and earning the veneration of all 
Japanese women, her statue being a con- 
spicuous ornament in the capital of Japan. 

EXPEDITION TO KOREA 
In the reign of the fourteenth emperor, 
Chuai (191 to 200 A. D.), the tribal im- 
migrants in Kyushu raised another insur- 
rection and the emperor himself led an 
expedition against them, accompanied by 
his consort, the beautiful Jingo-kogo, famed 
for her piety and intelligence. She con- 
ceived the idea of pushing the expedition 
to Korea, which her lord declined to favour, 
but as he soon died, she undertook to lead 
the invasion of the peninsula herself in 
person, which she successfully did, to the 
dismay of the Korean kingdoms, all of which 
yielded and consented to pay tribute to 
Japan. This further contact of Japan with 
Korea made the peninsula a regular medium 
of communication with China, whence the 
ci\alisation and art of that country now 
steadily found their way into the Yamato 
empire, changing its language, laws, and 
industry. This tendency was further pro- 
moted by the Emperor Ojin (270-310 a. d.) 




ARMlU'R USED BY KUSUNOKl MASASHIGE, IX 
THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 

who was son of the Empress Jingo, and who 
drew slaves from Korea and imported 
horses, arms, miners, smiths, weavers, and 
teachers from China. On account of his 
martial prowess this emperor has been 
apotheosized as Hachiman, the god of war, 
with numerous temples still throughout the 
Empire, succoring the souls of all Japanese 
who fight for their country. During the 
reign of Nintoku Tenno (311-399 A. d.) 
were made the first experiments in the breed- 
ing of silkworms in Yamato; and the reign 
was further distinguished for liberal remission 
of taxation and encouragement of rice cul- 
tivation as well as by construction of roads. 
An expedition had to be sent to Korea to 
insist on keeping up payment of tribute, and 
another revolt 01 the Yeraislii tribes had to 
be stemlj' put down. Succeeding rulers for 
some time appear to have been of little im- 
portance, save as they weakened the Yamato 
empire by their sensual inclinations and 
general effeminac}-, loosening the ties with 
Korea. The whole of the fifth century seems 
to have been given to frequent revolts and 
dynastic changes, or to quarrels with Korea. 

IXTRODUCTIOX OF Bl'DDHIS.M 
With the advent of Buddhism in the early 
part of the sixth century a change for the 
better came over the government and 
country. The religion of Yamato was 
Shinto, the Way of the Gods; but as the 
gods, or kami, were only the national an- 
cestors, not a very lofty ideal could have 
been before the people for worship and 
emulation; and consequently society neither 
morally nor mentally much improved. 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



31 



Buddhism, while not introducing a much 
more definite or rational thcogony, yet 
brought more humane ways of life and civil- 
isation, as well as some measure of the art 
and culture it had given to India and China. 
Buddhist statues appear to have reached the 
land of Yamato before the religion they 
represented. The first image of Buddha 
reached the country in the reign of the 
Emperor Ketai (507-5,^1 A. D.) as a gift 
from a king of Korea. By the year 552 the 
new religion began to inculcate its doctrines 
through missionaries from Korea. An image 
which the king of Korea sent to the Emperor 
Kinmei (540-571 A. D.) seems to have 
created considerable commotion in the 
religious world of Yamato; for the king of 
Korea praised the new religion, recounting 
the wonders it had wrought for his country 
and commending it to His Majesty of 
Yamato, with accompaniments of mission- 
aries, books, and altar ornaments; but the 
strange faith met with spirited opposition 
from the e.\ponents of Shinto, who feared it 
would offend the national gods and bring 
calamity on the Empire. The emperor 
appears to have taken a more liberal view 
and not to have assumed a partisan attitude 
either way. He was, however, obliged to 
make peace by handing over the objection- 
able image to an officer of the court who had 
gone over to the Buddhist faith, in whose 
hands it became a Ijasis of Buddhist propa- 
ganda. Thereafter the emperor contented 
himself with requesting the king of Korea 
to send to Yamato physicians, soothsayers, 
and chronologists instead of Buddhist mis- 
sionaries and their paraphernalia. 

Through the whole of the sixth century 
apparently there were incessant petty quarrels 
among the kingdoms of Korea, Mimana, 
and Korai finally getting the best of it and 
in turn invoking the aid of Yamato, sending 
valuable presents which the Yamato chron- 
iclers describe as tribute. Meanwhile the 
Buddhist religion continued to make headway 
and take firm root in Yamato, although the 
adherents of Shinto ascribed all fires, earth- 
quakes, and national calamities to the anger 
of the old gods on account of jealousy 
against the new. The progress of the new 
faith seems to have been due for the most 
part to the tact of the Buddhist missionaries 
in hitting upon a policy of compromise in 
which the new gods were represented as 
being really the Shinto gods under other 
names, to prove which they welcomed many of 
the Shinto deities into the Buddliist pantheon 
or gave the Buddhist gods Shinto names. 

BEGINNING OF CHINESE INFLUENCE 
In the reign of the Emperor Sushun 
(560-592 A. D.) the king of Kudara in 




BELL-SHAPED BRONZES RECOVERED FROM 

DOLMEN. VERY ANCIENT SPECIMENS OK 

METAL WORK IN JAPAN. NOW IN 

THE IMPERIAL MUSEUM 

Korea sent over to Y'amato temple archi- 
tects, wood workers, painters, priests, Bud- 
dhas, and relics; and when the Empress 
Suiko came to the throne in 593 she openly 
declared herself in favour of the new religion 
and thus gained it a wider admission. This 
led to more intimate relations with the 




BRONZE HALBERT AND DAGGER RECOVERED 

FROM DOLMEN. NOW IN THE 

IMPERI.\L MUSEUM 



Korean kingdoins and especially with China. 
Now came to Yamato knowledge of paper- 
making, ink, and millstones, as well as music. 
This empress further introduced the elabo- 
rate ceremonies of the Chinese court with 
all its rigidly maintained subordination of 
class and rank. The Empress Suiko ruled 
through her adopted son, Prince Shotoku, as 
regent; and as he was a devoted disciple of 
Buddha the religion made great progress 
under his auspices. At his death there were 
no less than 46 temples, 816 priests, and 569 
monks in the country. Upon the demise of 
the good empress internecine strife arose 
over the succession and continued until the 
Emperor Kotoku ascended the throne in 662, 
after which time Yamato came still more 
under the influence of China. Chinese titles 
of rank, such as Daijin (Great Minister), 
Sadaijin (Great Left Minister), Udaijin 
(Great Right Minister), and Naidaijin (Great 
Inside Minister) came into use for the first 
time, and the country was divided into 
provinces after the fashion of Chinese ter- 
ritory. The custom of burying retainers 
alive with their dead masters, which had 
been revived with the growing laxity of 
society in previous reigns, was now sternly 
prohibited. The Emperor Tenji (662-670 
A. D.) further increased • the system of 
Chinese officialism, creating the office of 
Daijodaijin, or Minister President, and made 
his friend Fujiwara Imperial Counsellor, 
next in rank to the Imperial Family. Thus 
began an influence which the Fujiwara 
family retained for centuries, the imperial 
consorts always being taken therefrom; and 
the custom continues even down to to-day, 
the Fujiwara, next to the Imperial Family, 
being the oldest in Japan. In this reign 
China joined some of the Korean kingdoms 
in an expedition against Japanese influence 
in Kudara, when the Yamato garrison was 
driven out and sent home, bringing witli it 
a large Korean immigration. By this time 
Yamato was w'ell under the influence of the 
Buddhist religion; for we find the next Em- 
peror, Temmu Tenno (673-686 A. D.), 
making confession of Buddhist faith obliga- 
tory, and prohibiting the eating of fiesh. 
At this time silver was for the first time 
found in Yamato, on the Island of Tsushima. 
In the succeeding reign, that of the Empress 
Jito (687-696 A. D.), the temples of Buddha 
increased to 545; and tiles were for the first 
time used in roofing houses. Under Mommu 
Tenno (697-707 A. D.) the mulberry was 
cultivated, as well as the lacquer tree, and 
cremation used in disposing of the dead. 
During the rule of the Empress Gemmei 
(708-714 A. D.) the great highway, known 
ever since as the Nakasendo, was constructed 
through Mino and Shinano; and copper 



32 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



mines were discovered and worked in Mu- 
sashi. It was in this reign that the Kojiki, 
the first written annals of the Empire, were 
compiled, followed in the next reign, that of 
the Empress Gensho (715-723 A. D.), by 
the issue of the Nihongi, the second oldest 
source of Japanese history. Through the 
reign of the Emperor Shomei (723-748 A. D.) 
expeditions were carried on by Fujiwara 
Umakai against the northern savages, the 
frontal barrier of the Empire being pushed 
as far as the present Sendai. Chinese 
learning at this period poured into Yamato; 
and a Japanese who had lived long in China 
introduced a sj-stem of syllabic writing 
known as the katakana, used ever since. 

The next four sovereigns of Yamato did 
little worthy of record; but the reign of the 
Emperor Kwammu (782-807 \. D.) opened 
a very important chapter in the history of 
the Empire. He was a ruler of unusual in- 
telligence and application, directing all 
departments of government with efficiency 
and success. He built for himself a new 
thv on the banks of the River Kamo which 



he called Kyoto, and removed thither the 
capital from Nara. By this time Buddhist 
superstition seems to have taken full posses- 
sion of society; for it was believed that the 
approach of devils would always be from 
what was called the devil's gate toward the 
northeast of the new city; and consequently 
the sovereign had a great new temple erected 
at Mount Hiyei to keep watch and ward 
over the capital, by reciting sutras and 
be -it ng drums to keep away the evil spirits; 
which explains why Heiyeizan has been held 
sacred through succeeding generations. 
Expeditions against the northern tribes had 
to be undertaken in this reign also. Indians 
wrecked on the coasts of Yamato brought 
cotton seed to the islands for the first time; 
but the cultivation of the plant did not 
succeed and it had to be reintroduced later 
from China. 

Thus closes a period of more than a 
thousand years of Yamato history in which 
the chief events were the nation's increasing 
intimacy with Korea and China and the 
influence of Buddhism on Yamato civilisa- 



tion. Both Buddhism and Chinese influence 
instilled into the Japanese that reverence for 
ceremonialism and "red tape" from which it 
has not yet recovered, and led to an effem- 
inacy of spirit that devoted more attention 
to sensuous ease and inner refinement than 
to the sterner \'irtues which manly discipline 
demands. Manners became morals, and 
etiquette more important than character. 
The world was essentially evil and all good 
lay in forsaking it or commanding supreme 
influence in it. Government was for the 
most part a system of rivalry between great 
families, while society was marked by love 
of ease and art, with the masses in poverty 
and ignorance. With the firm implantation 
of Chinese influence distinction between 
soldiers and civilians became more marked. 
The Mikado no longer took his place at the 
head of his battalions, but relegated that 
authority to successful warriors, giving rise 
to three great rival families, the Fujiwara, 
the Taira, and the Minamoto, who figure 
prominently in succeeding history. The 
monarch having thus abandoned direct 




THE I.MPERI.M, PAL.^CE, TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



33 



connection with active government, lived 
in seclusion with his court nobles, whilst 
the military class thus created developed a 
serving class known as samui-ai who fought 
for their masters, paving the way for the 
final introduction of feudalism. The Fuji- 
wara family, through supplying consorts to 
the rulers, ultimately had the upper hand 
with the imperial court, and allotted the 
supreme military command to members of 
the Minamoto or the Taira clan. 

(C) PERIOD OF FAMILY DESPOTISM 

7Q4 to 1603 A. D. 

THE FUJIWARA BUREAUCRACY 

The Fujiwara family, which derived its 
infliRnce from having been reputed friends 
of the first emperor, Jimmu Tenno, as the 
years went on occupied a position of in- 
creasing importance in the government of 
the country, always being in close relation 
with the imperial court, supplying the em- 
peror with his consort and the government 
with counsel. For centuries this family hail 
command of all the higher civil offices, and 
there, as well as in the intrigues of the court, 
they developed their main activity. As the 
mothers and wives of the IVIikados were all 
Fujiwara, and the princesses of the blood 
were almost all married to members of that 
family, its influence was on every side en- 
hanced and established beyond question. 
The Emperor Saga (810-823 a. d.) sup- 
planted his brother Heizei Tenno who after- 
ward conspired against him. He set free 
many important Yemishi prisoners who had 
been taken in war and allotted land to them; 
and also introduced the cultivation of the 
tea shrub, beside doing what he- could to 
stay the degeneration of the Buddhist priest- 
hood. His reign was marked by frequent 
earthquakes and floods which enabled the 
ruler to cooperate with the rich in alleviating 
the misery of the people. The reign of Junna 
Tenno (824-833 A. D.) suflfered from further 
distress in consequence of draught and in- 
fectious diseases. The next emperor, Nim- 
mio Tenno (834-851 A. D.), was a ruler of 
great independence and intelligence, pro- 
moting agriculture and protecting the poor, 
for whom he built almshouses, reducing the 
income of the rich to get the necessary 
funds; but after his death succeeding rulers 
failed to exercise similar control, and the 
Fujiwara placed a child on the throne, 
themselves taking the regency. Lacking in 
military qualities, they were unable to keep 
down the savages, giving the Taira and Mina- 
moto clans the opportunity to rise to superior 
positions. A member of the Fujiwara 
family during the next reign managed to 
raise himself to the place of Kwanpaku, or 
Chief of State, who was really regent, as the 



ruler was thenceforth scarcely more than a 
puppet. At this time pirates from Korea 
ravaged the coasts of Japan, probably in 
revenge for .similar raids by the Japanese 
<m Korea, but were finally driven off. During 
the reign of the Emperor Uda (888-897 
a. d.), the Fujiwara had an influential rival 
in the person of Sugawara Michizane, famous 
for his erudition and piety and one time 
tutor to the emperor, and liim they now 
wislied to oust. The Fujiwara obliged the 
reigning emperor to abdicate, placing on the 
throne a child of twelve, Daigo Tenno, who 
reigned until 930 a. d., and then banished 
Sugawara to exile in Kyushu where he died 
in misery. The noble spirit of Sugawara 
Michizan^ has been deified as Tenjin, with 
temples in many parts of the country, and 
worshipped as a supreme example of loyalty. 




THE OLD TOKUGAWA TOMB, ATAGO HILL, 
TOKYO 



In the time of Shujaku Tenno (931-946 
A. D.), the Fujiwara influence began to wane 
somewhat before the rising families of the 
Taira and Minamoto. A revolution in 
Korea led to the establishment of the king- 
dom of Korai, from which the name "Korea" 
is derived. Taira Masakado in this period 
raised in rebellion against the Fujiwara 
autocracy and attempted to l^ccome inde- 
pendent in the Kwanto region over which 
he was governor, the rebellion being finally 
crushed by the Fujiwara and their influence 
thereby continued. The most sought-after 
position as time went on was that of Sei-i- 
tai-shogun, or Generalissimo who chastises 
the Barbarians, an office created on account 
of the expeditions against the northern 
savages; and the rival candidates for this 
post were now from the Minamoto and the 
Taira clans, both of which traced descent 
from imperial blood. 

RISE OF THE TAIRA AND MIXAMOTO 

CLANS 

/g4 to iigg A. D. 

During the ninth, tenth, and eleventh 

centuries while the Fujiwara still maintained 



its bureaucratic position at court, and the 
Taira ambitions were confined to the south- 
west of the Empire, and those of the Mina- 
moto to the northeast, both winning great 
martial glory, the two houses managed to 
maintain a tolerable understanding; but now 
in their attempts to supplant the Fujiwara 
influence at court they often came into 
collision, and the violence of their enmity 
led to bloody conflict. From 947 to 1 108 
the Fujiwara kept the Mikado under their 
fetters and would allow no intercourse be- 
tween people and sovereign. During this 
period there were Korean raids on the 
Japanese coast, insurrections among the 
savages and even among the Japanese of 
Mutsu, with a menacing increase of insolence 
among the Buddhist bonzes at Heiyeizan. 
In expelling the Korean invaders and in 
quelling the northern rebels the Minamoto 
families had shown themselves warriors of 
the first order. During the reigns of the 
Emperors Shirakawa (1075-1086), Horikawa 
(1086-1108), and Toba (1108-1123) the in- 
solent attitude of the Buddhist monks con- 
tinued. With the dawn of the twelfth 
century feudalism and military despotism 
begin to appear. The influence of the 
Fujiwara is fast waning at court, and quite 
lost in the provinces, where the military 
chieftains are predominant. The authority 
of the Mikado was like an empty "ash box 
of which the Fujiwara carried the key. The 
sword, rather than the court, henceforth 
decided all important questions. For the 
five succeeding centuries conflicts for posses- 
sion of the supreme miHtary power and the 
resultant authority of government devastate 
Japan. No wonder the national historians 
refer to this period as the Dark Age. The 
Emperor Toba tried to prevent the samurai 
of the provinces from flocking to the standards 
of the Minamoto and the Taira, but it was of 
no avail. The rivalry of the two houses 
grew with their sense of self-sufficiency and 
independence. Finally the pent-up rivalry 
between the two great houses burst into a 
conflagration consuming the whole country, 
like the wars of the Guelphs and GhibeUines 
in Italy, or of the Roses in England, only 
the war in Japan lasted for centuries. In 
the first conflict Taira Kiyomori was victori- 
ous and assumed at court an attitude of in- 
solence that outdid even the Fujiwara, treat- 
ing the vanquished Minamoto with great 
cruelty. Yoshitomo, the head of the Mina- 
moto clan, was treacherously assassinated, 
and his son Yoritomo took his place, aided 
bj his half-brother Yoshitsune, both being 
joined later by their cousin Yoshinaka, and 
their forces marched victoriously into Kyoto, 
the emperor welcoming them as his liberator 
from the Taira bondage. Yoshinaga who 



34 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



led this army, proved insolent and indiscreet, 
taking a hostile attitude toward Yoritomo 
whose headquarters were at Kamahura; so 
the latter sent an expedition against him led 
by Yoshitsun^, when Yoshinaga was defeated 
and committed suicide. Yoshitsune followed 
up his victory by pursuing the Taira forces 
southward, finally completely defeating and 
annihilating them in the historic battle of 
Danno-oura near Shimonoseki, 1185 A. D. 
The Taira clan was now cut off root and 
branch, sparing neither age nor sex. In this 
war the character of Yoshitsun^ shone ovit 
above even that of his brother Yoritomo as 
a knight without fear and without reproach, 
which greatly excited the envy of Yoritomo 
who thenceforth sought his brother's death, 
the latter finally dying in exile. Yoritomo 
now marched in magnificence to Kyoto 
where he was received by the Emperor Go- 
Shirakawa, had high civil and military rank 
conferred upon him and then returned in 
contentment to Kamakura, his miUtary 
capital. It was Yoritomo who brought the 
growing feudal system of Japan into its final 
shape; and after the death of the emperor 
he had conferred upon himself the title of 
shogun, which thenceforth became hereditary 
in the Minamoto family. Notwithstanding 
his jealous and cruel disposition Yoritomo 
was a man of great intelligence and firmness 
of character, and did much for the consoli- 
dation and improvement of the national 
government, always showing special deference 
to the imperial court. Time, however, can- 
not pardon him his heartless ingratitude to 
his brother Yoshitsune; and the mistake he 
made in favouring the Hojo family repre- 
senting his wife, led finally to the undoing 
of his own family, the Minamoto. 

THE SHADOW -SHOGUNS 
iiQQ to i:;j4 A. D. 
As the Japanese proverb says, "A brilliant 
general never begets a brilliant son," and 
Yoritomo, when he died at the age of fifty- 
three, left to succeed him a libertine named 
Yoriiye, who was unlike his father in every 
way save physical strength. The youth's 
mother, Masako, consulted with her father, 
Hojo Tokimasa, how best to restrain the 
waywardness of the young shogun; and it 
was decided to persuade him to divide the 
government of the provinces with his younger 
brother, Sanetomo, and his son Ichiman, 
which was only another way of placing the 
power in the hands of the Hojo family, since 
the persons named as governors were still 
but children. The father-in-law of Yoshiiye 
saw through the scheme and had the shogun 
veto it, but Hojo defeated them, had his 
enemies executed, and banished Yoriiye to 



Izu, where he was secretly put to death, 
Sanetomo being appointed his successor. 
Thus at one sweep the Hojo family attained 
the military ascendency once held by Yori- 
tomo and the Minamoto family. In turn 
they acted toward the shogunate, on the 
one hand, and the imperial court, on the 
other, very much as the Fujiwara family had 
done toward the court in the days of old. 
The Hojo treated the shogun as a puppet 
and developed a despotism that threw the 
annihilated Taira clan far in the shade. 
During this period, therefore, when the 
house of Hojo held the regenc^^ despotism 
prevailed, though it cannot be denied that 
some of the twelve regents were men of 



ability and wisdom. The puppet-shogun, 
Sanetomo, was finally assassinated by a 
priest named Kugio, who regarded Sanetomo 
as the murderer of his father; and thus 
ended the main line of the Minamoto 
family. The Imperial Court at Kyoto found 
it impossible to tolerate the Hojo regents 
and the Emperor Toba II determined if 
possible to get rid of them. The imperial 
forces were, however, routed and the emperor 
banished to the Island of Oki, where he 
died in 1229 at the age of sixty. Yoshitoki, 
the representative of the Hojo family, now 
made the Imperial House feel his power, 
deposing emperors and banishing them right 
and left, as well as all who had any sympathy 




-w:*V?>^-.-7.s;.- 



, ,.5rf-^»- -V^^a 



-0' 




FELD.\L C.\STLE AT N.\GOY.\ 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



35 



with the imperial cause. Under succeeding 
regents government grew more and more 
compUcated; and at one time (1260-1274) 
there was a child-regent managing a child- 
shogun, who was supposed to represent a 
child-emperor. During the regency of Toki- 
mune occurred the Mongol invasion of Japan 
under Kublai Khan, whose forces were 
driven back in 1281, a high wind and raging 
sea assisting in the destruction of the enemy. 
It was shortly after this time that Marco 
Polo visited the Chinese capital and learned 
of the untold wealth of Japan. During the 
Hojo regency every Mikado who showed the 
slightest tendency toward independence was 
obliged to abdicate as soon as he came of 
age; and no member of the Fujiwara or 
Minamoto family was allowed to occupy 
the imperial throne. As the absoluteism of 
the Hojo family became more and more in- 
tolerable the court at Kyoto sought further 
opportunity to regain its freedom, though it 
had not forgotten the misfortunes that had 
followed similar attempts on the part of 
pre\'ious sovereigns. But a season of drought 
had led to famine in which the agents of tlie 
Hojo regents had treated the people witli 
cruelty; and this seemed a favourable time 
to declare independence. A celebrated war- 
rior named Kusunoki Masashige collected an 
army in Kawachi and came to the assistance 
of the emperor, joined later by another 
warrior, Ashikaga Takauji, from the north. 
Kamakura was taken and put to the flames, 
many members of the Hojo family falling in 
the struggle. Kyoto was also taken and the 
Minamoto interests were again triumphant, 
as represented by the house of Ashikaga. 

ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS AND 
CHRISTIANITY 
1334 to 1573 
After the fall of the Hojo family the Em- 
peror Go-Daigo made the mistake of dis- 
tributing many of the important offices left 
vacant among unworthy favourites, exciting 
the animosity of the Ashikaga family, which , 
although they themselves had received the 
rich Provinces of Hitachi, Musashi, antl 
Shimosa, were determined to assume a 
position of supreme importance in the 
Empire. The shogun at Kamakura, an 
imperial prince named Moriyoshi, was a 
weakling who neglected to keep the pro- 
vinces in order, and came thus into collision 
with the house of Ashikaga and marched 
against Kamakura where he was welcomed 
in place of Moriyoshi, proclaiming himself 
shogun, though he had many a fight to 
retain the title. Imperial forces were sent 
against liim from Kyoto. Ashikaga set out 
to meet them, crossing over the Hakone 
Pass, where he totally defeated the Kyoto 



army in 1336. Ashikaga then marched on 
the capital, whence the Imperial Court fled 
to Otsu. The famous hero, Kusunoki 
Masashige, again rallied to the rescue of the 
imperial cause, assisted by various loyal 
daimyo and their troops. At first the im- 
perial army was successful, but was later 
defeated on the banks of the Minatogawa 
near Kobe, after which Ashikaga marched in 
triumph to Kyoto, where he placed the son 



even the shores of the neighbouring conti- 
nent. China complained to the Kyoto au- 
thorities and compensation was paid, which 
the Chinese afterward recorded as tribute 
from Japan. The period was marked by the 
rise of powerful daimyo in various provinces, 
who waged relentless warfare with each 
other, conspicuous among whom were Takeda 
of Koshiu and Uyesugi of Echizen, while 
most of the present great families of Japan, 




.\NCIKNT IRON KETTLE AT RENZAN, CHOSE.N (DIMENSIONS: 9 FEET 7 INCHES IN DIAMETER; 
29 FEET IN circumference; I INCH THICK) 



of a former emperor on the throne, tlic real 
emperor, Go-Daigo, having again fled for 
refuge to the monks at Heiyeizan. A 
bargain was struck with the deposed em- 
peror to receive the sacred regalia in order 
to have the Emperor Komyo legally en- 
throned. Receiving encouragement from 
sundry loyalists, the ex-emperor escaped from 
the monastery and issued an edict proclaim- 
ing the Ashikagas to be rebels and outlawing 
them as usurpers. From this time for fifty- 
six years Japan had two rival emperors, 
known in history as the North and South 
Dynasties, producing a state of internecine 
war that deluged the country with blood 
and misery. Takauji Ashikaga watched over 
the imperial interests at Kyoto while his son 
Yoshinori resided as shogun at Kamakura. 
In 1392, during the shogunate of Ashikaga 
Yoshimitsu, the two emperors were recon- 
ciled, the Emperor Komiyama coming from 
Yoshino to Kyoto and handing over the 
regalia to Go-Komatsu. Constitutional wars 
had disorganised the government and im- 
po%'erished the peasantry, while bands of 
robbers marauded the country. The coast 
population was given up to piracy, ravaging 



such as Shimadzu, Hosokawa, Mori, Toku- 
gawa, Takeda, Maeda, and Satake, laid the 
foundation of their power at the same period. 
Toward the end of this period of political 
confusion religion was characterised by the 
dissoluteness of its teachers; and the country 
suffered from famine and pestilence. 

It was on this state of political and moral 
darkness that there now dawned a light from 
the West. The first European to reach 
Japan was a Portuguese named Mendez 
Pinto who was cast ashore on the Island of 
Tanegashima, south of Kyushu, while on a 
voyage from China to the colony at Goa. 
Pinto was kindly received by the officials 
and people, according to his own account, 
and taught them how to make guns and gun- 
powder, at which they proved apt pupils. 
This was about the year 1543. After Pinto 
had finally found his way back to China he 
recounted his profitable experiences in Japan 
to his countrymen, who induced him to set 
out on another expedition to Japan, when he 
was wrecked on the Luchu Islands. The 
trade in arms and ammunition having been 
thus opened with the Portuguese, the latter 
were not slow to take advantage of it and a 



36 



PRESENT-DAV IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



brisk commerce sprang up in that lino, the 
weapons greatly assisting the daimyo in 
their feuds with one another. In the midst 
of this trade with the Portuguese came the 
celebrated missionary Francis Xavier, the 
disciple of Loyola, who landed at Kgoshima 
in 1549, having come all the way from 
Malacca on a Chinese junk with two other 
Jesuits named de Torres and Fernandez, and 
one Japanese, who could speak Portuguese 
and acted as interpreter. Xavier was 
greatly pleased by the Japanese and praised 
them as superior to any Jews or infidels he 
had met. The presence of the foreigners 
with their firearms soon led to jealousy 
among the daimyo who sought such advan- 
tages, and consequently the missionaries were 
obliged to move on to Hirado and Nagato, 
or Choshu, where they established missions. 
In 1550 Xavier proceeded as far north as 
Kyoto, in spite of the dangerous and dis- 
turbed condition of the country. In the 
capital he was disappointed to find nothing 
but confusion and wretchedness in place of 
the splendour reported by Marco Polo. 
Xavier sought audience with the emperor 
and the shogun, but failed on account of the 
poverty of his appearance which rendered 
him contemptible. After a stay of some 
fourteen days, during which he preached in 
vain to the people on the streets, Xavier 
returned to Bungo, where he had various 
controversies with the Buddhist priests, and 
set out for China in 1 55 1 , dying at the mouth 
of the Canton River. The seed which he 
introduced into Japan, however, took root 
and continued to grow, being followed by 
the labours of succeeding missionaries, so 
that within twenty years the number of 
Christians was over 20.000. 

AGE OF USURPERS 
ij/j to 1603 
The second half of the period covering 
the Japanese Middle Ages forms an import- 
ant epoch in Japanese annals, especially in 
regard to the internal changes of the country 
and the development of Christianity with 
consequent persecutions. The three great 
names associated with these movements were 
those of Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and leyasu. 
After the devastating wars and consequent 
misery and defiance of order of the Ashikaga 
era the country was awaiting a man of iron 
hand to restore peace and reestablish the 
social and political fabric; and this man 
proved to be Oda Nobunaga, of Taira de- 
scent, being a great-grandson of Kiyomori. 
Oda showed great prowess in war and soon 
added to his already valuable estates, be- 
coming one of the most powerful feudal lords 
in the Empire. The representatives of the 
Ashikaga interests which he had at first 



espoused, after receiving his assistance, con- 
spired against him, and he deposed the last 
shogun of that house in 1573, leaving the 
office vacant until the rise of Tokugawa 
leyasu in 1603. With the arrival of Oda in 
Kyoto peace and order were restored and 
regular government established. He built 
for himself the palace of Nijo in the west of 
the capital, a building which still remains. 
Oda Nobunaga honestly attempted to govern 
the country in the name of the Mikado, but 
the attitude of the Buddhist priests and the 
more powerful daimyo prevented him. 
Feuda went on between Shimadzu of Sat- 
suma and Mori of Yamaguchi, in the south; 
and between Takcda of Kai and the Hojo in- 
interests in the north. Of the five great 
warriors who sided with Oda, Hideyoshi, 
Shibata, Ikeda, and leyasu attained to wide 
fame and influence. In order to crush the 
Buddhist priesthood Oda favoured the 
Christians, bestowing on them great privi- 
leges and giving them land for their churches. 
In 1 57 1 he despatched forces against the 
Buddhist strongholds at Heiyeizan and Osa- 
ka, reducing them to ashes; and his foremost 
general, Hideyoshi, he sent against Mori of 
Yamaguchi. In the height of his power, 
however, in the year 1582, Oda was assassin- 
ated by one of his generals, named Akechi 
Mitsuhide, in revenge for a slight. Thus in 
his thirty-ninth year ended the life of the 
only man who had the courage and intelli- 
gence to deal with the refractory daimyo and 
tlie degenerate priesthood. His vanity in 



setting up his own statue in a shrine for 
worship and his double dealing in favouring 
the Christians merely in revenge against the 
Buddhist priests, no doubt betray a moral 
weakness that Fate resents. At the time of 
his death the Christians numbered over 
150,000 and their churches more than 200, 
and the new religion included among its ad- 
herents daimyo and men of jjosition. With 
the exception of the names and character of 
the deity the new religion did not seem so 
different from the old, as there were the same 
rosaries and beads, with all the images, altars, 
and general paraphernalia of the temple. 
The foreigners were still favoured chiefly 
because they brought firearms to the country. 
The Christians became so powerful that they 
were able to despatch an embassy to the 
Pope in 1582, reaching Lisbon in 1584, It 
was welcomed at Rome by the Church and 
returned to Japan in 1588, much impressed 
by the might and power of the Church and 
the nations of Europe which it represented. 
After the death of Oda Nobunaga, Hide- 
yoshi returned to the capital, and, with the 
help of leyasu, endeavored to restore order 
and confidence. He suppressed his opponent, 
the lord of Shibata in Echizen, improved the 
plan and fortifications of the capital, and 
laid the foundation of a great city and castle 
at Osaka. In 1586 the emperor made him 
Kwampaku, an office hitherto held only by 
the Pujiwara family. How, with all his 
selfishness, shamelessness, and sensuality he 
could have raised himself from the life of a 



Bm^^i^. _. 


of 




11 








>7l^. '... '&W 


i. 


T 



FRONT COrRTVARD, WITH TRIl'MPH.\L WAV, PErLING, OR NORTH MAUSOLEUM, 
WHERE THE MANCHU EMPERORS WERE BURIED 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



37 



peasant to the most exalted position in the 
gift of tlie throne seems a mystery. He kept 
on the good side of leyasu and had him visit 
the emperor at Kyoto where high honours 
were conferred upon him. Hojo of Oda- 
wara, however, would not acquiesce in like 
proceedings, so Hideyoshi received imperial 
permission to bring Hojo to submission. He 
set out for Odawara Castle at the head of 
170,000 men. The enterprise was crowned 
with success, Ujimasa Hojo was captured 
and executed and Hideyoshi and leyasu 
stood supreme in the Kwanto region. At 
the suggestion of Hideyoshi, leyasu now 
removed his headquarters to Yedo, an in- 
significant village where Ota Dokwan had 
built a castle, and where in 1591 the eight 
provinces of Kwanto presented their com- 
pliments to leyasu, their new feudal lord, on 
New Year's Day. 

For a long time Hideyoshi had contem- 
plated the invasion of Korea; and now that 
he had established peace in the Kwanto 
regions and brought the feudal lords of 
Yamaguchi and Satsuma to see eye to eye 
with him, he began to make preparations 
for the expedition to the peninsular kingdom. 
By despatching insolent embassies which 
were rejected by the Korean authorities, he 
sought pretext for strife; and when his 
great army of 480,000 men was ready, he 
made Konishi, a Christian, one of the 
generals, and the famous warrior, Kato 
Kiyomasa the other. As there was no love 
lost between the two they did not work well 
together; but they landed in Korea, laid 
waste country, demanding of the Koreans 
an open road to China, as Germany did 
through Belgium to France. Meanwhile the 
Japanese fleet which had been left at Fusan, 
was defeated by the Koreans, giving the in- 
vaded country new courage; while the Japa- 
nese had defeated on land not only the 
Koreans but the Chinese army that had 
come to their succour. The terms of peace 
offered by the Japanese were that Korea 
should cede to Japan five out of her eight 
southern provinces; that the emperor of 
China should send one of his daughters to 
Hideyoshi to wife; that China and Japan 
should resume former commercial relations; 
and that both Korea and China should pay 
an annual tribute to the treasury of Japan. 
The Chinese replied simply demanding the 
dismantling of the Japanese fortresses in 
Korea and the withdrawal of the Japanese 
troops, which greatly enraged Hideyoshi. 
One of the trophies brought back by the 
Japanese troops from Korea was the ears 
of all the enemies killed in battle, numbering 
many thousands, salted down for the purpose, 
as it was too inconvenient to bring over 
the heads of the victims- These ears were 



buried in Kyoto and the grave had a stone 
monument set up over it, called Mimidzuka, 
or ear-monument, as a memorial of the con- 
quest of Korea. At first Hideyoshi favoured 
the missionaries, but when he found that they 
interrupted his agents sent out to collect 
beautiful girls for his harem, he took a dis- 
like to them and set up a system of per- 
secution against the Christians. In 1587 he 



the south were on the side of Hideyori, 
which leyasu did not forget after he became 
shogun and held the reins of power. leyasu 
entertained serious suspicions of the inten- 
tions of Hideyori, and his lieutenant Ishida 
Mitsunari, against him, and sought occasion 
to make them show their hand. He 
ordered the great temple of Buddha at Nara 
to be reconstructed and commanded Hide- 



tA.mmm 


.J^^lli 




^|BhH| 


1 i^'-^^mW^^^ 





CHIMPO KINGS TOMB IN KWAZAN, CHOSEN 



issued an edict banishing the Jesuits from 
the country; and when no ship was found 
leaving Japan within the prescribed time, he 
ordered the foreign missionaries to proceed 
to Hirado to wait an opportunity of sailing. 
Persecution extended to the native members 
of the Church who were given the choice of 
renouncing the new religion or leaving the 
country. In spite of persecution the Chris- 
tian forces seemed to grow; and probably 
persecution would have died down had it 
not been for the arrival of the Spanish friars 
from the Philippines, who defied the laws 
and edicts against the Christians and were 
ordered to be crucified at Nagasaki, the 
sentence being rigidly carried out. Ex- 
hausted by his dissolute life Hideyoshi was 
attacked by cholera in 1598 and died in 
September, obliging his vassals, before his 
death, to swear fealty to his son Hideyori, 
especially requesting leyasu, lord of the 
Kwanto regions, to see that his last wishes 
were fulfilled. After the death of Hide- 
yoshi, however, the various daimyo rallied 
around Hideyori on the one side and leyasu 
on the other, and it was evident that a con- 
flict would ensue. The Christian daimyo of 



yori to defray the cost, with the hope of 
thus weakening his finances so that he could 
not use them in conspiracy against leyasu. 
After the work was completed, leyasu found 
fault with an inscription Hideyori had placed 
on the temple bell, which he affected to 
believe wished bad luck for the house of 
Tokugawa. Mitsunari now summoned the 
southern daimyo to rally to the support of 
the son of Hideyoshi; and leyasu resolved to 
lay siege to Osaka Castle as a great point of 
vantage. 

Thus began a war which ended finally 
in the decisive victory of leyasu at the great 
battle of Sekigahara in October, 1600. On 
hearing of the victory of leyasu most of the 
great daimyo, both north and south, sub- 
mitted to him. There was a general redis- 
tribution of estates and offices, after which 
leyasu sent his son Hidetada to Kyoto to 
report to the emperor and to obtain imperial 
sanction for what had been done. In 1603 
leyasu was honoured by the emperor with 
the title of Udaijin, appointed head of the 
Minamoto clan, and made shogun; after 
which he received the homage of all the 
daimyo in his castle at Yedo, 



38 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



(D) THE TOKUGAWA PERIOD 
1600 to 1S68 

THE ERADICATION OF 
CHRISTIANITY 

The establishment of the Tokugawa sho- 
gunate brought to Japan a new era, resulting 
in two hundred fifty years of peace, a state 
very welcome to the people after so many 
centuries of strife. Side by side with a 
further development and consolidation of 
the feudal sj'stem went on an increasing 
aversion to foreigners and a determination to 
eradicate the Christian religion. First of all 
leyasu set about reestablishing peaceful 
relations with Korea and China, in which he 
was successful. After this he retired in 
favour of his son, Hidetada, in the year 
1605, to his mansion at Shidzuoka in Suruga, 
that he might devote his declining days to 
the elaboration of laws for the nation, though 
he never ceased to remain the soul of the 
administration. After his death his body 
was enshrined in a magnificent temple at 
Nikko and his name raised among the gods 
by the emperor. Thus passed away a man 
of remarkable talent and wisdom, who raised 



sionaries to pave the way for her invasion; 
and a Spanish captain wrecked on the coast 
of Japan, being subjected to what he deemed 
unfair treatment, threatened that his king 
would some day make Japan pay for it. 
These things led the shogun to make investi- 
gation into the history and policy of Spain; 
and his suspicions of Spanish policy being 
thereby confirmed, as it seemed to correspond 
with the story told by the Dutch, he resolved 
to banish the Spanish missionaries and to 
suppress their religion. At the time when 
the persecution began there were as many 
as 600,000 Christians in the country; and 
the attitude toward them was cruel in the 
extreme. At first the persecution took the 
form of a ban on Christianity and banish- 
ment of the foreigners and all who adopted 
the new religion; but this failing, severer 
methods were soon resorted to. Most of 
the native Christians remained true to their 
profession and died a martyr's death, as did 
many of the foreign missionaries. The test 
of loyalty to the Empire was willingness to 
renounce Christianity by trampling on the 
crucifi.x. Rather than do this thousands 
went to the stake and the cross, some being 



foreigners were banished from the country 
save the Dutch and Chinese who were per- 
mitted to live on a small island, called 
Dcshima, at Nagasaki. The Shogun lye- 
mitsu was still more persistent in enforcing 
the laws against the Christians, and thousands 
fled to China, Formosa, and the Philippines, 
while those left behind had to go to cruci- 
fixion or the stake. After suffering such un- 
told horrors for twenty years there was a 
rising of Christians in Shimabara in Kyushu, 
when some 30,000 of them were put to the 
sword. In spite of the severe and cruel 
measures enforced for the extermination of 
Christianity it was not wholly accomplished, 
for when the missionaries returned in modern 
times, they found some native Christians 
still at a little place called Urakami near 
Nagasaki. It is but fair to admit that the 
behaviour of the foreigners was in many 
ways sufficient to justify the suspicions of 
the authorities against them. Many of the 
Portuguese and Spanish merchants were 
unprincipled and defiant of law, engaging in 
vice and slavery, while the history of their 
countries in Mexico and the Netherlands, as 
well as the venture of the Spanish armada, 
tended further to warn the bakufu authori- 
ties against allowing them any lease of 
power. 



^sysr - 



^^ 







■V'*'*S*i''- . 



ANCIENT ROYAL TOMB NEAR SINGEN, CHOSEN 



himself from the position of a peasant to a 
place ot supreme power in the councils of 
the Empire. His son, Hidetada, held the 
shogunate to 1623, the most conspicuous 
acts of his regime being the edicts against 
the Christians. The arrival of the Dutch 
merchants at Nagasaki led to further sus- 
picions against the Jesuits. The Dutch 
informed the shogun that Spain had con- 
quered numerous foreign lands, using mis- 



dipped head first into boiling sulphur springs 
until they recanted, which most of them did 
not do. Mothers went to the flames with 
their babes in their arms, choosing fire rather 
than paganism. The churches at the same 
time were everywhere demolished and their 
altars scattered to the winds. In 161 7 
foreign commerce was restricted to Nagasaki 
and all Japanese were forbidden to leave the 
country on pain of death. In 1624 all 



THE LAWS OF lEYASU 
The main aim of the Tokugawa shogunate 
was the security of the Tokugawa family, its 
supremacy of power in the State and the 
maintenance of peace throughout the Em- 
pire. To this end Christianity was banished, 
for safety was supposed to He in ignorance 
and the prevention of thought; and certain 
laws were promulgated clearly establishing 
between classes their mutual duties to one 
another and the State. Emoluments and 
estates were placed in the hands of favourites 
of the Tokugawa family, whose loyalty was 
held firm by constant dependence on the 
Tokugawa shogunate. The proud old prince- 
ly houses of Satsuma and Choshu had thus 
to submit to the collective force of the 
vassals of the shogun; and he placed his 
vassals and spies in all the strategic points 
and outposts of the Empire to prevent mal- 
contents taking any advantage. The laws 
which leyasu formulated for this purpose 
and left to his heirs, known as The Legacy 
of leyasu, held the country in leash for two 
hundred fifty years, and thereby deserve con- 
sideration as an example of mediseval states- 
manship. Based on the five universal duties 
of Confticius, the laws of leyasu dealt with 
relation of subject to sovereign, of serf to 
lord, child to parents, of wife to husband and 
of brothers, sister and friends to each other. 
The family was made the unit of society 



PRESKNT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



39 





FIGURE OF BUDDHA AT MYOKISSHO, KONGO-SAN, CHOSEN, 
HEWN IN SOLID ROCK 



SOME OF THE SEVEN BUDDHIST IMAGES OF KINZAN-JI, 
NEAR KINTEI, CHOSEN 



and the foundation of the State. As the 
laws were not published but made simply 
for the guidance of the government, the 
people were held responsible of duties of 
which they were largely ignorant, knowledge 
of the law, as in ancient Greece, being the 
right only of the priviliged. The code of 
leyasu implied that virtue consisted in 
ol)edience to superiors, and morality lay in 
assiduously observing the law. Life is 
guided by custom rather than by right; and 
as the inferior is absolutely in the hands of 
the superior he has no rights; and conse- 
quently there is no reference to contract, 
personal property, navigation, or trade; but 
much emphasis is laid on punishment for 
crime, and on legal relations between classes 
on etiquette, rank, precedence, administra- 
tion, and government. Private revenge was 
recognised and provided for; an e)'e for an 
eye and a tooth for a tooth. Society was 
divided into four classes: the imperial family, 
the court nobles, the feudal lords, and the 
common people. Advantage was taken of 
belief in the divinity of the em])cror to keep 
the sovereign strictly secluded from the 



people, that he might know nothing of their 
condition and take no inconvenient interest 
in public affairs. Through the course of 
centuries this policy, started by the Fuji- 
wara, developed by the Taira and Minamoto 
clans and brought to its logical conclusion 
under the Tokugawa shoguns, caused the 
court and the court nobility to lose their 
influence in the State until finally all power 
was in the hands of the military chieftains 
of which the shogun was now the head. The 
daimyo, of which there were more than two 
hundred fifty, had to have mansions in the 
shogun's capital where they were obliged to 
reside with their families at least six months 
out of each year, presenting themselves 
annually to take the oath of homage before 
the shogun; and when they left Yedo they 
had to leave their wives and families behind 
as hostages. Each daimyo was like a sov- 
ereign within his own estates, having an 
army of samurai and soldiers to do his 
bidding, as well as endless numbers of petty 
officials; while all the daimyo were bound by 
pledges of fealty to the shogun, through 
whom alone they could approach the em- 



peror deep in the shadow at Kyoto. Outside 
the pale were the toiling millions living in 
ignorance and poverty. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
TOKUGAWA ERA 

About the year 1600 Dutch ships first 
appeared in the waters of Japan; and from 
that time onward ships of the Dutch East 
India Company began to cultivate a thriving 
trade, being welcomed in place of the banished 
Spanish and Portuguese of whom they were 
the avowed enemies. Their activities, how- 
ever, were confined to the Island of Deshima 
at Nagasaki, the only open port after the 
edict excluding foreigners. On one of these 
Dutch ships came the Englishman, Will 
Adams, who was so highly thought of that 
he was detained in the country as foreign 
adviser to the shogun who heaped upon him 
wealth and honours until his death in 1620 
when a fine monument was erected to his 
memory. Ships from England under the 
auspices of the East India Company came 
to Japan in 1613; and a factory, or trade 
station, was opened at Hirado. Captain 



40 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



John .Saris brought a letter from King James 
I, and was warmly received, being granted 
a charter to trade where he pleased on equal 
terms with the Dutch. Leaving Captain 
Cocks in charge, Saris returned to England 
to report his experiences; but owing to the 
jealousy of the Dutch the British factory was 
not a success and had to be given up. Eng- 
lish traders did not venture to the coasts of 
Japan again until 1673 when they were again 
unsuccessful on account of the war with 
Holland ; but Captains Beechy and Broughton 
deserve mention as having explored the 
northern coasts of Japan later, while the 
French mariner, La Perouse, circumnavigated 
the northern coasts, discovering the straits 
named after him, and Vries the Island of 
Oshima. Russia also came into unsuccessful 
contact with Japan during this period. All 
trade was confined to Deshima; and the 
annual turnover is reported to have totalled 
as much as £660,000. Enormous quantities 
of gold were taken out of the country every 
year, the Japanese not realising the value of 
their coin, which was almost pure; but the 
shogun placed a ban on exports of gold later. 
The chief of the Dutch factory at Deshima 
had to present himself before the shogun 
once a year with presents, making the 
journey to Yedo in state like a daimyo. 
Thus for one hundred fifty years the Dutch 
colony at Nagasaki was the port of entry 
for Western knowledge to the Empire of 
Japan; and as the Dutch always had men of 
learning among them, such as Kaempfer and 
von Siebold, Western science, medicine, art, 
and letters found their way into the country, 
many of the young Japanese learning the 
Dutch language and mastering works written 
in Holland. 

REOPENING OF JAPAN 
In process of time succeeding shoguns 
ceased to inherit the political capacity and 
energy of leyasu and the machinery of state 
was left to officials and their officers until the 
shogim became a mere administrative cipher 
like the sovereign. Relieved of all anxiety 
as to the security and permanency of their 
dynasty the shoguns devoted their time to 
lives of ease and pleasure. Meanwhile the 
wrongs and injustices suffered by great 
families like the Satsuma and the Choshu 
clans, through several generations, had not 
been forgotten, and they now only awaited 
a favourable memont to assert their old 
liberties. The opportunity came with the 
arrival of the American fleet under Commo- 
dore Perrv' in Yedo Bay in 1853, bringing a 
letter from President Fillmore requesting a 
treaty of amity with Japan. American 
whalers cast ashore in Japan had been 
cruelly treated, often mtirdered, and the 



American government was determined to 
put a stop to it; which accounts for Perry's 
persistence in refusing to return home with- 
out a treaty. He delivered the document 
and sailed away, promising to return in a 
year for an answer, which he did, ultimately 
obtaining a treaty guaranteeing safety to 
sailors of his country and safe anchorage for 
American shijjs in certain harbours. The 
arrival of the American fleet created con- 
sternation throughout Japan. For the first 
time every one realised the military impo- 
tency of the nation and the uselessness of 
opposing foreigners. The treaty obtained 
by Perry was amplified by Townsend Harris 
who came as the first consul-general of the 
LTnited States; and in 1859 similar treaties 
were secured by Great Britain and France. 
Settlements of foreigners were now estab- 
lished at Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Hako- 
date in which trade was aggressively carried 
on; and thus the portals of the long-secluded 
land of the gods had been broken and the 
foreigner free to occupy the sacred soil of 
Nippon. When Harris requested that an 
American minister should be allowed to re- 
side in Yedo the shogun was more puzzled 
than ever, and had to refer the matter to 
the Imperial Court at Kyoto, which showed 
the great families how helpless was the 
shogunate in the face of such a situation. 
In the midst of divided counsel at Kyoto 
the shogun granted the foreign petition, 
creating a tremendous agitation against 
foreigners and especially against the sho- 
gunate. The old shogun died; and, as a 
youth was appointed to succeed him, affairs 
of state were in the hands of the great 
Prime Minister li-Kamon, who had the 
opponents of the bakufu and its policy 
arrested and banished, and some of them 
executed; which aroused the anger of the 
nation still further, and the prime minister 
was assassinated. In the ensuing commotion 
government was set at nought and lawless- 
ness prevailed, the lives of foreigners being 
very insecure. The situation then became 
very complicated. On the one hand were 
many foreigners pouring into the country, 
demanding treaty rights; and on the other 
was the emperor and his friends calling for 
the expulsion of the barbarians. Europeans 
were ruthlessly mvu-dered in the streets, the 
British legation at Yedo was twice attacked 
by fanatics eager to slay those within, two 
Englishmen were wounded and the secre- 
tary of the American legation was killed. 
The emperor ordered an assembly of powerful 
daimyo to convene in Yedo to discuss the 
situation: and the Prince of Satsuma was 
proceeding thither when his procession met 
an Englishman named Richardson at Kanag- 
awa. The Englishman failed to dismount in 



accordance with the custom and was immedi- 
ately despatched by the irate samurai of 
Satsuma. For this offence the bakufu had 
to pay £100,000; and after having the city of 
Kagoshima bombarded by a British fleet the 
Prince of Satsuma agreed to pay an indemnity 
of £25,000 and apologise to the British 
go\'ernment. Choshu then flung down the 
gauntlet of defiance in firing on foreign ships 
passing the Straits of Shimonoseki, when his 
forts were bombarded in turn by a combined 
fleet of American, Dutch, French, and British 
men-of-war. It soon became apparent to all 
that foreign ships and foreign subjects could 
not be insulted with impunity. Satsuma and 
Choshu as well as the shogun having learned 
bitter lessons, it became clear to all that the 
proposal to banish foreigners was an impossi- 
ble one; while at the same time the existing 
government of the country was obviously 
incompetent to deal with the situation. 

FALL OF THE SHOGUNATE 
In 1867 the Emperor Komei died and the 
young Prince Mutsuhito, aged seventeen, 
ascended the throne. Leaders everywhere 
began to see now that what the nation most 
needed was not the expulsion of foreigners 
but a new government. The lords of Sat- 
suma, Choshu, and Hizen now resol\-ed to 
challenge the authority of the shogun and 
declare for direct imperial rule. To this end 
they presented a memorial to the shogun, to 
which the emperor subscribed; and, to the 
surprise of all, the shogun agreeably ac- 
quiesced. The shogun, Tokugawa Yoshin- 
obu, who belonged to the great clan of Mito, 
had unbounded respect for the imperial house, 
and his erudition had taught him that the 
shogunate was anomalous from an imperial 
point of view. So he readily handed in his 
resignation to the emperor, though he still 
had his numerous vassals behind him and did 
not desire to come under the dominion of 
Satsuma and Choshu who, he knew, bore him 
no good will. But no sooner did the emperor 
get all power in his own hands than he sub- 
mitted to the advice of Satsuma and Choshu, 
had the Aidzu troops which had for years 
guarded the imperial palace removed, and 
men of Satsuma put in their places, to the 
great indignation of the Tokugawa family and 
all its friends. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 
ex-shogun, while on his way to Kyoto was 
attacked by the imperial troops under Sat- 
suma and defeated, and thus the revolution 
w-as accomplished with very little shedding of 
blood. The imperial government w-as now 
supreme; but matters were not yet well, for 
the feeling against foreigners still ran high. 
A British embassy under Sir Harry Parkes, 
while on its way to an imperial audience at 
Kyoto, was attacked by samurai, and ten 



PR KSE NT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



41 



French sailors and an officer were murdered at 
Sakai. The difficulty was that most of the 
officials of the new government were ignorant 
of Western countries; and as they had prom- 
ised those who assisted them in overthrowing 
the shogunate that they would expel the 
foreigner, they now had no easy role to fill, 
knowing that they could not fulfil their 
promises. The three classes, nobles, samurai, 
and serfs, had no conception of the duties now 
devolving upon them. The nobles knew 
nothing save to rule, the samurai nothing save 
to fight, and the people had no idea of the 
rights of free citizens. Indeed, few statesmen 
have ever had so difficult a task as that which 
confronted the young emperor's advisers; 
and it is remarkable how successfully they 
carried it to a triumjihant conclusion. 

(E) THE ERA OF MEIJI 
1S6S to IQ14. 
EARLY REFORMS 
As Yedo had long been the seat of execu- 
tive government it was decided to continue 
it as such; and so the name was changed to 
Tokyo, or Eastern Capital, and the imperial 
residence was removed thither and the em- 
peror expected to take an active share in the 
new imperial administration. Instead of 
attempting to drive out the foreigners the 
new regime proclaimed the intention of 
encouraging intercourse with Western na- 
tions, and that European science and civili- 
sation should be introduced into Japan. 
The sacrifices which such changes demanded 
were indeed great. The shogun had sacri- 
ficed his power and prestige; the emperor 
had emerged from his ease and retirement; 
it was now for the nobles and their samurai 
to face the great sacrifices entailed in the 
abolition of feudalism. This was more than 
some of the daimyo had expected. They 
wanted the imperial restoration, but they 
did not see why otherwise the feudal regime 
should not continue. The clans of Satsuma 
and Choshu merely wanted the place formerly 
occupied by the Tokugawa. But the pres- 
sure from abroad soon led them to see that 
Japan's safety lay in united counsels, and they 
too must be ready for the self-renunciation 
displayed by the shogun. The young re- 
formers finally succeeded in persuading the 
daimyo of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa, and Hi.':en. 
four of the most powerful feudal chiefs in the 
Empire, to surrender their fiefs to the em- 
peror, a sacrifice of remarkable magnanimity 
indeed. More than two hundred fifty 
feudal lords followed their example; and thus 
in a moment many separate governments 
passed into one, its center Tokyo, and the 
emperor its head. The daimyo, at first left 
as governors in their several domains, in 1 871 
were deprived of this office and all taxes were 



ordered to be paid into the central treasury. 
All officials were thenceforth to be appointed 
by the central government, the feudal lords 
were to retain one-tenth of their former in- 
come and make Tokyo their place of resi- 
dence, while the samurai were to retain their 
pensions, the latter after two years being 
commuted by the government. The spirit 
in which these sacrifices were undertaken and 
carried out must form a model of loyalty 
for all time. All class privileges and disa- 
bilities were now abolished; permission was 
given to Japanese to go abroad for study; 
the foundation was laid for a national army 
recruited by conscription, and steps taken 
for the creation of a navy. Carefully se- 
lected teachers were brought from Western 
lands to direct the new education, England 
supplying instructors in railway, telegraph, 
engineering, mint, and naval education; the 
United States in postal and educational 




CO.NSULTl.NG THE FORTUNE STICK 



work; Germany in medical science, and 
France in military science. The main aim 
of the new government was to fit the people 
for the privileges of constitutional govern- 
ment when the time should arrive for its 
inauguration. Japan must be raised to the 
status of a great military power able to secure 
immunity against foreign aggression and 
commanding a place in the councils of the 
world. The government should be supported 
by increasing the country's industrial capacity 
and development of foreign trade. Then 
would come a realisation of Japan's main 
ideals; the abolition of exterritoriality and 
her assumption of supremacy in East Asia. 

FOREIGN REL.\TIONS 
The treaties which the shogun's govern- 
ment had concluded with foreign powers 
exempted Europeans resident in Japan from 
the jurisdiction of Japanese law and author- 
ity, leaving them subject to their own law 
as administered by their consular courts. 
The Japanese soon learned that this system 
was derogatory to their dignity as an inde- 
liendent nation, and they were determined 
to have the stigma removed. The peninsula 
of Korea, which had interested Japan from 
ancient times, now showed signs of weakness 
and Japan feared it might fall into the hands 
of some foreign power that would menace 
the safety of the Empire. Saigo, one of the 
greatest heroes of the wars of the Restoration, 
favoured stern measures in Korea; and when 
the government ignored his opinions, he 
withdrew from active participation in its 
aflairs to his home in Kagoshima where he 
started a military school that was interpreted 
as a scheme to educate rebels against the 
government. This gave rise to the Satsuma 
Rebellion in 1878 when some 30,000 lives were 
lost in battles between the government and 
rebel troops, Saigo committing suicide on 
being defeated. Japan was finally obliged 
to take active interest in the aflfairs of Korea, 
however, and to insist on similar reforms to 
her own, if that country was to be saved from 
foreign aggression. Korea rejected these 
o\-ertures and was backed by China, leading 
to the China-Japan War in 1894-5 in which 
Japan was victorious. Ten years later she 
had to cross swords with Russia on the same 
question, dri\'ing the aggressor out of Korea 
and herself eventually annexing the peninsula, 
August, 1910. Japan's claim to have the 
disability of exterritoriality removed was con- 
ceded by the foreign powers in July, 1899, 
when she recovered her judicial autonomy; 
but she did not recover her tariff autonomy 
until 1894. From this time relations between 
Great Britain and Japan began to grow 
increasingly intimate; and when, after the 
war with China, Germany led France and 



42 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Russia in ousting Japan from the fruits of 
her victories in Manchuria, Great Britain 
refused to be a party to it, the two nations 
were drawn still closer together, until 1902 
when they entered into a formal alliance for 
the maintenance of the integrity of China 
and mutual protection in Asia. The Anglo- 
Jajianese Alliance was renewed with some 
modifications in 191 1 and still forms, as it 
long may do, the foundation of Japan's 
foreign policy. It was in accordance with 
this policy that Japan joined Great Britain 
in the war with Germany, attacking and 
capturing the fortress of Tsingtau and occu- 
pying German possessions in the South Seas 
in 1914-5. Relations with the United States 
have been disturbed over questions of immi- 
gration and rights of land ownership; but. 
although these problems are as yet unsettled, 
the invariable good tetnper of both countries 
promises a near solution. By the so-called 
"Gentleman's Agreement" with America in 
1908 Japan consented to limit the number 
of her immigrant labourers to the United 
States; and a memorandum had been signed 
with Canada to the same effect in 1907. 
Japan formed a treaty of alliance with Russia 
in 1916, establishing relations similar to those 
with Great Britain in the Anglo- Japanese 
Alliance, but in no sense menacing the latter ; 
and new agreements were entered into with 
China in the same year. Thus by her own 
efforts, backed by the sympathy of the Eng- 
Hsh-speaking peoples, Japan has obtained 
the recognition of all the world-powers, and 
to-day occupies a place second to none in 
the comitv of nations. 



MODERN J.\P.\N 

Though the fathers of the Meiji Restoration 
looked forward in some measure to the observ- 
ance of constitutional principles, and a con- 
stitution was conceded by the emperor and 
eventually promulgated in 1889, and a parlia- 
ment opened in 1890, Japan is still ruled by 
an oligarchy of talented men, known as 
Genro, or Elder Statesmen, representing the 
great clans, some of whom had a hand in 
bringing about the restoration of imperial 
rule, and some of whom are of a later gen- 
eration. The unwritten system is indeed 
not unlike that which prevailed in Japan 
before the development of feudalism and 
military government. It is, however, meet- 
ing W'ith increasing popular objection as the 
years go on; and the contest between bureau- 
cracy and democracy has still to be fought 
out. The bureaucracy, nevertheless, has a 
better grasp of foreign affairs than the rising 
and more ignorant and inexperienced democ- 
racy, and, therefore, has often saved the day 
when the Empire would otherwise have been 
endangered. But so long as out of a popu- 
lation of nearly 60.000,000 in Japan proper, 
no more than 1,600,000 are entitled to the 
franchise, the impossibiUty of popular or 
liberal government remains. 

In some respects it is but natural that 
Japanese affairs should still be in the hands 
of those and their successors who brought 
about the downfall of the shogunate, the 
restoration of imperial rule and the moderni- 
sation of the Empire. Of the forty-five or 
more patriotic youths who braved death to 
bring about the Restoration, twelve were 




'•tt-:?w - 



iSSlE;-'- 



given a supreme place as Genro, namely, 
Saigo, Okubo, Kido, Ito, Inouye, Oyama, 
Soejima, Iwakura Sanjo, Matsukata, Yama- 
gata, and Itagaki, of whom the last three 
alone are still living, but Count Itagaki has 
retired from politics. On his recent retire- 
ment from the premiership Marquis Okuma 
was added to the list of Elder Statesmen, and 
doubtless Marquis Saionji will become one 
also. Unhampered by precedents and deal- 
ing with a people accustomed to autocracy 
the Elder Statesmen, the Privy Council, and 
the Emperor as supreme, have little difficulty 
in manipulating state affairs after their own 
will, or as circumstances dictate. The Upper 
and Lower Houses of the Imperial Diet are 
subordinate to the Imperial advisers and can 
be dissolved at their instance on proving 
recalcitrant. The Imperial Diet, however, 
is given the general management of do- 
mestic affairs; always, however, under the 
supervising eye of the powers behind the 
scene. 

Constitutionalism, however, is making 
some progress; and when one realises all that 
the bureaucratic system has done for Japan 
in bringing about reforms without resorting 
to radical measures, there should be nothing 
but admiration for its achievements and 
patience with its anachronisms. It has 
created and promoted an army and navy of 
matchless efficiency; and under its paternal 
auspices national industry and trade have 
developed beyond a nascent stage and now 
bid fair to rival all competitors in Far Eastern 
markets. Laws incorporating the principles 
of modern civilisation and justice have been 
codified and enacted; the rights of the people 
are recognised if not always allowed. The 
Lunar calendar was replaced by the Western 
calendar in 1873; and in the same year mili- 
tary conscription was introduced. The ban 
on Christianity was removed in that year 
and religion made free, though school 
children are still taken by their teachers 
to the national or communal shrines to render 
homage to their ancestors. In the same year 
an official mission consisting of Kido, Okubo, 
and Iwakura proceeded to America and 
Europe to study the situation there and glean 
suggestions for national reform; while the 
visit of Ito in 1882 further prepared the way 
for more constitutional methods of procedure. 
After he had duly drafted the constitution 
a cabinet was organised, a constitution pro- 
mulgated and the Diet formally opened. 
The grave doubts entertained as to the suc- 
cess of a representative system of government 
at its inauguration have not been justified, 
simply for the reason that it is not represen- 
tative in any sense that would seriously 
threaten the prerogatives of the bureaucracy. 



THE W.WMUE KJRTIJ-NE TELLER 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



43 




THE PRAYER WHEEL 



Dunng the twenty-six years of its liistory 
the Imperial Diet has been dissolved numer- 
ous times, with eighteen changes of cabinet 
and twelve general elections. In 19 lo the 
election laws were revised, extending the 
franchise to those paying a minimum tax 
of ten yen a year, whereas before the mini- 
mum was fifteen yen; which, of course, was 



not any great extension; and the system of 
signed ballots was discontinued. In July, 
igi2, the Emperor Mutsuhito, posthumously 
known as Meiji Tenno, passed away; and His 
Majesty, the Emperor Yoshihito, I22d in 
the dynasty, ascended the throne, naming 
the new era, Taisho, or the Era of Great 
Righteousness, succeeding the last era which 



is known as Mciji, or the Era of Enlight- 
enment. 

The forty- five years comprising the reign of 
Meiji Tenno were unparalleled in the history 
of the nation's progress. Among the innu- 
merable reforms of the period three stand out 
as paramount: the promulgation of the 
Imperial Constitution, including the estab- 
lishment of the Imperial Diet, with local 
self-government in prefectures, counties, 
cities, towns, and villages; the codification 
of national law to take the place of mere cus- 
tom and ancestral prestige, paving the way 
for the last but not least great reform, the 
revision of foreign treaties, and the abolition 
of extraterritoriality. Whether the Taisho 
era will be able to maintain the glory of the 
former period remains to be seen. The 
weakness of the nation is its disposition to 
disputation and lack of great leadership, 
rendered more complex by clan precedence 
and prejudice. Education, which was at 
first established on American lines, has since 
diverged into a German system, very narrow 
and formal, with more attention to the ac- 
quirement of facts and ideas than to any 
practical application of them. The whole 
country is still in a state of transition between 
old and new, in which now one side has the 
upper hand and now the other, often with 
amusing eccentricities. But the main policy 
of Japan is to aJapl foreign ways while adopt- 
ing them: in other words, to Japanise every- 
thing, even the truth itself. Signs are not 
wanting, however, that every phase of Japa- 
nese society, civilisation and polity having a 
no more stable basis than mere prejudice, 
superstition, or fancy, may suffer a rude 
upheaval as time proceeds. Modem science 
is undermining many of the more sacred and 
treasured traditions of the nation and point- 
ing to practical efficiency under altruistic 
principles as the more certain way to perma- 
nent progress. 

Should Japan, in her ambition to be the 
moral, intellectual, and political torch of 
East Asia and the arbiter of Oriental 
destiny, ignore these signs of the times, her 
future can only be vague and uncertain. 
But the Japanese are a brave, industrious, 
and intelligent people; and if they are wisely 
led, or are not hindered in leading themselves, 
Japan will have Httle difficulty in becoming 
what she has long desired, the Great Britain 
of the East. 




MAKING OBSERVATIONS DURING ARMY MANCEUVRES, I9I7 

IV. The Army 

Army of Old Japan -Evolution of a Modern Army — Recruiting — Army Organisation 

— Mobilisation and Equipment— Army Finance 



THE Japanese must be accounted war- 
riors from the days of their first 
appearance as conquerors of the isles 
of Nippon; and consistently the first thousand 
years of their history in settlement of the 
archipelago may be regarded as largely a 
period of strife, either with opposing aborigi- 
nes or with succeeding migrations from the 
continent. That they were skilled in tlie 
arts of war there is no doubt, since they 
appear to have had small difSculty in 
enforcing an occupation of the land, the 
southerners under Jimniu Tenno proving 
the more dauntless and aggressive of 
the various tribes. It must be assumed 
that most of the military tactics of old 
Japan had their origin in China, whence the 
nation derived all 'its other arts. In the 
national records of ancient matters one reads 
that in the year 760 A. D. soldiers were sent 
to Kyushu to study the art of warfare under 
a military instructor named Kibi Makibi, 
who in turn had made a study of the science 
of tactics in China, the lessons learned being 
taken chiefly from books prepared by Chinese 
strategists. The imperial court usually kept 
a teacher of Chinese strategy; and there is 
mention of the custom of ascertaining the 



whereabouts of enemy troops by the behav- 
iour of birds, especially wild geese, by means 
of which in the past enemies had been de- 
tected and defeated. This scrap of history 
is quite consistent with Japanese tradition 
that the race descended from warriors who 
became the ancestors of great military 
families, most prominent among whom was 
the imperial family itself, tradition asserting 
that the Empress Jingo in 200 A. d. led an 
expedition in person to Korea to subdue 
refractory kingdoms there. During the 
sixth and seventh centuries there appears 
to have been much attention devoted to the 
question of national defence, and guards of 
the court and of the national frontiers were 
established. In 661 A. D. it is said that the 
Emperor Tenchi issued instructions for 
regulating the national army, in preparation 
for an encounter with China. In 701 it 
seems that the imperial forces were divided 
into corps, each consisting of a thousand 
soldiers; and at the same time a cavalry sec- 
tion was organised, and all the court families 
were obliged to lend themselves to the move- 
ment. Under the Emperor Konin in 780 A. D. 
conscription took a definite form, when every 
able-bodied man was compelled to fight, the 



incompetent being left to work the land. 
From this time began that military class- 
distinction based on fighting quaUty, which 
has ever since characterised the Japanese. 
The military power thus created brought 
about a long period of peace, which in turn 
resulted in luxurious effeminacy that reacted 
unfavourably on the nation. In many 
places defence gave place to plunder and 
rebellion, and the integrity of the nation 
could only be restored and upheld by the 
military class. With the rise of great feudal 
families the army became decentrahsed , and 
for a time military power continued to be 
associated with the Minamoto and the Taira 
families. The long dissension between these 
great military clans kept the country in 
intermittent strife for centuries; and finally 
with the triumph of the Minamoto clan 
and its establishment of military govern- 
ment at Kamakura, the indomitable 
fighting spirit was conserved and handed 
on to future generations. 

ARMY OF OLD JAPAN 
These extended periods of ancient warfare 
were for the most part under the auspices of 
Chinese methods of fighting, though we may 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



45 



be sure such sturdy warriors as the Japanese 
had early begun to develop their own devices. 
Up to the ninth century it was a principle of 
Japanese tactics to attack always at night 
or early in the morning, which well suited 
the national disposition and temperament. 
This practice was undoubtedly continued all 
through the civil wars of the eleventh, twelfth, 
and thirteenth centuries. It was indeed 
seldom that forces of any considerable 
strength met on the open plains or even in 
valleys, as the native warrior never acquitted 
himself so well under such circumstances. 
In the warfare of ancient times battles were 
sometimes decided by contests of individual 
prowess, not unlike what one sees traces of 
in Britain during the age of chivalry. Some- 
what after the manner of Gohath a Japanese 
general would stalk out in front of his forces 
and challenge a representative of the enemy 
to single combat. The challenging hero 
stood erect between the opposing hosts, and 
in stentorian tones recited his lineage and 
military achievements: it was the only 
moment in a samurai's life when he was free 
to boast, demanding a man of equal family 
and martial attainments on the enemy's side 
to be pitted against him. As a rule the chal- 
lenge was promptly accepted. In a similar 
manner a hero from the enemy's ranks would 
step forward and proclaim in a loud voice 
his family history and his own deeds of 
prowess on the field of battle. There stood 
the two heroes face to face amid the silence 
of intense excitement and suspense of the 
assembled troops. At once the duel began. 
It was nothing if not fierce, a battle to the 
death. One of the combatants fallen, an- 
other was ready to step in, and after two 
or three such contests the spirit of the on- 
lookers was up and the two armies closed in 
on one another with fearful carnage. It was 
seldom, however, that in such battles the 
entire forces on both sides participated, as 
the strategists preferred to depend on a 
night attack for the final result. 

Through the Middle Ages two schools of 
tacticians developed in Japan, chiefly under 
the impetus of the civil wars already alluded 
to. The one was known as the Echigo sys- 
tem, of which the celebrated warrior, Uyesugi 
Kenshin, was the exponent; and the other 
was called the Koshu method, elaborated 
by one of the most famous enemies of Ken- 
shin, named Takeda Shingen. The Echigo 
tactics involved a rapid movement of troops 
and the springing of unheard-of surprises 
on the enemy, as may be seen from a careful 
study of the plan adopted at the noted battle 
of Kawanakajima. The Koshu tacticians, 
on the other hand, aimed at placing their 
troops in strategic positions, and insisted on 
pressing a steady frontal attack with a fight 



to the finish. The latter way came to be 
regarded by the majority of soldiers as the 
more scientific, and for a considerable time 
it prevailed among the leading clansmen- 
at-arms. Succeeding warriors of renown 
further elaborated the Koshu system, each 
giving it his own name; and so we have men- 
tion of the Obata tactics, the Kagemori 
tactics, the Hojo Ujimasa method, and the 
popular tactics of Yamaga Soko. 

Of course the introduction of guns and 
modern weapons completely changed the 
army system of old Japan. The bowman and 
the lancer had small chance before the West- 
ern musket and cannon. The introduction 
of the new methods obliged a complete rear- 
rangement of the line of battle. The musket- 
eers were now placed in front, with the archers 
behind and the spearmen in the rear, each 
vmder a special officer. The muskets were 
discharged, the bowmen delivered their 
shafts and emptied their quivers, and the 
spearmen then closed in on the struggling 
forces, while the musketeers and archers pre- 
pared for a second onslaught. These Euro- 
pean ideas of military science came with the 
arms and ammunition which the Portuguese 
and Spanish traders brought to Japan in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. The first 
firearm ever seen in the country was a musket 
presented to the daimyo of Higo by a Portu- 
guese merchant in the year 1551. It was 
not, however, until 1660 that the daimyo 
seriously determined on the use of Western 
firearms, and then foreign instructors were 
engaged. In that year Hojo Masafusa, a 
celebrated warrior of the day, took lessons 
in miUtary tactics and the use of Western 
war weapons from a Dutch officer, special 
emphasis being laid on the use of cannon. 
Some time later the governor of Nagasaki 
brought with him to Osaka and Yedo a 
Dutchman skilled in the use of Western 
implements of war. When the foreigner saw 
the walls of Osaka Castle, the Japanese ex- 
pected him to be much impressed by their 
impregnabihty; but he only laughed and 
said "bom-bom," as the Japanese accounts 
have it, which greatly puzzled his hearers 
and the great man whose guest he was. The 
governor finally learned from the Dutchman 
his meaning, which proved to be that the 
Europeans had a weapon which would destroy 
the greatest castle in Japan with a few shots. 
The Japanese were so much impressed by 
what they heard of cannon that they set 
about a study of ordnance and soon equipped 
themselves with big guns of their own. Thus 
the military men of Nagasaki, being more in 
touch with Europeans than the officers of 
other fiefs, were the first to realise the great 
importance of more modem military equip- 
ment, and memorialised the Government to 



that eflect in 1818, asking also that warships 
be constructed for coast defence purposes 
and that existing castles be replaced by more 
impregnable fortresses. Shuhan Takashima, 
of Nagasaki, for his presumption in thus 
daring to instruct the shogunate, was cast 
into prison; but the invasion of the Kurile 
Islands by Russia and the increasing visi- 
tations by foreign warships soon showed the 
authorities that something should be done 
for national defence. Some time later a young 
officer named Enomoto Buyo, afterward 
destined to play an important part in the 
nation's history, went to Holland to study 
naval and military science, while Count Katsu 
took lessons from Dutch officers at Nagasaki. 
Such was about the sum total of Japan's 
knowledge of modem war at the beginning 
of the Meiji period, though there no doubt 
had been more of experiment and progress 
than is recorded, as may be seen from evidence 
still extant. In Nagasaki, for example, the 
writer saw set up as a monument or ancient 
relic on the water front a huge iron ball, 
more than two feet in diameter. It looked 
like an ancient cannon ball, except that the 
past has afforded no gim of sufficient calibre 
to receive it. No reliable account of its 
history could be obtained, but the most 
likely story is worth repeating. It is said 
that some military genius of old Japan con- 
ceived the idea of defending the port from 
foreign ships by excavating a deep hole in 
the side of a lofty hill, the hole lined with 
heavy timber to form a sort of howitzer gun, 
which could be charged with powder and 
then loaded with the hea\'y ball. The enemy 
would be driven to a certain spot in the 
harbour where the angle of the gun would 
throw or drop the huge ball, thus penetrating 
the enemy's deck and even bottom. Be the 
story a joke or not, it is the only way found 
to account for the existence of the huge iron 
ball which must have been much larger cen- 
turies ago, as it is eaten deeply by rust. 

As to recruiting, it may be said that after 
the army decentralisation caused by the rise 
of the feudal system, every daimyo had his 
own military organisation; but with most 
of them it was the rule to take one-fourth of 
all the men between the ages of twenty and 
forty for training as soldiers, while the other 
three-fourths of this class were obliged to 
provide themselves with armour and weapons 
so as to be in readiness when called up for 
war in emergency. As the army was then 
constituted, fifty men formed a band, and 
five hundred men a company, either infantry 
or cavalry, each with its leader or captain. 
Two such companies were a corps; and troops 
numbering twenty thousand had one general, 
one lieutenant-general, and two commis- 
sioned officers. This system was kept up 



46 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIOTSTS OF JAPAN 



until the tenth century; but as the daimyo 
became more and more independent they 
often followed their own de\ices, until ulti- 
mately all semblance of military uniformity 
was lost. The chief weapons used in war 
were the bow and arrow, the spear and a long 
spear like a halberd, with shields of tw'O sizes 
for defence, a small one for fighting and 
a large one when encamping. These large 
shields were used to form a wall between 
an army encampment and a sneaking enemy. 
Much more could be said about the uses of the 
various weapons of war used in old Japan, but 
lack of space forbids. The great war museum 
at Kudan in Tokyo will afford those inter- 
ested any information desired on this score. 

EVOLUTION OF A MODERN ARMY 
With the abdication of the shogun in 1868 
the supreme command over all the naval and 
military forces of the Empire reverted to the 
Emperor. The expeditious manner in which 
the men of Satsuma and Choshu overthrew 
the opponents of the new regime showed that 
even at that time Japan possessed warriors 
of no mean skill and prowess. The Naval 
and Military Bureau organised in 1868 soon 
evolved into the Bureau of National Defence, 
which in time became the War Office. As 
the new national army consisted of the various 
heterogeneous forces formerly under command 
of the feudal lords, it represented anything 
but a mobile unit of defence; and so the 
French military system was at first adopted 
with the hope of producing some show of 
uniformity' and cohesion. Regular bodies of 
infantry, cavalr>-, artillery, and engineering 
corps were organised, including an Imperial 
Bodyguard. A garrison was stationed in 
Tokj-o for the protection of the northern 
provinces, another in Osaka for the security 
of the western provinces, while other garrison 
detachments were posted at certain strategic 
points. Thus in a remarkably short time 
great improvements were brought about in 
the military system of the country. With 
the abolition of feudalism, the disappearance 
of clan troops and the introduction of a 
national conscription system in 1871 a most 
drastic transformation was accomplished. 
The military profession which for centuries 
had been a monopoly of the samurai, was 
flung open to every male citizen of the Em- 
pire irrespective of class or clan. In 1873 
the nation was divided into six military dis- 
tricts, with centres at Sendai, Tokj'O, Nagoya, 
Osaka, Hiroshima, and Kumamoto, at all of 
which garrisons were stationed. The men 
recruited by conscription went into battle 
with the clan troops for the first time in the 
Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, and they proved 
themselves equal in every way to the veteran 
soldiers of the feudal days, beside w-hom many 




A TRIUMPHAL ARCH FOR THE VICTORIOUS ARMY OF TS1NGT.A.O 



of them now fought. In 1878 the War Office 
was reorganised with the aim of further 
improving the military organisation of the 
country, a general staff was appointed for the 
super\asion of national defence as well as 
strategy', and a superintending inspector's 
office was established for general military 
inspection and improvement of ordnance. 

From the year 1882 onward Japan began 
to realise more and more the necessity of 
stronger armaments if a balance of power was 
to be maintained in East Asia; and from that 
time her militarj' forces have been augmented 
year by year. The nation's system of mili- 
tary command, her military schools, army 
organisation, training, accounts, sanitation. 



and all other essential functions were com- 
pletely remodeled, chiefly after the German 
system, as that country had in Japan's opin- 
ion proved superior to France in the Franco- 
Prussian War. In 1884 Generals Oyama. 
Kawakami, and Katsura went to Europe to 
make a thorough study of the Prussian mili- 
tary system, and brought back with them a 
German officer. General Mickel, who put the 
Japanese army through its Prussian drill, 
and was the tutor of most of the Japanese 
army officers of to-day. As time passed it 
became increasingly e\'ident to Japan that 
she must concentrate expenditure on means 
of national defence and offence. Indeed, 
everything was directed toward that great 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



47 



military effort which culminated in the war 
with China in 1895. For the previous ten 
years army reorganisation had been steadily 
and thoroughly proceeding under the direc- 
tion of German instruction. A military staff 
college had been established, the military 
academies were extended, and the army medi- 
cal college was improved. Non-commissioned 
officers were trained to qualify for commis- 
sions and the whole system of uniform and 
drill was revised. In 1888 garrisons were 
organised as units, complete with infantry, 
cavalry, artillery, railway corps, and colonial 
militia, ready, if need be, for service overseas. 
By 1893 Japan had established 16 military 
schools, attended by 2,602 students with 
hundreds of thousands of young recruits 
under drill; and in 1894 she was ready to 
oppose China with an army of more than 240,- 
000 trained men, with 6,495 irregulars and 
100,000 coolies. Further reforms were intro- 
duced during the war with a view to making 
the army more mobile and to defend more 
efficiently the outposts of the Empire. More- 
over, Japan's association with the European 
troops during the Boxer trouble in China in 
1900 gave her many new ideas concerning 
ammunition and armaments; and improve- 
ment and expansion of the imperial army 
went on steadily up to the war with Russia, 
the results of which we know. 

After the Russo-Japanese War the military 
leaders of Japan became deeply impressed 
with the need of further army expansion ; and 
Prince Yamagata memorialised the Throne 
suggesting that the armed forces of the nation 
should be increased to twenty-five divisions 
and the navy to two squadrons of eight 
dreadnoughts and four battle-cruisers each, 
with cruiser squadrons and ample flotillas 
to match. The Emperor quite agreed with 
the suggestion and the military authorities 
had only to await the necessary funds to 
carry the new programme into effect. The 
army that opposed and triumphed over Rus- 
sia consisted of thirteen divisions, four other 
divisions having been provisionally organised 
during the war; but in 1907, two years after 
the restoration of peace, we find the Japanese 
army with six new divisions fully organised, 
making a total army strength of nineteen 
divisions, or 100,000 more men than before. 
At the time of Japan's conflict with Russia 
her available military forces were 600,000 
fighting men: two years after the war these 
had expanded to some 2,000,000 men. In 
1914 the Government sanctioned the addition 
of two more army divisions, to be stationed in 
Korea, one of which has already been organ- 
ised, so that Japan's army strength at present 
consists of twenty divisions. 

Here the question naturally arises as to 
why Japan is so intent on military expansion. 



Before the European war her hypothetic 
objective was undoubtedly Russia, as she 
had the conviction that the northern power 
was some day sure to return to retrieve her 
losses and humiliation in Manchuria, and the 
Japanese army should be of sufficient strength 
to discourage this. Japan's interests in 
Manchuria and China must be guarded at all 
costs. During the European war, however, 
Japan and Russia arrived at a special under- 
standing as to mutual spheres of interest in 
China, and now Japan's potential objective 
is supposed to be across the Pacific, should 
forces from that direction interfere with 
Japan's progress in China. Thus naval and 
armamental expansion goes on to the full 
limit of Japan's financial capacity. 

RECRUITING 
In Japan military service is personal, uni- 
versal, and obligatory upon every citizen 
between the ages of seventeen and forty. 
Out of a population of some 57,000,000 in 
Japan proper the number of youths who 
annually reach the age of conscription is 
about 450,000; but since no more than about 
260,000 of these are found physically fit for 
army service the task of increasing the mili- 
tary forces of the nation to twenty-five divi- 
sions is not so easy. The most common 
causes of failure to qualify for army service 
are venereal diseases and the eye affection 
known as trachoma, the next most common 
defect being low stature or general debility. 
Defective physique proved most common in 
the years when those born during the wars 
with China and Russia came of age. The 
number of Japanese recruits above 5 feet 
6 inches in stature does not number more than 
1 1 ,000 a year, while more than 50,000 are 
less than 5 feet. The number of recruits 
above 5.3 feet in stature is about 323 per 
1,000. The military authorities report the 
eagerness with which recruits enter the army , 
but desertions number about 1,000 a year, 
mostly privates, 38 per cent of which are said 
to be due to dislike of military service and 
the rest to cruelty. The penalties for deser- 
tion are so severe, however, that it would be 
a mistake to estimate the popularity of the 
service by the number remaining loyal to it. 
One frequently hears of cases where the 
body has been mutilated so as to prevent be- 
ing conscripted, and soldiers are said to 
commit suicide rather than meet the trials 
to be endured. The custom of drilling 
and marching soldiers in the hottest 
weather results in frequent cases of sunstroke 
and death, and indicates a desire to weed out 
of the army all unable to endure such strain, 
however cruel the process. Of the 260,000 
men annually qualifying for conscription 
about 120,000 are drafted and 150,000 left 



as reserves to be called up any time. The 
numbers above indicated can not be enlarged 
at present without lowering the general 
efficiency of the service. The conscript is 
called up during the year which follows that 
in which he reaches the age of twenty. Re- 
cruits are divided into three grades after 
being drafted, and the number desired is 
drawn by lot from the highest grade. The 
only exemptions allowed under the conscrip- 
tion law are for an only son where the parent 
is over sixty years of age and incompetent to 
support himself or herself. Lads registered 
in schools of certain grades may have mili- 
tary service postponed until finishing their 
studies, but the age of postponement must 
not exceed twenty-eight. There are reports 
of youths registering at schools merely to 
escape conscription, even though they do not 
attend classes. There is also a service of one 
year for scholars and those of the upper class, 
who, after putting in the year in sections, are 
registered in the reserve service with the 
rank of non-commissioned officer. These 
have to pay their own expenses while in bar- 
racks. Recruits drafted into the annual con- 
tingent have to pass two whole years with 
the colours in the case of infantry, and three 
years in the case of other arms. They then 
belong to the Yobi, or reserve of the active 
army, until the age of twenty-seven, after 
which they become Kobi, or Landwehr, for 
ten years, until reaching the age of thirty- 
seven, from which time until arriving at the 
age of forty they are ranked as Kokiimin, or 
Landslurm. The service is thus divided into 
an active service of two years for infantry, 
three for cavalry and engineers, reserve ser- 
vice of four years and depot service of ten 
years, covering in all a period of seventeen 
years beginning from the age of twenty. 
The Japanese army is further expanded by 
what is known as the Ersatz system by which 
men are trained for a period of ninety days 
in the first year, sixty in the second and third 
years, the candidates serving as a reserve of 
recruiting and enabling the waste in each 
annual draft to be made good. The Ersatz 
belong to the active and reserve forces until 
the age of twenty-seven when they become 
territorials. As for the Landslurm it includes 
all youths between the ages of seventeen and 
twenty as well as all those up to the age of 
forty classed as good for service or excused 
from service for reasons other than physical 
unfitness. This category, which is at present 
untrained, forms a reserve of something over 
3,000,000 men who can be drawn upon any 
time in case of emergency, but need not be 
considered in the effective force. 

The organisation of the recruiting territory 
is based upon that of the divisional unit. 
Each army division has an area of country 



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SCENES DURING THE JAPANESE ARMY MANCEUVRES, iqi; 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



49 



allotted to it, from which it draws its recruits 
in peace and its reserves on mobilisation. 
There are eighteen divisional districts, the 
divisions detached in Korea and Manchuria 
retaining their districts in Japan. The 
Imperial Guards alone are recruited from the 
whole territory. In each divisional district the 
country is divided up into infantry, brigade, 
regimental, and battalion areas. Other 
forces are recruited from the divisional dis- 
trict as a whole or from appointed portions 
of it, while some troops are allotted special 
or larger areas. Formosa has a special garri- 
son, as have also Tsushima, Saghalien, and 
the other colonies. The total number of 
troops quartered outside of Japan are the 
divisions in Korea and 34,000 others, includ- 
ing 10,000 railway guards, in Manchuria. 

The peace strength of the Japanese army 
is now about 250,000 men, with some 6,000 
officers, and the first line of defence easily 
musters 600,000 strong, including 260,000 
reservists; while the total fighting force at 
Japan's disposal in case of need is, as has 
been before mentioned, not less than 2,000,- 
000. 

As to mounts, Japan has been importing 
large numbers of Australian horses since the 
war with Russia, but not enough for the 
requirements of the army, and consequently 
the supply has been supplemented by half- 
breed animals known as zashu, which are by 
foreign sires from home-bred mares, raised 
for the most part on the government stock 
farms and in Hokkaido. These zashu are 
preferred to foreign horses by most Japanese 
officers, as they are said to stand the climate 
better and are more amenable to Japanese 
ways of handling. The Japanese army 
requires about 130,000 horses; and the whole 
country possesses not more than 1,600,000, 
of which not more than 14,000 are imported, 
and 530,000 are half-breeds. There is a 
drastic law in existence for the registration, 
classification, and requisition of horses and 
wagons on mobilisation; but it must be 
remembered that horses are not of such great 
importance in the Japanese military system. 

.■\R.MY ORGANIS.A.TION 
The Japanese army, as has been already 
pointed out, consists of twenty divisions, 
with prospects of five more in the near futiu-e. 
A division is composed of two brigades of 
infantry, a regiment of cavalry, one of artil- 
lery, and a battalion each of engineers and 
army service corps. Each regiment of 
infantry consists of four battalions of 600 
men each, while a regiment of cavalry has 
four squadrons of 100 sabres each. A regi- 
ment of field artillery is made up of six bat- 
teries, each of four guns and 24 machine guns; 
a battalion of engineers has three companies 




FIELD-MARSHAL PRINCE YAMAGATA, HEAD OF 
THE GENRO, OR ELDER STATESMEN, 

AND ONE OF THE MOST INFLU- 
ENTIAL MEN OF JAPAN 

of 200 men each, while the army service corpb 
has 300 men, including a Ijridging train, 
telegraph section, medical corps, eight ammu- 
nition columns, four supply columns, four to 
six field hospitals, and a mobile remount 
depot. The six-gun battery was abandoned 
for one of four guns after the war with Russia, 
as it was found impossible to carry more 
than 289 shells for each gun, a supply quite 
insufficient for a hot artillery duel when guns 
often discharge as many as 500 rounds a day; 




GENERAL BARON V. UEHARA, A DIS- 
TINGUISHED SOLDIER, FORMERLY MIN- 
ISTER OF W.4R IN THE SAIONJI 
CABINET, NOW CHIEF OF THE 
GENER.\L ST.\FF 



so that four guns were all that really could 
be handled with advantage. An infantry 
company numbers 156 all ranks, a squadron 
140 with 135 horses, and the field battery 
128 with 62 horses; an engineer company 
1 70 or 200. Thus the Japanese army division 
remains, as before, the largest imit of the war 
organisation. The division has its head- 
quarters, including chief-of-staff and adju- 
liuifiir, and on active duty it has about 18,875 
men, with 4,938 horses and 1,765 carriages. 
In addition to the twenty divisions com- 
posed as above, the Japanese army has troops 
numbering four brigades of cavalry, each 
having three regiments of five squadrons; 
two batteries of horse artillery; three inde- 
pendent brigades of field artillery forming 
six regiments with 216 guns; three indepen- 
dent mountain batteries with 54 guns; four 
regiments of hea\'y field artillery; railway 
troops, wireless and other telegraph units; a 
balloon company; searchlight detachments 
and field gendarmerie. There are also troops 
for lines of connection; 24 batteries of heavy 
artillery for coast defence, beside the garrisons 
outside Japan. It has been the practice of 
Japan to add a brigade of reservists to each 
division on active service, but as time goes 
on this may be unnecessary. The use of 
these reserve troops is a secret of the higher 
command; but probably the trend is toward 
the German custom of depending chiefly on 
highly trained troops and not to hamper 
them with inferior elements. In the war 
with Russia Japan created four or five 
armies, as she would doubtless do in case of 
war again; but there exists no permanent 
arrangement of the divisions into armies and 
there are no staffs. The Emperor is the 
supreme head of the army and navy; and in 
time of war he directs the combined opera- 
tions of these forces through the headquarters 
staff, assisted by the Field Marshal, the mili- 
tary council consisting of the chief officers 
of the army and navy and others. The army 
in time of peace is governed by the Minister 
of War, the Chief of the General Staff, and 
the Director of Military Education and 
Training. The chiefs of these departments 
are independent of one another and directly 
under the Emperor. The systems followed 
by the War Office and the General Staff 
Office are after the German model. 

-MOBILISATION AND EQUIPMENT 
During mobihsation in Japan, as in Eu- 
rope, the reser\'es are called out, depots are 
formed and reserve formations prepared on 
the required scale and in the orthodox man- 
ner. Usually the first divisions mobilised 
are allowed 10 days for preparation, this time 
having been proved to be ample. Reservists 
set out for their destinations on the second 



50 



PRESENT-DAY I>rPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




THE MILITARV STAFF OFFICE, TOKVt> — OFFICE OF THE GENERAL STAFF, TOKYO, WITH EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF PRINCE KITASHIRAKAWA 



day of mobilisation. The first troops are 
generally ready to entrain or embark on the 
seventh day of mobilisation; the entire first 
line is ready in between 12 and 20 daj's, 
and the reservists between 20 and 25 days. 
Japan has nearly 7,000 miles of railway with 
over 2,500 locomotives and plenty of rolling 
stock for transportation of troops; while her 
marine transportation facilities are also of 
the best, possessing, as she does, over 2,000,- 
000 tons. Embarkation drill is frequently 
practiced in harbours and on open beaches. 
The regulations allow one ton of shipping per 
man for the transport of troops by sea, and 
four and one-half tons per horse. There is 
no doubt that in case of war Japan would 
have no difficulty in transporting her active 
forces to the continent or elsewhere in two 
echelons, and that the first echelon would be 
ready for sea as soon as the troops were 
ready to embark. 

As to equipment, the Japanese army is 
supplied with an improved design of the 
Murata rifle, a strong and serviceable weapon 
rather than a delicate and highly finished arm. 
The field artillery has guns made at the Osaka 
arsenal from Krupp patterns of the 1889 



type, as well as quick-firing mountain guns 
of the same type and date. The calibre is 
2.95 inches, weight of gun 3,450 pounds 
behind the teams, and it fires a shell of I3}<j 
pounds and has a range of 6,783 yards with 
igniting fuses and ammunition. With fixed 
ammunition the extreme range is 9,295 yards 
and the fuse is said to burn up to a range of 
8,749 yards. The shield is of steel, .118 inch 
thick. It extends over the wheels and has a 
hinged portion under the axle-tree. The 
mountain gun takes the same ammunition 
as the field gun, and has a range of 5,500 
yards. New heavy guns of 10 centimetres, 
and 12-centimetre howitzers, with 24-centi- 
metre and 28-centimetre coast defence guns, 
are also in use. The i o-centimetre gun has 
a weight of 5,200 pounds behind a team of 
eight horses; and its initial velocity is 1,770 
f. s., with a range of 10,396 yards. It fires a 
40-pound projectile, and carries a shield 
similar to that of the field gun. The Japa- 
nese also use the Hotchkiss gun, taking .256- 
inch ammunition, the same as the infantry 
rifle; and the gun is sighted up to 2,187 yards. 
It has an all-round traverse and tripod 
mounting, its chief defect being that it weighs 



lietween 70 and 100 pounds including tripod. 

The field service dress of the whole army is 
khaki, cloth in winter and linen in summer, 
while the cap is somewhat after the Russian 
pattern. The cap is gravely defective as a 
protection from the torrid heat of the Japa- 
nese summer, to which many soldiers succumb 
on the march. The chief military arsenals 
are at Tokyo and Osaka, the first manufac- 
turing small arms with ammunition therefor, 
and the Osaka works dealing with gims and 
their ammunition. Most of the arm)' cloth 
is made at the Government woollen mill 
near Tokyo, the uniforms being made up 
regimentally. 

Military education in Japan, as already 
indicated, is based on the German model, 
with district preparatory schools, central 
preparatory school, officers' school and mili- 
tary staff college, as well as the Toyama 
Tactical School, the Cavalry School, and 
various schools for artillerj' and engineering. 
The education given is thorough and the 
discipline very strict. The rules for promo- 
tion of military officers in Japan are as follows, 
the limit being reduced one-half in time of 
war; two years each from sub-lieutenant to 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



51 



lieutenant, and to a captaincy two years 
more, with an additional four years for a 
major and three more years for a lieutenant- 
colonel, three years to a colonel and three 
more to the rank of major-general, and three 
years again to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
promotion to the rank of general and marshal 
being left to the will of the Emperor, 'ilie 
age limit for officers on active service is 45 
for a sub-lieutenant and lieutenant, 48 for a 
caiitain, 50 for a major, 53 for lieutenant- 
colonel, 55 for a colonel, 58 for a major- 
general, 62 for a lieutenant-general, and 65 
for a general, there being no limit of age for 
a marshal. At present there are in the 
Japanese army 65 generals and officers rank- 
ing as such, 581 field officers and those of 
equal rank, 1,429 company officers of the 
highest rank, non-commissioned officers of 
highest rank, 546, ordinary non-commis- 
sioned officers, 3,103. The total number of 
army officers is about 5,524, with some 2,835 
civilian officers. 

Aviation was not introduced into the 
Japanese army until 191 1 when two native 
officers trained in France returned to organise 
an air service. By 19 12 two more officers 
were trained, and three others in 1913. Since 
then this service has seen much greater 
development. A training ground was estab- 
lished at Tokorozaw'a near Tokyo, where 
some ten flight officers are graduated every 
year. The army now possesses 20 aeroplanes 
and one airship. So far no great skill in air 
navigation or in the handling of planes has 
been displayed by the Japanese; while the 
number of victims to disaster in comparison 
to the number of officers is probably larger 
than in any other country, or army. This 
may be due largely to the prevailing care- 
lessness that is evident among nearly all 
Japanese with regard to machinery; and the 
numerous air accidents in Japan might 
doubtless be considerably reduced by more 
expert and responsible engineers. One can 
not help feeling that many of these air dis- 
asters are due to not examining the parts of 
the machine with sufficient care before as- 
cending. The machines thus far preferred 
are Morris-Farman biplanes and Newbolt 
monoplanes, which arc rather out of date 
beside the magnificent machines used in 
Europe. The motors at best do not develop 
a horsepower above 75, and by the Japanese 
themselves they are held largely responsiljle 
for the many tragic accidents that have 
occurred. Occasional visits from expert 
American aviators have shown the Japanese 
how far behind they yet are in the science of 
air navigation, and lent much impetus to 



the development of a better army air service. 
Consequently in 1916 the Government 
appropriated some 600,000 yen as against 
the 400,000 yen of the preceding year for 
improvement of aviation in the army, with 
orders for the construction of forty more 
machines. Motors of 150 horsepower are 
to be imported from Europe, and others after 
the same model constructed at home. The 
solitary airship possessed by the Japanese 
army is of no great importance, having a 
horsepower of 300 and a speed of only twenty 
miles. The Japanese aviation battalion now 
has forty trained officers; and the service 
rendered by them during the siege of Tsingtau 
as well as during army manoeuvres has 
proved quite effective. 

AR.MY FINANCE 

J,\p.\N is a country where army expenditure 
centres on equipment rather than on per- 
sonnel. Since 19 10 the monthly allowance 
to soldiers has been increased to i .95 yen for 
first-class privates, and 1.56 for other ranks 
of infantry. An extra allowance of from 15 
to 20 sen a month is given for stationery. 
Privates are not permitted to receive money 
from home. As to food, the private soldier 
is allowed l quart of rice a day, with from 
7 to 1 1 sen a day for relishes, the money 
allowance being increased to 15 sen in the 
colonies and 25 sen in the China garrisons. 
The infantry soldier is allowed from 27 to 34 
yen a year for clothes; the cavalry soldier 
from 31 to 37 yen; artillery 30 to 36 yen; 
engineers from 28 to 34 yen, and the commis- 
sariat from 29 to 35 yen. Other allowances 
are given for camping utensils and barracks 
necessities. The cavalry are allowed fodder 
in hay and barley at so much a month, with 
so much for shoeing and clipping. 

Army expenditure is divided into ordinary 
and extraordinary, all drawn from the 
national treasury. The ordinary expenditure 
includes the annual outlay of the War Depart- 
ment and of the various corps, while extraor- 
dinary expenses include outlays on con- 



struction of barracks and batteries, on quell" 
ing disturbances, on medical aid for sick and 
wounded, manufacture of weapons and other 
equipment, as well as transport of troops and 
arms. The accompanying table will indicate 
the amount Japan has spent on her army 
since 1878 at intervals of five years. 

It is clear from the above that the military 
expenses of Japan have been increasing 
vastly and that it must tax the country to 
its utmost to sustain such outlay on unpro- 
ductive enterprise. It is indeed remarkable 
that so large a proportion of the nation's 
financial resources should be concentrated 
on development of forces and armaments in 
a country whose territory is practically 
unassailable, not only by any .single enemy 
but by any reasonable combination of ene- 
mies. Such sustained outlay is undoubtedly 
having an unfavourable effect on the inter- 
nal development of the country, and there is 
naturally a strong reaction against the heavy 
taxation essential to the maintenance of so 
enormous an expenditure. But the army and 
navy are the only two departments of public 
service where efficiency has been c|uite 
attained; and even there it could not have 
been attained without a tremendous sacrifice. 
Japan is now sufficiently defended to deter 
any power except, perhaps, England and 
America, from attacking her in her own 
waters; while her two fighting services com- 
bined with her geographical position assure 
her a predominant position in the Far East. 
In weight of numbers, excellence of organi- 
sation, adequacy of armament, skill of per- 
sonnel, knowledge of war science, and 
splendour of fighting spirit Japan ranks with 
the best that any fighting nation can com- 
mand. She believes that to maintain her 
supremacy in Oriental waters, to command 
the wholesome respect of the great powers 
of the world, and watch over the destinies 
of China a formidable army and navy are 
essential; and toward this end Japan will 
bend her main energies for some years to 
come. 





Urdinwry 


E.XTR.\ORDIXARY 


Total 


Ye.\r 










Yen 


Yen- 


Yen- 


1878 


6,409,000 


220,740 


6,629,740 


1883 


10,764,590 


771,190 


11.535.780 


1888 


11,842,620 


,565,920 


12,408,540 


i«93 


12,419,830 


2,301,400 


14,721,230 


1898 


33.577.310 


i6,973.«90 


52,551,200 


1903 


39,169,670 


10,272,390 


49,442,060 


1908 


70,209,780 


37,206,990 


107,416,770 


191,^ 


80,175,381 


23,950,008 


104,125,389 


1918 


7*^.855.757 


15.457.357 


94.313. 1 14 




=fi«£.^ 



TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYER " KASHIWA, ' OF THE MODERN JAPANESE TYPE 

V. The Navy 

The Navy of Ancient Times^Birth of the Imperial Japanese Navy— The New 

Navy in War — Japan's Navy To-day— Finance — Education 

AND Personnel— The Imperial Dockyards 



IN the art of navigation and maritime 
prowess the people who conquered and 
settled upon the islands of Nippon seem 
to have been remarkably skilled for so remote 
a period. Allowing that the Yamato race 
arrived in the archipelago six hundred years 
before the Christian era, it must have reached 
the islands in ships capable of resisting the 
savage hordes that probably opposed the 
landing of the strangers; and thus it is clear 
that from the beginning of Japanese history, 
or tradition, the art of navigation and sea 
warfare was sufficiently developed to allow 
of transportation of troops from the continent 
and their forcing an entrance to the neigh- 
bouring islands. According to the most 
ancient records of Japan navigation showed 
considerable progress between the years 
B. c. 97 and 30, when troops were despatched 
to Korea to assist those of the warring king- 
doms there who were friendly to Japan; and 
this was the beginning of Japan's influence 
in the peninsula, leading to what was tanta- 
mount to a protectorate later. During the 
various incipient insurrections among the 
savage tribes whom the Yamato brought 
under their sway, especially the virile Kumaso 



who inhabited Kyushu and caused an upris- 
ing in 71 A. D., warships were used with 
telling effect; and in a subsequent rebellion 
in 200 A. D. the Emperor Chuai led a naval 
expedition to Chikuzen. The emperor died 
during the campaign; and the Empress 
Jingo, having discovered that the rebels were 
aided by kindred from Korea, went herself 
on an expedition to that country to cut off 
assistance to the rebels and to carry out 
punitive operations. In the year 310 A. D. 
we find that the art of navigation had so far 
developed in Yamato that it was necessary 
to appoint maritime officials in various cen- 
tres and Japanese sails were seen in all the 
waters of the Far East. In 655 .\. D. a naval 
expedition subdued the Island of Oshima. 
During the prolonged internecine strife of 
the Middle Ages between the Taira and the 
Minamoto clans, naval engagements were 
frequent, the most notable being the great 
sea fight at Dannoura in 1185. The military 
government established by Yoritomo at 
Kamakura in the twelfth century had a 
powerfid navy for that time, and the various 
feudal lords were not slow to imitate the 
shogun in their prowess at sea. When Kublai 



Khan invaded Japan with his Mongol Armada 
in the thirteenth century he found a resistless 
maritime force waiting to oppose his landing, 
and he was driven back to sea, where a furi- 
ous gale completed his destruction. The sea 
power of Japan thenceforth expanded rap- 
idly, both internally and externally, until 
its development was checked and finally 
arrested as a consequence of the admission 
of foreigners to Japan. But there is no doubt 
that the gradual internal consolidation of the 
Empire at the beginning was largely the work 
of an efficient sea power. 

With the opening of a route from Europe 
by way of the Cape of Good Hope foreign 
navigators began to make their way to Japan, 
encouraged by opportunities of trade with a 
people not yet aware of the values of the main 
items of barter and trade. From these Euro- 
pean seamen Japan learned something of the 
outside world and how to come in contact with 
it. During the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies the art of nav'igation in Japan had so 
developed that junks of three masts were 
built, a special government department was 
organised for the regulation of merchant 
marine, and vessels engaging in foreign trade 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



53 



had to have a special license. In the days of 
Hideyoshi vessels of Japan were found in 
the ports of China, Siam, India, and even 
across the Pacific in Mexico. Between the 
years 1604 and 1616 the number of licenses 
given to vessels trading abroad was over 
two hundred. Owing to the increasing 
danger of complications with foreign coun- 
tries, however, emphasised by suspicions 
circulated by rivals in trade, the Shogun 
lyemitsu in the year 1636 placed an embargo 
on all communications with foreign lands, and 
the building of seagoing ships was prohibited. 
From this time Japan's naval power began to 
decline. With the expulsion of foreigners 
from Japan intercourse by sea was cut off" 
save for the limited privileges accorded the 
Dutch at Nagasaki under the most humil- 
iating conditions, and navigation abroad was 
not reopened until Commodore Perry broke 
down the walls of seclusion in 1853. 

BIRTH OF THE IMPERIAL NAVY 
With the reopening of Japan to foreign 
intercourse the necessity of possessing a 
strong naval force was keenly felt by the 
nation. The ease with which the so-called 
"black ships" of the stranger accomplished 
their mission in the presence of the helpless 
native war-junks showed the Japanese that 
the shogunate was now the victim of its own 
policy, and that so inefficient a government 
should be replaced by one more in harmony 
with the expanding needs and relations of 
the Empire. The people of Japan did not 
require much persuading as to the need of 
reviving the navy. It was soon seen that 
the old sea power suppressed during the 
Tokugawa regime was not dead but sleeping. 
The Dutch Government suggested the estab- 
lishment of a navy on the European model. 
A naval school was opened at Nagasaki in 
1855, with Dutch instructors; and not long 
afterward a shipyard and iron works were 
opened at the same port, the beginning of 
the present great establishment known as the 
Mitsu Bishi Dockyard, the greatest ship- 
building works in the Empire. Another 
naval school was established at Yedo where 
graduates of the Nagasaki institution were 
brought for higher studies and further naval 
training, the Kanko Maru, a present from the 
Dutch Government, being the first training 
ship. The nucleus of a navy was created 
by gifts from various countries and by pur- 
chases from the United States and Europe, 
one of the gifts being a warship from Queen 
Victoria. The Yedo Government now be- 
gan to despatch students to Europe to pursue 
naval studies, and the feudal lords did 
likewise. A naval dockyard was opened 
at Yokosuka for the promotion of an im- 
perial navy. 




ADMIR.'^L TOGO, J.\PAN S GREAT NAVAL HERO 

It must soon have become evident to the 
shogun's government, however, that its 
efforts were rather belated ; for when a British 
squadron was obliged to carry out a punitive 
bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863 and the 
comliined fleets of England, America, France, 
and Holland had to bombard the forts at 
Shimonoseki in the following year, there was 
no sea power capable of offering practical 
resistance. In the years immediately follow- 
ing these episodes naval preparations were 
hastened with great expedition, officers being 
invited from Europe to advise and instruct 
the infant navy, among whom was the late 
Admiral Sir Richard Tracey,, who, though 
he had as a young commander taken part 
in the operations at Kagoshima, was subse- 
quently called upon to lay the foundations 
of the new Japanese navy. When the sho- 
gunate was finally overthrown in 1867 the 
young navy of Japan passed into the hands 
of the Emperor as the commander-in-chief 
of all the forces of the Empire. 

The Restoration of Imperial Rule was not 
accomplished, however, without the aid of 
the navy, when it had a chance to show 
something of its mettle. In the various con- 
flicts that ensued, leading eventually to the 
triumph of the imperial cause, the bulk of the 
feudal na\'y sided with the shogunate party; 
and under Commander Enomoto, one of the 
young officers trained in Holland, it made a 
gallant Ijut vain resistance against the 
superior forces of the Empire. Baffled in the 
south, Enomoto retired with his fleet to the 
north, where the rebels still held out at 
Hokodatc. There, after some bold fighting, 
he was forced to surrender to the imperial 



fleet, the first triumph of the new-bom navy. 
The rebel ships were at once incorporated 
into the navy of the nation, and Enomoto 
and his men, after some unnecessary hard- 
ships, were pardoned and ultimately absorbed 
into the imperial service. Enomoto himself 
subsequently became Admiral of the Fleet, 
Minister to Russia, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, and finally Prime Minister. 

Thus when the wars of the Restoration 
were over and the imperial forces supreme 
on land and sea, a fleet of but nine small 
vessels, mere gunboats, none of which was 
over one thousand tons, was all the navy 
Japan possessed. The dockyards that had 
been established turned out only wooden 
vessels. It was not until 1887 that Japan 
launched her first iron ship, most of the fleet 
up to that time having been purchased abroad. 
The nation now devoted itself with energy 
and determination to the organisation and 
evolution of an efficient navy. What the 
nascent dockyards and arsenals could not 
as yet supply in the way of ships and arma- 
ment continued to be purchased from Europe ; 
while with amazing application, intelligence, 
and insight the Japanese set themselves to 
learn the best uses of their new naval equip- 
ment. Nor did they make the mistake of 
supposing that the more important factor in 
naval efficiency was materiel, realising from 
the start that naval warfare is mainly an 
affair of personnel, a truth which those who 
have since had the misfortune to challenge 
Japan on land and sea, have never learned. 
Not content with acquiring and mastering 
Western knowledge of the forces of nature, 
Japan engaged officers of fine personality 
and efficiency from England to put her bud- 
ding naval personnel into fighting trim. 
In addition to the services of Admiral Tracey, 
already mentioned, Admiral Douglas was 
selected to lead a naval mission to Japan, 
consisting mainly of British naval officers, 
to instruct the Japanese navy, the leader of 
the mission becoming director of the Imperial 
Naval College from 1873 to 1875. Later 
Rear-Admiral Ingles came as naval adviser 
to the Japanese Government, while Dr. 
William Anderson laid the foundations of 
naval medical education in Japan. 

It is interesting to note what rapid evolu- 
tion characterised Japan's naval progress 
during the years it was under British advise- 
ment. Between the years 1870 and 1880 
various uprisings marked the political prog- 
ress of Japan: notably the Saga rebellion in 
1874, the attack by Korea in 1875, the Hagi 
disaffection and the Satsuma Rebellion in 
1876, in all of which the imperial navy had 
to carry out punitive operations of some 
sort, and this it did so effectively as to prove 
its remarkable development. The warship 



54 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




DISTINGUISHED NAVAL OFFICERS 

(Upper Row, Left to Right) Admiral Saneyuki Akiyama, a Distinguished Naval Tactician — Admiral Baron H. Shimamura, Chief of 
the Naval General Staff — Vice-Admiral Isamu Takeshita, Member of the Naval General Staff and Instructor at the Naval College. 
(Lower Row) Vice-Admiral Baron RoKURO Yashiro, Fonnerh' Minister of Marine, now Commander of the Second Battle Squadron 
— Vice-Admiral Tetsutaro Sato, President of the Naval College — Vice-Admiral Takeshi Takarabe, Member of the Board of 
Admirals and Commander of the Maizuru Naval Station 



Jungei was launched from the Yokosuka 
navy yard in 1876, 1,450 tons, being 
considerably larger than the Seiki of the 
previous year which was only 897 tons. The 
latter was the first Japanese-built ship to 
visit Europe, making the trip in 1878. But 
by 1876 Japanese yards were capable of 
repairing their own ships without foreign 
assistance. To promote more rapid naval 
development three ships were ordered from 
England in 1878, the old Fuso, 3,777 tons, 
the old Kongo, and Hiyei, 2,248 tons each. 
In 1884 the Admiralty Station was removed 
to Yokosuka, and two more were established, 
one at Kure and one at Sasebo, in 1889. In 
1892 the Government issued a new- naval 
programme, formulated under imperial re- 
script, to which the Emperor contributed 
from the privy purse the sum of 300,000 yen 
for six years, government officers and high 



officials following the Imperial example by 
giving ten per cent of their salaries, and there 
were liberal private contributions as well. 
Thus the infant navy of Japan grew in 
materiel and personnel under the assistance 
and advice of British friends until at the time 
of its first test, in the war with China in 
1894, the aggregate tonnage was 57,600, 
representing 28 ships and 24 torpedo boats, 
the total outlay on naval repletion up to that 
time having been about 240,000,000 yen. 

THE NEW NAVY IN WAR 

In the war with China, her first naval 
engagement of any importance in modem 
times, Japan showed that during the short 
space of forty years she was able to evolve a 
navy capable of efficiently performing every 
duty devolving upon it. She proved to the 
world not only the superb prowess and 



endurance of her fighting sons but also how 
thoroughly her leaders had understood and 
assimilated the eternal principles which make 
for sea power. It seems to have been seen 
by Japan from the beginning that the success 
of her entire operations against China de- 
pended on keeping the sea clear for trans- 
portation of her troops, a point China failed 
to perceive, if she saw it at all, until it was too 
late. With Japan's destruction of the 
Chinese fleet the command of the sea was 
thenceforth hers and she was able to keep 
sufficient forces under her command to carry 
everything before her in Manchuria. Japan 
came out of the war with seventeen more 
ships added to her navj-. The terms of peace 
with China contained the germs of the next 
war, for they gave Japan a position in Korea 
and China that Russia was certain to chal- 
lenge. Japan clearly saw this, and after the 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



55 



■■jamtmmmm^mtm* 


4^ : 


llJ 


■- 


ttT^'t^^^'^'^tBPI 


-1 •• ^ 


^^■^H^^^— 1 ( ^^^^ 









THE "kIRISHIMA," A BATTLE CRUISER OF THE MODERN JAPANESE TYPE 



war with China, and her subsequent com- 
pulsory withdrawal from Port Arthur, she 
set about acquiring a navy that even any 
Western power might hesitate to provoke. 
New naval stations were established, new 
arsenals opened, new ordnance works built, 
new powder factories set up, and powerful 
fighting units gradually added to the fleet, 
many of which were launched from home 
yards. The whole navy system was reor- 
ganised on a greatly improved scale, and 
stricter attention was devoted to education 
and personnel. A squadron of first-class 
battleships was added to the armoured 
cruisers that had beaten China. When the 
anticipated crisis came in 1904 and war with 
Russia was imminent, Japan found herself 
with a total tonnage of 258,000, of which at 
least 233,876 tons represented ships above the 
destroyer class ; and she came out of the war, 
notwithstanding important losses, with a 



total tonnage of 410,000, having taken 
twelve battleships and cruisers beside numer- 
ous small craft from her opponent. In that 
war Russia was wholly outwitted by Japanese 
strategy; for she divided her naval forces 
between Port Arthur and Vladivostock, 
making no intelligent effort to prevent 
Japan's command of the sea, thus leaving 
the latter with her fleet intact to meet the 
main naval forces of Russia. 

japan's navy to-day 
Since the war with Russia Japan has 
relaxed none of her efforts for the evolution 
of a navy adequate to her needs and worthy 
of the Empire. The twelve battleships and 
cruisers captured from Russia were in them- 
selves a valuable addition to her fleet, repre- 
senting, as they did, an extra 103,500 tons or 
so. Three of these cruisers were subse- 
quently returned to Russia during the Euro- 



pean war for a consideration of 14,500,000 
yen. After the war with Russia great im- 
provements were made in the nation's ship- 
building capacity, and Japan was soon able 
to construct and equip all sizes and kinds of 
warships at home; so that in any future war 
her strategy will not be hampered by con- 
sideration of the impossibility of obtaining 
reinforcements during its continuance. Ja- 
pan's idea has been to assure herself of com- 
petence to encounter successfully any force 
that any foreign State, with the exception of 
England, may send against her in Oriental 
waters; and judging by the performance of 
the Baltic fleet, as well as the round-the- 
world cruise of the American navy, Japan 
assumes that a Western power is able to send 
its whole fleet into the Orient. The ambition 
to have a fleet of heavy fighting ships aggre- 
gating over 500,000 tons has been cherished 
by Japan for some time. In 1915 the Eight- 



,vvi« ^"^^ 




THE " HYUGA," TYPE OF MODERN JAPANESE BATTLESHIP 



56 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



four programme was formally adopted in the 
Imperial Diet; which means that Japan will 
eventually have three squadrons consisting 
of eight dreadnoughts and four battle- 
cruisers each, with attendant flotillas, the 
whole to cost, omitting the flotillas, about 
310,000,000 yen, and to be complete by 1924. 
Into this programme enter the first-line-of- 
battle units, Fuso and Yamashiro, recently 
completed and now in commission, together 
with the sister ships Hyuga, Isi', and Nagato 
in course of construction. The seven-year 
programme includes two battle-cruisers to 
replace the Hiyei and Kongo which in that 
time will have to fall back to the second 
line; and eleven light cruisers, with thirty- 
two destroyers and sixteen submarines. 
Owing to financial considerations Japan's 
dreadnoughts have had to be separated by as 
many as four years in date of launching, so 
that the)^ may not be up-to-date in design 
after the close of the European war, as it has 
been found impossible to utilise the lessons 
of that struggle in their construction. The 
four new dreadnoughts to be launched during 
the next four years will be more favourably 
situated in this respect, and will have a main 
armament considerably in advance of the 
first four of the squadron unit. It may be 
noted here with interest that the battleship 
Hyuga is said to be an entirely Japanese 
design and quite unlike anything of its class 
in the British or other fleets, the most impor- 
tant features being an extreme steadiness 
favouring efficient gunnery, and an original 
axial emplacement for her 10 14-inch guns, 
as well as increased capacity for storage of 
oil side by side with coal. Her displacement 
is 30,500 tons; length, 683 feet; water line, 
630 feet; beam, 94 feet; draught, 28 feet; 
speed, 23 knots; main armament 10 14-inch 
guns; secondary armament, 20 6-inch guns. 

Recently the Japanese have been making 
comparisons with regard to probable objec- 
tives, with the following results in the year 
1918: United States: 17 first-Une-of-battle 
ships; 9 light cruisers; 64 destroyers, and 
62 submarines. Russia: 14 first-Une-of- 
battle ships; 14 Ught cruisers; 67 destroyers, 
and 63 submarines. Japan has 8 first-line- 
of -battle ships; 3 light cruisers; 22 destroy- 
ers, and 8 submarines. But this does not 
adequately express Japan's main fighting 
strength, as the accompanying table will 
indicate; while the American naval pro- 
gramme during the European war has com- 
pletely changed her naval status. 

In addition to the above Japan has 46 
third-class torpedo-boat destroyers most of 
which are about 381 tons displacement, 
having a speed of from 29 to 30 knots and 
nearly all with two torpedo tubes, all built 
between 1898 and 19 10. Of first-class tor- 



The Imperial Fleet 
Battleships 



Name 


z 

w 


Eh 
» 

&• 

a 
s- 

z 
a 
►J 


Where 
Launched 


Horse- 
Power 


s- 

z 

Q 
M 

a 
00 


a 

CO 


"It, 
Id 

as 

u 
Z 

*—* 

a 



s 

PS 

< 


Main 

Armament 
(Inches) 


Shikishima 


1-1,580 

14.765 
15.362 
12,700 
15.950 
16,400 
19.350 
19,800 
20,800 
20,800 
30,600 
30,600 


400 
400 
400 

374 
420 

425 
482 
482 
479 
479 
673 
673 


England, 1S98. . 
England, 1899. . 
England, 1900. . 
America, 1900. . 
England, 1905. . 
England, 1905. . 
Yokosuka, 1906. 

Kur6, 1907 

Yokosuka, :9io 

Kure, 191 1 

Kure, 1914 

Yokosuka, 1915. 


14.500 
15.207 
15,207 
16,000 
16,000 
15,600 
17.300 
24,000 
25,000 
25,000 
40,000 
40,000 


18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18.6 

20 

20.5 

20.5 

22 

22 


5 
4 
4 
6 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 


9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

12 
12 


12(4): 6(14) 
12(4): 6(14) 
12(4): 6(14) 
12 ( 4): 6(12) 
12 ( 4): 10 ( 4) 
12 ( 4): 10 ( 4) 

12 ( 4): ID (12) 

12 ( 4): 10 (12) 
12 (12): 6 (10) 
12(12): 6(10) 
14 (12): 6 (16) 
14(12): 6(16) 


Mikasa 

Hizen 


Katori 

Kashima 

Satsunia 

Aki . 


Kawachi 

Settsu 


Fuso 


Yamashiro 



Battle-Cruisers 



Ikoma . . . 
Kurama. . 

Ibuki 

Hiyei. . . . 
Kongo. . . 
Kirishima 
Haruna. . 



13,750 


440 


14,600 


450 


14,600 


450 


27,500 


704 


27,500 


704 


27,500 


704 


27,500 


704 



Kure, 1906 

Yokosuka, 1911 

Kure, 1911 

Yokosuka, 19 12 
England, 1912. . 
Nagasaki, 19 13 
Kobe, 1913 



20,500 


20 


5 


7 


22,500 


21 


5 


7 


24,000 


22 


5 


7 


64,000 


25 


8 




64,000 


25 


8 


. . . . 


64,000 


27-5 


8 




64,000 


275 


8 





12 ( 4): 
12 ( 4): 
12 ( 4): 
14 ( 8): 
14 ( 8): 
14 ( 8): 
14 ( 8): 



(12) 
( 8) 
(8) 
(l6) 
(16) 
(16) 
(16) 



First-class Cruisers 



Asama. . 
Tokiwa . 
Yakumo 
Azuma. . 
Iwate. . . 
Izumo . . 
Kasuga . 

Nisshin . 
Aso 



9,^&5 


408 


9,885 


408 


9,735 


407 


9,426 


431 


9,826 


400 


9,826 


400 


7,700 


344 


7,700 


344 


7,800 


443 



England, 1898. 
England, 1898. 
Germany, 1899 
France, 1899. . 
England, 19 10 
England, 1899. 
Italy, 1902 .... 



Italy, 1903. . , 
France, 1900. 



18,248 


20. I 


5 


7 


8 ( 4) 


18,248 


20 


5 


7 


8 ( 4)- 


15,500 


20 


5 


7 


8( 4): 


16,600 


20 


5 


6 


8( 4): 


14,700 


20 


4 


7 


8( 4): 


14,700 


20 


4 


7 


8( 4): 


14,696 


20 


4 


6 


10 ( I): 


14,696 


20 


4 


6 


8( 4): 


17,000 


21 


2 


3 


8( 2): 



6( 6) 
6( 6) 
6(12) 
6(12) 
6(14) 
6(14) 
8(2): 
6(14) 
6(14) 
6( 8) 



Second-class Cruisers 



Kasagi . . . 
Chitose. . 
Tsugaru . . 

Tone 

Chikuma . 
Hirado. . . 
Suma . . . . 
Akashi . . , 
Niitaka . . 
Tsushima 
Otowa. . . 
Yahagi. . . 



5.503 


374 


4-992 


395 


6,630 


413 


4,100 


400 


4,950 




4.950 




2,700 




2,800 


295 


3,420 


235 


3.420 


235 


3.000 


341 


4.950 





America, 189! 
America, 189I 
Russia, 1899. 
Sasebo, 1907 . 
Sasebo, 1911 . 
Kob^, 19 1 1.. 
Yokosuka, 1895. 
Yokosuka, 1897 
Yokosuka, 1902 

Kur^, 1902 

Yokosuka, 1903 
Nagasaki, 1911 . 



17,235 


22.7 


4 


4 


15.714 


22.5 


4 


4 


11,600 


20 


6 


3 


15,000 


23 




3 


22,500 

22,500 

8,500 


26 






26 






20 


2 


2 


8,500 


20 


2 


2 


9.400 


20 




2 


9,400 


20 




2 


10,000 


20 






22,500 


26 











( 2) 
( 2) 

( 8) (Sold) 
(12) 



( 8) 
( 8) 
( 2) 
( 2) 
( 6) 
( 6) 
( 2) 
( 8) 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



57 



The Imperial Fleet— (Continued) 
First-class Coast Defence Boats 



Fuji . 
I wain 

Suwo 



12,649 


374 


13.516 


367 


12,674 


401 



England, 1896. 
Russia, 1902 . . 

Russia, 1900. . . 



13,678 
16,500 

14.500 



18 
19 



12 ( 4) 
12 ( 4) 



6 (10) 
8 ( 6) 

(Sold) 
0(4): 6 (10) 

(Sold) 



Second-class Coast Defence Boats 



Okinoshima . 
Itsukushima 
Hashidat^ . . 
Chiyoda. . . . 
Akitsusliima 
Manshu. . . . 
Matsuye. . . 
Karasaki. . . 
Yamato . . . . 
Musashi .... 
Komabashi . 



4,126 
4.278 
4,278 
2.439 
3. 112 
3.916 
2.550 
10,500 
1.502 
1.502 
1.230 



295 

295 



206 
206 



Russia, 1896. . . . 
France, 1889. . . 
Yokosuka, 1891. 
England, 1890. . 
Yokosuka, 1892. 
Austria, 1901 . . . 

1898.. 

England, 1896. . 
Onohama, 1885. 
Yokosuka, 1886. 
Sasebo, 1913. . . 



6,000 
5.400 
5.400 
5.6/8 
8,516 
5.000 
1,500 
2,300 
1,622 
1,622 
1,824 



16 
16 
16 

17 
19 



18 
13 
13 



ID 
2 
2 

4 
3 



Wood 
Wood 



10 (3) 

12 (6) 

12 (6) 

4 (7) 

6 (4) 

3 (2) 



3 (I) 
3 (4) 
3 (4) 



First-class Gunboats 



Chihaya 
Mogami 
Yodo . . . 



1.263 


273 


1,350 


316 


1.250 


300 



Yokosuka, 1900 
Nagasaki, igo8 . 
Kobe, 1907 



6,000 


21 


5 




8,000 


23 




2 


6,500 


22 




2 



4 (7) 
4 (7) 
4 (7) 



Second-class Gunboats 



Uji.... 
Sumida. 
Fushimi 
Toba . . . 
Saga. . . 



620 


180 


126 




180 




250 




785 





Kure, 1903. . . . 
England, 1903. 
England, 1906 . 
Sasebo, 191 1 . . 
Sasebo, 1912 . . 



1,000 

680 

800 

800 

1,600 


13 
13 
13 
15 

15 



























(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 

(I) 



First-class Torpedo-boat Destroyers 




1 . 1 50 
1 . 1 50 




1910. . . 




35 
35 


4 
4 




4 (7) 
4 (7) 


Yamakaze 




T Cl T T . 






" 





Second-class Tor pedo-boat Destroyers 



Name 



Sakura . . . 
Tachibana 
Matsu. . . . 
Kashiwa . . 

Kaba 

Sasaki .... 
Kusunoki . 

Ume 

Katsura. . 
Kayede . . . 

Sugi 

Kiri 

Urakaz^ . . 



Displace- 




ment 


Launched 


(Tons) 




600 


1911 


600 


1913 


655 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


665 


1915 


955 


1915 



pedo boats the imperial navy has 16, most of 
which have a displacement of 152 tons, and 
all built between 1899 and 1904, together with 
10 second-class torpedo boats ranging from 
70 to 100 tons, and 15 submarines. 

The imperial fleet as organised at present 
is divided into three sections, or fleets, 
the first being stationed at Yokosuka, 
the second at Kur^, and the third at 
Sasebo, the first fleet consisting of four 
squadrons, the second of three, and the third 
of three, each squadron having its flagship 
and from three to four first-line-of-battle 
shipt- with attendant flotillas. 

The Japanese navy did not begin to take 
up aviation until 1912 when some officers 
returned from a study of the science in 



France, after which a training ground was 
opened at Oppama near Yokosuka. A naval 
aviation corps was organised in 1916, and 
the sum of 630,000 yen appropriated for 
equipment. At present the navy possesses 
some thirty flight officers, though so far no 
very great progress has been achieved or skill 
displayed, accidents being far too numerous, 
owing to lack of care on the part of engineers 
and the inexperience of aeronauts. The 
subject will be found more fully treated in 
the article on Japan's army elsewhere in this 
volume. 

FINANCE 
There is nothing very special to be said 
about naval finance, except to show what 
Japan has expended on naval repletion and 
expansion since the year 1871, which will 
prove that her naval outlay has proceeded at 
a greater rate than that of any other naval 
power, reduction being marked in any year 
only by the necessities of war. According 
to her eight-four programme, already men- 
tioned, Japan proposes to lay out on naval 
expansion during the next seven years some 
310,000,000 yen; but as she is following the 
policy of scrapping all ships that reach the 
stage of obsolescence, probably a much 
greater sum will have to be expended. Japan 
is bent on a naval programme of utmost 
preparedness without provocation or vindic- 
tiveness. She desires for the most part to 
build her ships in her own yards, though she 
can not yet do so as cheaply as she can pur- 
chase them in Britain, but she is convinced 
that her builders need to be kept up to the 
utmost mark of efficiency in steady practice, 
and she orders ships abroad only for the sake 
of keeping foreign models well in evidence 
among her designers. (See table next page.) 

education and personnel 
For the educatiort of her naval officers 
Japan has a fine array of schools, even to a 
Paymasters' College, which work other na- 
tions usually leave to extraneous institutions. 
The chief educational establishments are the 
Naval Staff College in Tokyo, for completing 
the training of her specialists, the Naval 
Engineering College at Yokosuka, the Naval 
Cadets' School at Etajima, the Naval Pay- 
masters' College and the Naval Medical Col- 
lege in Tokyo. There are torpedo and gun- 
nery schools also at Yokosuka as w-ell as a 
school for the training of na\-al mechanics and 
machinists. The highest institution is the 
Naval Staff College where men are trained 
for staff officers and future commanders. 
The entrants must be either lieutenants who 
have finished their course at the gunnery, 
torpedo, or navigation schools, or officers who 
have served two whole years at sea. Appli- 



58 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



cants have to undergo a stiff examination 
before they can be admitted to the courses 
in the Staff College. There is in the same 
institution a special course divided into navi- 
gation and engineering subjects. The en- 
trants to the Naval Medical College are grad- 
uates of some recognised medical college, 
and their course of special training for the 
navy lasts about six months. Senior surgeons 
are selected for a year's post-graduate work at 
this college after having served some years in 



ships. The Paymasters' College admits stu- 
dents by examination from the national 
middle schools, and their training lasts three- 
years and four months. Special students may 
be admitted for a six months' course pro- 
vided they are graduates of some higher 
school or university recognised by the naval 
authorities. Senior officers in the accounting 
department are selected every year for a 
year of special study at this college in prep- 
aration for staff paymasters and specialists. 



Naval Expenditure 





Disbursements 
















ToT.AL State 
Outlay 


Percent- 










age OF 


Year 


Ordinary 


Extraordinary 


Total 




Total to 
State 












Outlay 




Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 




1871 


886,856.16 

1,995,509-13 
2,141,681.49 
2,622,439.26 




886,856.16 


19,235,158 


0.461 


1872 




1,995,509.13 


57,730,025 


0.346 


1873 
1874 




2,141,681.49 


62,678,601 


0.342 


167,004.42 


2,789.443-68 


82,269,528 


0.339 


1875 


5,342,515.00 


1,627,424.00 


6,969.939-00 


66,134,772 


0.604 


1876 


2,468,975.92 


985,783-69 


3.454,759-61 


59,308,956 


0-583 


1877 


2,235,720.91 


1,477,436-47 


3,713,157-39 


48,428,324 


0.767 


1878 


2,817,453-65 


16,494.74 


2,833,947.40 


60,941,336 


0.465 


1879 


2,904,347-96 


237,326.15 


3,141,674.11 


60,317,578 


0.521 


1880 


3,024,123.86 


391,747.91 


3,415,871.78 


63,140,897 


o.,54i 


1881 


2,851,576.50 


256,939-40 


3,108,515.90 


71,460,321 


0-435 


1882 


3,249,675.81 


396,327.90 


3,646,003.71 


73,480,667 


0.496 


1883 


3,171,466.15 


3,064,032.14 


6,236,498.29 


83,106,859 


0.750 


1884 


3,324,782.31 


4,186,154.47 


7,510,936.78 


76,663,108 


0.980 


1885 


2,878,204.67 


2,208,171.36 


5,086,376.03 


61,115.313 


0.832 


1886 


4,731.959-47 


4,220,408.31 


8,952,367-78 


83,223,960 


1.076 


1887 


4,941,523-77 


5,954,845.19 


10,896,368.96 


79,453,036 


1-371 


1888 


5,468,551.95 


4,340,908.59 


9,809,460.55 


81,504,024 


1.203 


1889 


5,277.331,56 


4,045,825.71 


9,232,157.27 


79,713,671 


1.170 


1890 


5,786,381.36 


4,372,923.28 


10,159,304.65 


82,125,403 


1-237 


1891 


5,412,490.61 


4,089,200.79 


9,501,691.40 


83,555.891 


I-I37 


1892 


5,347,185.88 


3.785.919-72 


9,133,105-60 


76,734,740 


1.190 


1893 


5,141,475-39 


2,959,445-77 


8,100,921.16 


84,581,872 


0.958 


1894 


4.573.605-46 


5,679,549-19 


10,253,154.66 


78,128,643 


1.312 


1895 


4,913,243.95 


8,607,025.18 


13,520,269.13 


85.317,179 


1-585 


1896 


7,351,329-92 


12,659,428.00 


20,005,757.92 


168,856,509 


1. 190 


1897 


9,543,888.99 


40,850,645.21 


50,.394.534-20 


223,678,844 


2.253 


1898 


11,191,474.86 


47,338,427.03 


58,529,901.89 


219,757,569 


2.663 


1899 


14,577,114-24 


47,084,495.87 


61,661,610.11 


254.165.538 


2.426 


1900 


16,911,000.08 


41,363,895.02 


58,274,895.10 


292,750,059 


1.990 


1901 


19,484,952.74 


24,494,374-85 


43,979.327-60 


266,856,824 


1.648 


1902 


21,063,345.00 


15,262,843.29 


36,326,188.29 


289,226,626 


1.256 


1903 


21,530,237.00 


14,587,619.95 


36,117,856.95 


249,596,953 


1-447 


1904 


8,132,720.08 


12,480,498.67 


20,613,218.76 


277,055,682 


0-744 


1905 


12,332.139-14 


11,079,801.72 


23,411,940.86 


420,731,068 


0-556 


1906 


27,991,349-97 


33,885,320.09 


61,876,670.07 


464,275,583 


1-333 


1907 


31,292,935.91 


40.979.383-87 


72,272,319.78 


602,400,959 


1.200 


1908 


34,347,699.64 


37,230,748.13 


71,578,447.77 


626,788,419 


1.141 


1909 


35,143,415.80 


35,902,959-24 


71,046,374.10 


582,893,635 


1-333 


1910 


38,359,312.42 


45,481,219.75 


83,840,532.17 


569,124,027 


1-473 


1911 


40,208,251.47 


60,255,366.29 


100,463,617.76 


585.374.613 


1.721 


1912 


41,533,600.57 


53,951,538.60 


95,485,139.17 


593.596,444 


1.609 


1913 


38,885,701.72 


57,559,890.04 


96,445,591-76 


573,633,925 


1.681 


1914 


30,398,898.97 


52,861,106.66 


83,260,005.64 


648,420,409 


1.284 


1915 


43,112,320.00 


52,376,637.00 


95,488,957-00 


602,610,719 


1-449 


1916 


46,496,165.00 


55,747.761-00 


102,243,926.00 


602,262,972 


1.699 




gyashirazu cliff, karenko district, 

FORMOSA 

To some the Japanese navy may appear 
to be overstaffed as compared with the 
British and other navies. The British fleet 
with its more than 2,500,000 of tonnage has 
scarcely more than 3,000 officers, while the 
Japanese fleet with a little over half a million 
tons has nearly the same number of officers. 
The reason is that Japan aims always to have 
sufficient officers ready on active service to 
fill any complement on emergency; and thus 
while the British navy has about 1.35 officers 
per ton the Japanese navy has 3.42 per ton. 
The Japanese custom of employing officers 
on active service for shore duty and routine 
work may not make for the efficiency of the 
service at sea. In practice the Japanese 
subordinate officer rarely remains at sea 
longer than two years when he is transferred 
to shore service. Sometimes one hears of 
admirals and rear-admirals whose service at 
sea has not been above a few years on training 
ships or as deck officers. In the Japanese 
navy promotion is always by selection and 
never by seniority of service. Promotions 
are decided at the conference of the Admirals' 
Council, the limit being reduced one-half in 
time of war. Midshipmen, after finishing at 
the Cadets' School, have six months on a 
training ship, and are then assigned to various 
warships. A year's practical service having 
been completed they may become second 
sub-lieutenants, and in four months more 
of special study they rise to first sub-lieu- 
tenants, and must have spent full two years 
in active service before they become lieuten- 
ants. A lieutenant-commander must have 
seen five years of active service, and two years 
after promotion he may become a com- 
mander, and another two years can make him 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



59 



a captain, if the Admirals' Council selects 
him for promotion. A rear-admiral must 
have had two years' experience as a captain, 
and in three more years after promotion he 
may be advanced to the rank of vice-admiral, 
Admirals are men of long experience and are 
alwaj's appointed by imperial order. The 
age limit for admirals is 65, vice-admirals 60. 
rear-admirals 56, captains 53, warrant officers 
or engineer commanders 50, commanders 47, 
lieutenant-commanders 45, lieutenants 44, 
first and second lieutenants 40, and other 
ranks are decided according to competency. 
The following table gives the number of 
naval officers and non-commissioned officers 
up to 1916: 



era, and was provided with a technical stafi 
of naval constructors, foremen, and leading 
hands by the French Government. At first 
it was used mainly for general shipbuilding, 
but in 1872 it became the principal ship- 
building establishment of the Japanese navy. 
Up to 1885 only wooden vessels were at- 
tempted, and in 1887 the first iron ship was 
launched, followed by several third-class 
cruisers, and in 1906 the first battleship to be 
built in Japan, the Satsuma, was launched 
from Yokosuka. In addition to its two 
slips for constructing large ships, there are 
three others suitable for destroyers and 
torpedo boats. The yard has four graving 
docks, the largest of which is capable of 



Ranks 


Active 
Service 


Reserve 


Special 
Reserve 


Grand 

Total 


Admirals and those receiving equal treatment. 
Captains, lieutenants, and those receiving 

corresponding treatment 

Special commissioned officers and those 

receiving corresponding treatment 

Cadets 

Non-commissioned officers 

Civil officials in the navy 


99 
3.95'> 

1,642 

173 

31.836 

1 ,069 


92 

503 
271 

18,638 


44 

127 

329 
11,678 


235 

4..S86 

2,242 

173 
82,172 

1.069 


7 0/0/ 


.S8.77.S 


I9„S24 


12,17^ 


W.477 



The rank and file of the Jajianese navy is 
recruited from both conscripts and volun- 
teers, conscription being regarded mostly as 
a supplementary resource, as the service 
always aims to have more volunteers than 
conscripts, the proportions for an average 
five years standing thus: 



taking any ship afloat. In 1865 the Yoko- 
suka yard employed 960 workmen; in 191 1 
it employed over 8,000; in war time it em- 
ploys as many as 16,000; to-day the number 
engaged there is about 11,000. At the out- 
set the area occupied by this yard was only 
18 acres which have now been increased to 



Year 


Conscripts 


Volunteers 


Total 


1910 


3.23,S 


3.487 


6.722 


191 1 


4,092 


4,009 


8,101 


1912 


4,457 


4.363 


8,820 


1913 


2,145 


3,112 


5,257 


1914 


4,501 


3.637 


8,138 



IMPERIAL DOCKYARDS 

The Imperial Navy Yards at present num- 
ber four, Yokosuka, Kure, Sasebo, and 
Maizuru, with three repairing yards of less 
importance at Port Arthur and two other 
places. All the four principal yards possess 
dry docks for the accommodation of large 
warships; and the first two have cradles for 
the construction of dreadnoughts, but the 
latter two yards are able to build only light 
cruisers and destroyers. The Yokosuka navy 
yard is now in equipment, efficiency, and 
execution equal to any yard of its size abroad. 
It was opened in 1864 during the Tokugawa 



1 16. From the Yokosuka yard were launched 
fighting monsters like the Kawachi, the 
Hiyei, and the Yamashiro, for which it was 
able to provide all the propelling machinery, 
castings, forgings, and most of the auxiliary 
machinery. The Kurd dockyard dates from 
1889, and first assumed a place of importance 
just before the war with China in 1894. Its 
two large building slips have launched some 
of Japan's biggest fighting units, while its 
smaller slips have turned out several de- 
stroyers and torpedo boats. It has two 
fair-sized graving docks and one large one, 
able to accommodate the largest of ships. 



The warship Ibuki was launched from this 
yard in six months after laying down the keel, 
and the fine cruiser Tsukiiba, unfortunately 
blown up at Yokosuka in 191 7, was also 
built at Kure. to say nothing of the Seltsu 
and the Fuso, of 21,000 and 31,000 tons 
respectively. At this dockyard the ordnance 
department is equipped for constructing 
guns and mountings up to the largest size, 
most of the armaments for warships built 
in Japan in recent years being produced here. 
The Kure armour plate is reputed to have 
proved more irresistible to modern gunnery 
than that imported. Some 17,000 hands 
are employed at Kurd. The Sasebo navy 
yard is in southwestern Kyushu, not far from 
Nagasaki. Originally intended only for re- 
pair work the yard has shown remarkable 
development. Sasebo is now able to build 
cruisers, and its five docks have good accom- 
modations for quick repairing. The most 
recent of the national navy yards is the one 
at Maizuru on the Sea of Japan, within rail- 
way reach of Osaka. Like Sasebo it was first 
established as a repair depot, but it has 
developed into a fine construction yard where 
cruisers of a formidable type can be turned 
out, as well as destroyers and torpedo boats. 
It has two large and two smaller graving 
docks, with the usual facilities for every sort 
of repair work. Port Arthur possesses a 
good dry dock but still lacks the means for 
constructing ships, while the repair stations 
at Ominato and Takeshiki have floating docks 
equal to minor repairs. The total number of 
workmen engaged in naval construction, 
marine engineering, and other duties con- 
nected with the imperial dockyards is now 
something over 40,000. It is unnecessary 
to say what further facilities Japan enjoys 
in the way of private dockyards capable of 
building the largest ships, as these are dealt 
with under the heading of Shipping and 
Harbours elsewhere in this volume. These 
private dockyards underwent considerable 
development during the European war, and 
are to-day better equipped than ever for 
increasing and replenishing the imperial navy 
as circumstances shall demand. 

Japan's greatest inconvenience in regard 
to ship construction is lack of material. 
This was especially felt during the European 
war when supplies were cut off from Great 
Britain and Europe and the American steel 
mills were engaged in filling orders at home 
and for Europe. Japan has no iron mines 
of any great importance, and is largely de- 
pendent on China for ore. The Imperial 
Steel Works at Yawata in Kyushu can turn 
out 60,000 tons of plate annually if the ore 
is available. The new steel works established 
at Muroran in 1908, as a joint undertaking 
of the Hokkaido Colliery and Steamship 



6o 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



F??; 




Company and Messrs. Armstrong and 
Vickers, of England, is a great assistance to 
the imperial navy in casting big guns. The 
Government is at present devoting consid- 
erable sums to the enlargement of its steel 
works, and securing sources of ore, so as to 
place the Empire in a more independent posi- 
tion as regards ship-construction material 



NAVAL OFFICE, TOKYO 

in case of emergency. For her decks Japan 
brings teak from Siam and pine from Oregon, 
using native woods generally for interiors 
and decorations. 

On the whole it may be said that the 
struggle for a greater and more efficient navy 
in Japan is a question mainly of expenditure. 
Japan has the skill and equipment if she 



can only be sure of the material, and that 
depends on the outlay she can afford. 
It is a problem whether it would not be advis- 
able to discontinue subsidising her mercantile 
marine so liberally and devote the money to 
the more immediate needs of the imperial 
navy, thus doing away with a process that 
is threatening her reserves. 





VIEW OF SUMA BEACH, NEAR KOBE 



VI. Foreign Embassies and Legations 

The British Embassy— The United States Embassy— The French Embassy— The Russian 

Embassy— The Italian Embassy— Germany— Austro-Hungary— The Netherlands 

Legation— The Spanish Legation— The Portuguese Legation— The Belgian 

Legation— The Swedish Legation— The Chinese Legation— The Siamese 

Legation— The Mexican Lecjation— Other Legations 



THE foreign embassies and legations in 
Tokyo stand for something more than 
the mere diplomatic representation 
that pertains to their office in other national 
capitals. They also signify the influence 
that Western nations have had and still are 
having on Japan, and through Japan on that 
portion of Asia which she aspires to lead. 

From the remote period of her obscure 
origin at the dawn of the Christian era, down 
to comparatively modern times, Japan had 
practically no diplomatic intercourse with 
any country save Korea and China, and with 
them mainly in the way of acquiring knowl- 



edge and of attempted aggression. N'o 
sooner had the tribes that colonised the 
Japanese archipelago been fused into a united 
empire by Jimmu Tenno and assumed terri- 
torial independence of China and Korea than 
the new nation began to take an interest in 
the continent from which it had sprung. 
Yamato had to rely on her continental neigh- 
bours for instruction in the arts of civiUsation ; 
but having once acquired these she assumed 
an attitude of futile aggression. It is true 
Japan may have been stung to indignation 
by the raids of Korean pirates and the 
attempts of the Korean kingdoms to foster 



rebellion within the Yamato empire, and was 
thus led to enter upon her earlier invasion 
of the peninsula; but she had no such excuse 
for her later depredations on the continent. 
Having completed the mastery of Korean 
and Chinese civilisation by the sixteenth 
century Japan set out to invade these coun- 
tries in l,S93, the expedition, after devas- 
tating the peninsula of Korea, ultimately 
proving unsuccessful. Then came the Portu- 
guese, Spanish, English, and Dutch, with all 
of whose countries there were desultory 
negotiations leading to nothing of any 
importance except to apprise Japan of the 



62 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



fact that countries more formidable than 
China and Korea lay beyond and threatened 
invasion of the East. Thereupon Japan 
banished all foreigners from her Empire and 
retired into seclusion for more than two hun- 
dred years. 

When history shall have placed all the great 
political events of the nineteenth century in 
their proper perspective, probably none will 
appear more important to posterity than the 
arrival of Commodore Perry's fleet in Japa- 
nese waters on July 8, 1853. For this was the 
beginning of that mighty influence which 
Western nations have had on Japan in awak- 
ening her to a sense of her power to assimilate 
Occidental ways and means for the estab- 
lishment of her supremacy in East Asia. 
The past centiu^y has witnessed the fall of the 
Napoleonic Empire, the unification of Italy, 
the growth of the Germanic ascendency with 
such tragic and disastrous consequences, the 
disintegration of Turkey, the expansion of 



the United States and of the British self- 
governing colonies as well as the opening up 
of Africa; but none of these will eventually 
have a more profound effect on world-civili- 
sation than the modernisation of Japan. In 
the flexibility and tenacity of her racial spirit 
Japan is diff'erent from all other Asiatic peo- 
ples; and if she succeeds in becoming the 
leader of Asia it will be a question of the 
white and the yellow races marching together 
as brothers or the one endeavouring to rule 
the other. Japan's ambition to be regarded 
the leader of Asia would have been impossible 
but for the opening up of the country to inter- 
national intercourse. 

The great events of world-history outlined 
in the last paragraph all served to mark fur- 
ther stages in the development of mankind 
under the dominating influence of Western 
civilisation, confirming the ascendency of the 
white races in spite of their numerical inferi- 
ority. But the opening of Japan, her rapid 



transformation from a feudal to a modern 
state, and her emergence on the plain of inter- 
nationalism equipped with all the material 
implements of peace and war, mark the first 
check to Occidental supremacy over the other 
races of the world. For the changes wrought 
in Japan by the advent of Western civilisation 
are not those experienced by other races 
where the white man has come. Japan has 
simply changed her weapons, but not her 
soul. It is a change of method rather than a 
change of mind. Japan has simply put on 
the garments of Western civilisation as con- 
venient to her policy and purpose, but at 
heart she is still what the ages have made her, 
a proud nation that believes in her own 
innate superiority to all others, her people 
verily the children of the gods. Here for the 
first time since the battle of Tours in the 
eighth century we have an Asiatic nation 
fully assured that the supremacy of the white 
races is not indisputable, and one that 




DISTINGUISHED DIPLO.M.\TS 



(Upper Row, Left to Right) His Excellency, Keishiro Matsui, Ambassador to France since 1915 — Viscount Sutemi Chind.a, Ambassador 
to Great Britain. (Lower Row, Left to Right) Baron Megat.\, Head of the Japanese Financial and Commercial Mission to the 
United States in 191 7 — Mr. Aimaro Sato, Former Ambassador to the United States 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



63 



intends to see that they do not much longer 
rely on the continuance of their vested monop- 
oly of a domineering civilisation. Japan is 
an excellent example of a whole Tiation stoop- 
ing to conquer! 

The foreign embassies and legations in 
Tokyo, therefore, find themselves confronting 
a racial obstinacy not experienced perhaps 
elsewhere outside of Berlin. Ostensibly the 
foreign diplomat is, of course, received with 
every cordiality; but the Japanese never 
forget that he forced his recognition on the 
sacred soil of the gods, and they believe that 
he is still anxious to lead Japan after Western 
ideals, while she has to see to it that he does 
not succeed. At the same time, Japan has 
to appear grateful for what the foreigner has 
done in equipping her as a modern state. It 
is a difficult role for both the Japanese 
authorities and the foreign diplomats to fill; 
but all make the best of it and harmony 
prevails. Yet no countr}- takes matters out 
of the hands of local diplomats and sends her 
own special envoys abroad more often than 
does Japan. The corps diplomatique is re- 
garded as largely ornamental, a compliment 
to Japan's recognition as a first-class power. 
These representatives of Western nations 
engage in the wonted round of felicitations 
and receptions in season, to which the Japa- 
nese authorities duly respond with polite 
advances, but not a step farther than tlie 
utmost diplomatic propriety prescribes. 
There is never any degree of profuse cordiality 
between the embassies and the authorities. 
Get the confidence of the Western diplomat 
and he will admit that he does not feel quite 
sure of Japan. Happily he is more inclined 
to put it down to his own possible misunder- 
standing of the remarkable people than to 
any real ground for distrust. Yet, as his 
association is altogether with the higher 
classes of the people, he must essentially have 
a higher opinion of Japan than the merchant 
who mixes mostly with the lower orders of 
the community. Consequently an adequate 
estimate of the situation should include the 
experiences of both. 

The truth has to be admitted that Japan 
does not really want the foreigner, and en- 
dures his presence only as a dire necessity, 
while the laws in Western countries against 
Japanese immigration render the Japanese 
population all the more averse. Echoes of 
Japan's aversion to foreigners must be heard 
at times in the embassies and legations of 
Tokyo, though silence must perforce be ob- 
served on such matters. The racial spirit 
and prejudice of the Japanese is narrower and 
more impenetrable to alien influence than is 
the case with any other race known to diplo- 
macy; and yet no people are more adept at 
hiding their feelings. The art, if it may be 




VISCOUNT K. ISHII 
.AMB.\SS.\DOR TO THE UNITED ST.\TES 



termed so, is due to the discipline of ages of 
feudalism, wherein an inconvenient show of 
feelings would often cost a man his head. 
Consequently there is practically little real 
social intercourse between foreigners and 
Japanese. There is indeed scarcely any con- 
tact save in the way of trade, which is apt 
to foster jealousy and misunderstanding 
rather than friendship. The Japanese is 
always laboiu-ing under the irritation and 
strain of trying to be himself while accom- 
modating himself to the practice of Western 
method and enterprise, and he satisfies neither 
himself nor his customer. Overconfidence in 
his own instincts leads the average Japanese 
to misjudge or to mistrust the intentions of 
the West. He regards all foreigners as aim- 
ing from the start to get the better of him. 



And this in spite of the fact that Britain and 
America, at least, have always striven to be 
altruistic in their relations with Japan. But 
Japan's success in attaining the rank of a 
first-class nation, annexing the peninsula of 
Korea, and establishing herself permanently 
on the continent of East Asia, are not re- 
garded by her people as due to the good will 
of the powers, but in spite of them, and the 
result of national diplomacy and military 
prowess. During the European war the 
prevaiUng disposition in Japan was to trust 
neither side to the conflict, but to assume an 
attitude of cynical independence, though, of 
course, the authorities did not openly counte- 
nance this. 

Sufficient has been said, perhaps, to show 
that the position of a foreign diplomat in 



64 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Japan is one of the most difficult in the gift 
of his government, and should be filled only 
by the ver>' ablest of men. With Japan 
herself diplomacy is both an art and a science 
of the profoundest study and training. All 
her embassy officials abroad are men of care- 
ful education and long experience, speaking 
fluently the language of the country to which 
they are accredited. As none of the foreign 
ambassadors and ministers to Japan speak 
the language of the country, there is a conse- 
quent tendency to discount their importance 
and influence. The practice of having the 
speeches of the Emperor translated by an 
interpreter for the convenience of foreign 
diplomats has recently been abandoned by 
the imperial court, on the score that it is 
undignified to adhere to a custom not ob- 
ser\-ed in Europe. If this is a hint that all 
foreign diplomats should be able to under- 
stand when addressed by the Emperor of 
Japan, as Japanese diplomats do when spoken 
to by any sovereign in Europe, it is safe to 
say that it will be some time before the sug- 
gestion is acted upon. Yet there is no doubt 
that Western governments would be well 
advised in having as their ambassadors and 
ministers men who are familiar w-ith the 
language and civilisation of Japan. 

EMBASSIES 

THE BRITISH EMBASSY 
The British Legation, now the British 
Embassy, in Tokyo, from the time of its 
establishment more than sixty years ago, 
has occupied a position of prominence and 
power in the Japanese capital, exercising an 
invaluable influence, not only on relations 
between Japan and Great Britain, but on the 
promotion of modem progress within the 
Japanese Empire. This attitude for the good 
of the country w'as particularly manifest in 
the refusal of the British authorities to con- 
cede treaty revision and the abolition of 
extraterritoriality until Japan had modern- 
ised her institutions, especially the judiciary 
under which foreigners were to come. 

Japan's earliest relations with England 
were through individuals charged with no 
diplomatic mission, but who, nevertheless, 
paved the way for international amity later. 
The first British subject to put foot on the 
shores of Japan was a man of Kent, William 
Adams, who was cast ashore from the wreck 
of a Dutch ship in the year i5oo. He was 
detained in the country by the shogun as an 
interpreter and teacher of Western ways, 
especially of shipbuilding; and after serving 
the authorities faithfully for twenty years, 
during which time he gave Japan a taste of 
the British spirit in the "spacious days of 
good Queen Bess," Will Adams, as history 
calls him, died, full of honours and master 




HIS EXCELLENCY THE RIGHT HON. SIR 

CONYNGHAM GREENE, K. C. B., 

BRITISH .AMB.\SS.\DOR TO JAPAN 

of a fine estate. Various other Englishmen 
came to Japan under the auspices of the East 
India Company, for purposes of trade, con- 
spicuous among whom was Captain John 
Saris, who arrived in the ship Clove in 1613 
and met with a cordial reception, being given 
the right to trade where he pleased. After 
some thirteen years the English factory, or 
trading station, in Japan closed down as 
unprofitable, and Japan had no further rela- 
tions with Englishmen until modern times. 
In the year 1853, more than two hundred 
years after the departure of the English mer- 
chants from Hirado, Japan was obliged once 
more to open her gates to foreigners by the 
arrival of Commodore Perry and his fieet 
from the United States. The American offi- 
cer succeeded in securing a treaty of amity 
and commerce from Japan in 1854; and some 
six months afterward a British admiral sailed 
into the harbour of Nagasaki and demanded 
a similar treaty, the request being granted. 
The convention signed at Nagasaki was fol- 
lowed by a larger treaty obtained by Lord 
Elgin in 1858, modelled after the treaty con- 
cluded between America and Japan by Town- 
send Harris in 1857. The British repre- 
sentative remained but five days in Yedo, 
and upon conclusion of the negotiations he 
presented Japan with a ship sent by Queen 
Victoria. The first resident British minister 



to Japan was Sir Rutherford -Alcock, who 
arrived in 1859 as a result of the treaties 
permitting foreigners to reside in the capital 
of the shogun. The years of Sir Rutherford 
Alcock's tenure of office were a crucial period 
for foreigners, many of whom were killed as 
hated intruders on the sacred domain of the 
gods. The secretary to the American Lega- 
tion was murdered and an Englishman named 
Richardson was cut down by the samurai of 
Satsuma because he failed to dismount on 
meeting their lord. This was too much for 
the British Government and the shogun was 
oliliged to pay an indemnity of £50,000 and 
the daimyo of Satsuma £100,000, the latter 
not complying until after the bombardment 
of his capital at Kagoshima by a British fleet. 
Later a British fleet was obliged to participate 
in the bombardment of the forts of Choshu 
at Shimonoseki on account of Japanese firing 
on foreign vessels passing through the straits. 
At this time both Emperor and shogun were 
bitterly opposed to opening the country to 
foreigners, the treaties with whom had been 
signed by the shogun only through fear of 
invasion. Peace was finally restored in 1863, 
Japan paying an indemnity of £600,000. 
Sir Rutherford Alcock retired in 1865, hav- 
ing proved himself an able diplomat and 
an earnest student of things Japanese. Dur- 
ing the four years of his residence in Japan 
the nation learned something of British 
ideas of justice and the sacredness of treaty 
relations. 

The next British Minister to Japan was the 
famous Sir Harry Parkes, one of the most 
remarkable diplomats ever sent to the Far 
East. Having been born and brought up 
in the East he had an adequate knowledge of 
Oriental character. Before coming to Japan 
in 1865 he had been British representative 
in China where he had once been captured and 
put to the torture, he of aU his companions 
surviving. Familiar with the wiles of Ori- 
ental diplomacy and entertaining a whole- 
some fear of Oriental civilisation, Sir Harry 
Parkes was in a position to know just how to 
deal with affairs in Japan, and he successfully 
engineered his country through some of the 
most thrilling episodes of Japanese history. 
As Japan began to experience the birth-throes 
of the Restoration the British Minister saw 
what was going to happen and took the side 
of the Emperor, while most of the other 
diplomats were disposed to aid the shogun. 
Sir Harry Parkes won for himself a reputation 
for great firmness of character and irresistible 
energy, and was universally respected for 
his honesty of motive and candid patriotism. 
Through him Japan obtained the assistance 
of British officers in founding her new navy 
and the inauguration of other important 
reforms and enterprises. 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



65 




THE BRITISH LEGATION AT TOKYO 



In 1883 Sir Harry was succeeded by the 
Right Honourable .Sir F. R. Plunkett, who 
retired in 1888 and was followed by Mr. 
Hugh Frascr, a man of marked character, 
whose charming wife was a sister of the late 
Marion Crawford, the novelist. Mr. Fraser 
died at his post in 1894 and his place was tak- 
en by the Honourable P. le Poer Trench, as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary. .Sir Ernest Satow succeeded Mr. 
Trench in 1895. Sir Ernest was the first of 
a long line of distinguished Oriental scholars 
who have been officials at the British Legation 
in Tokyo, such as Aston, Gubbins, and Hamp- 
den ; but he has been the only one rising to be 
chief. During the incumbency of Sir Ernest 
Satow the foreign treaties saw revision and 
Japan regained her long-desired autonomy. 
With the removal of Sir Ernest Satow to 
Pekin in 1900 the new British Minister to 
Tokyo was Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald; 
and when the Legation was raised to an 
Embassy in 1905 Sir Claude became the first 
British Ambassador to Japan, a position he 
filled with great distinction imtil his retire- 
ment from diplomatic service in 1913. Dur- 
ing his twelve years as British representative 
in Japan Sir Claude MacDonald saw the 
satisfactory conclusion of such important 



treaties as the Anglo- Japanese Alliance and 
the new Treaty of Commerce and Navigation 
with Great Britain, the latter requiring the 
utmost tact and delicacy in the face of a 
high protective tariff on one side and free 
trade on the other. No mention of what 
Sir Claude did for Japan and Great Britain 
would be complete without reference to the 
gracious influence of Lady MacDonald and 
her family on the life and civilisation of 
Linan. 

The present British Ambassador to Japan, 
the Right Honourable William Conyngham 
Greene, was appointed in 19 13, being pro- 
moted from Copenhagen. Sir Conyngham 
was born in Ireland on the 29th of October, 
1854, was educated at Harrow and at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, and passed the exami- 
nation for a clerkship in the British Foreign 
Office in 1877. He became third secretary 
of the Legation at Athens in 1880 and was 
appointed acting third secretary at Stuttgart 
in 1883, and later was charge d'affaires there. 
He went to the same position at Darmstadt 
in 1884 and back to Stuttgart in 1885, being 
raised to the rank of second secretary in 
diplomatic service in 1887, after which he 
was charge d'affaires at Stuttgart till 1889. 
In that year he was transferred to The Hague 



where he acted as charge d'affaires until 
1892, when he was promoted as secretary to 
legation at Teheran, acting there as charge 
d'affaires until 1894. He became H. B. M. 
agent at Pretoria in 1896, and received the 
title of C. B. the following year, later receiving 
the Jubilee Medal and being gazetted K. C. B. 
In May, 1900, Sir Conyngham was appointed 
Minister to Switzerland from which he was 
transferred to Copenhagen in 1 9 11 , where 
he remained until his promotion to the British 
Embassy in Tokyo in 1913, previous to which 
he had been sworn as a Privy Councillor. 
He was gazetted a G. C. M. G. in June, 19 14. 
In 1915 Sir Conyngham was decorated with 
the Order of the Grand Cordon of Paulownia 
by the Emperor of Japan. He was married 
to Lady Lily Frances Stopford, fifth daughter 
of the fifth Earl of Courtown, in 1884, and 
has two sons and two daughters. .Sir Conyng- 
ham had no easy position to fill during the 
period of the European war when the machin- 
ations of the enemy were rife in the Far East; 
but managed diplomatic affairs with great tact 
and distinction, while Lady Lily supervised the 
remarkable work done by the British ladies 
in Tokyo for the relief of wounded soldiers. 

The Councillor of the British Embassy in 
Tokyo since 19 14 has been Mr. Herman 



66 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Cameron Norman. Mr. Norman was born 
June 8, 1872, and after passing through the 
schools was nominated atlache in 1894, when 
he passed the competitive examination, and 
was appointed to Cairo in 1896, where he 
received an allowance for knowledge of 
Arabic. He was promoted third secretary in 
1897 and transferred to Constantinople, 
being granted an allowance for knowledge of 
Turkish in 1898. Mr. Norman was trans- 
ferred to the British Embassy at Washington 
in 1900, rising to the rank of second secre- 
tary the same year. He attended the repre- 
sentative of the Dominican Republic at the 
coronation of King Edward VII and received 
the Coronation Medal. Transferred to St. 
Petersburg in 1903 he received the allowance 
for knowledge of Russian in 1904, and then 
returned to the Foreign Office in London till 
1906, when he was promoted to the rank of 
first secretary in the diplomatic service and 
acted as secretary to the conference on sleep- 
ing sickness convened in London in 1907 and 
to the International Naval Conference in 
1908. Mr. Norman attended the Persian 
representative at the coronation of King 
George V and received the Coronation Medal. 
He organised the secretariat of the conference 
of Allied Balkan States which met at St. 
James's Palace to conclude peace with Tur- 
key in 1912, and was appointed to his present 
post in Tokyo in 19 1 4. 

Other important members of the British 
Embassy staff are Mr. C. Wingfield, who is 
first secretary. Count Charles Henry Ben- 
tinck, the second secretary, and Mr. H. 
Hobart-Hampden, Japanese secretary. 

THE UNITED STATES EMBASSY 
As America was the first nation to open 
diplomatic intercourse with Japan her repre- 
sentation was naturally the first to be estab- 
lished in the Empire. Various futile attempts 
had been made by individvial Americans to 
open up negotiations with Japan for pur- 
poses of trade, the more important of which 
was the visit of the ship Morrison in 1837, 
which, though bearing a party of shipwrecked 
Japanese on board, was nevertheless fired at 
on approaching Yedo Bay and forced to retire 
with its mission unfulfilled. Captain Cooper 
came with another group of Japanese cast- 
aways in 1845, and met with a more cordial 
reception owing to Japan's greater familiarity 
with foreigners in the meantime. Though 
allowed to remain four days he was warned 
on his departure never to return, no matter 
how many Japanese he should find in distress. 
Commodore Biddle appeared in Yedo Bay 
in 1846, but was immediately surrounded by a 
cordon of war-junks and informed that no 
intercourse would be permitted between 
foreigners and Japan. In 1849 Commander 




HON. ROLAND S. MORRIS, 
.\MERIC.\N AMBASS.\DOR TO JAPAN 

Glynn of the American ship Preble sailed into 
Nagasaki harbour and demanded the release 
of some shipwrecked American sailors held 
prisoners there, and his request was reluc- 
tantly obeyed. Reports of ill treatment 
and often cruelty to American sailors created 
apprehension in America; and as the Japanese 
coast was now swarming with American 
whalers who might at any time find them- 
selves cast ashore, it was felt by the United 
States Government that some understanding 
with Japan was absolutely necessary. And 
so in 1853 Commodore Perry was commis- 
sioned by the President of the United States 
to proceed to Japan with a small fleet and 
open friendly intercourse with the country. 
He arrived in the Bay of Yedo with his "black 
ships, " whose dense volumes of lilack smoke 
terrified the inhabitants of the shogun's 
capital, but succeeded only in delivering the 
letter he had brought from President Fillmore, 
saying he would return the following year 
for a reply. In March, 1854, Perry came 
back and succeeded in negotiating a treaty 
of intercourse with Japan. The Japanese 
contend that he forced a treaty on the helpless 
shogun at the muzzle of his guns, but Ameri- 
can official papers and the evidence of eye 
witnesses, two of whom are still living, do 
not bear out this view. At any rate Perry 
gained a signal victory in a diplomatic sense 
without firing a single shot or unduly offend- 
ing the sensibilities of the Japanese. To 
have knocked at the portals of a nation closed 
to foreign intercourse for more than two hun- 
dred years and to have gained an entrance 
was regarded as a triumph by the nations of 



the world, all of whom forthwith rushed in 
to obtain a similar favour. 

An American consul was despatched to 
Shimoda and another to Hakodate, the other 
open port. The consul sent to Shimoda, a 
little town in the peninsula of Izu, was the 
famous Townsend Harris who afterward 
became United States Minister to Tokyo. 
During his incumbency the American Lega- 
tion secured the opening of additional ports 
to trade and the various powers the right of 
sending representatives to the Japanese 
capital. With the assistance of the American 
Minister Japan despatched her first embassy 
abroad in i860. After rendering numerous 
invaluable services both to Japan and his 
own country Townsend Harris retired through 
ill health in 1862, and was succeeded by the 
Honourable R. H. Prnyn of New York. The 
new Minister had to weather the storm of 
anti-foreign agitation that now broke out. 
The American Legation was burnt and its 
secretary, Mr. Heusken, was murdered. 
Then came the bombardment of the forts of 
Choshu at Shimonoseki and the big indemnity 
paid by Japan, the American portion, 
amounting to some $300,000, being subse- 
quently returned. Mr. R. B. van Valken- 
burg came to the American Legation in 1866, 
and within a year was able to notify his 
government of the repeal of a decree that had 
for more than two centuries prohibited Japa- 
nese from leaving their country. The repre- 
sentative of the United States exercised a 
powerful influence during the years 1868-9 
when the Restoration of imperial power was 
brought about, joining with the British 
Minister in supporting the imperial cause 
against the shogun. The American Legation 
also had much to do with removing the ban 
on Christianity, and when there came a 
revival of restrictions against the foreign 
religion the protest of the American Minister 
to his home government led to complete 
freedom of faith in Japan. Owing to Japan's 
antiquated system of laws and customs she 
lost some of her judicial and trade autonomy 
in the first treaties with foreign nations; and 
when she later became naturally restless 
under this discrimination and sought a re\d- 
sion of the treaties in her favour, the Ameri- 
can Legation did everything possible to fur- 
ther this end, and assisted in sending a Japa- 
nese embassy abroad for this purpose in 1871 . 
The policy adopted by Commodore Perry 
of frankly stating facts and conditions and 
requesting official action on the basis of truth 
and fact has always been followed by the 
United States representatives in Tokyo and 
has done much to help toward a mutual 
understanding between the two countries. 
After the retirement of Mr. Charles de Long 
as American Minister in 1873 he was 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



67 



succeeded by Mr. John A. Bingham, who was 
the first representative from the United States 
to bear the title Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Pleni])otentiary. He was followed 
by Mr. Richard B. Hubbard in 1885, and he 
again by Mr. John F. Swift in 1889. Mr. 
Frank L. Coombs arrived as Minister in 
1892 and Mr. Edwin Dun in 1893. His 
successor, Colonel Alfred E. Buck, was a 
man of remarkable personality and left an 
indelible impression foi good on Japanese 
and foreigners alike, being a notable gentle- 
man of the old school. Mr. Lloyd C. Gris- 
com, who was Minister during the Russo- 
Japanese War, displayed great tact and 
aljility at a crucial period, and was followed 
by Governor Luke E. Wright in 1906, he 
being the first American Ambassador to 
Japan. During his brief tenure of one year 
Ambassador Wright dealt successfully with 
the difficult immigration problem, and was 
succeeded by the Honourable Thomas J. 
O'Brien in 1907, who was promoted from 
Denmark. The new Ambassador had the 
by no means easy task of carrying through 
the negotiations with regard to Japanese 
rights in California and the Treaty of Com- 
merce and Navigation between America and 
Japan, as well as adjusting the rights of 
American citizens in Korea after annexation. 
The next Ambassador was Colonel Charles 
Page Bryan who had previously been Ameri- 
can Minister to Lisbon, and to Brussels. 
Colonel Bryan did much to draw Americans 
and Japanese into closer friendship and re- 
tired in 19 1 1 , to be succeeded by the Honour- 
able Larz Anderson, whose brief sojourn in 
Japan afforded an excellent example of an 
American samurai. With the change of 
government at Washington in 19 13 the new 
American Ambassador to Japan was the 
Honourable George Wilkins Gutherie, who 
died at his post in 1917, and was succeeded 
by Mr. Roland S. Morris of Philadelphia who 
still remains Ambassador at the time of 
writing. Ambassador Morris was born on 
the nth of March, 1874, was educated at the 
University of Princeton in arts and at the 
University of Pennsylvania in law, being 
graduated in 1899. In 1903 he married Miss 
August Shippen West of Philadelphia and 
has two children. Before coming to Japan 
Mr. Morris was a prominent member of the 
American bar and influential in political 
circles, having been a law examiner and a 
chairman of the Democratic State Committee, 
presiding at the conference of such state 
committees as met at Washington. 

The councillor of the American Embassy is 
Dr. Post Wheeler who was born in New York 
in 1 87 1, educated at Princeton University 
and the Sorbonne in Paris. He married 
Miss Hallie E. Rives, the authoress, and was 




HIS E.XCELLENCY M. EUGENE LOUIS GEORGES REGN.-^ULT, AMB.\SS.'iDEUR E.\TR.\ORDINAlKE 
ET PLENIPOTENTIAIRE DE LA REPUBLIC FRANfAISE 



appointed second secretary to the American 
Embassy in Tokyo in 1906. He was first 
secretary at Petrograd in 19 10 and at Rome 
in 1913, being appointed to the same posi- 
tion in Tokyo in 1914, and later made em- 
bassy councillor, acting as charge d'affaires 
during the absence of the Ambassador. The 
Japanese secretary of the embassy is Mr. 
Charles J. Arnell who was bom in 1881. 
After valuable service in various government 
positions he became private secretary to the 
American Ambassador in 1906, American 
Vice-Consul-General at Mukden in 1907, at 
Antung in 1908, and Japanese secretary at 
the Embassy in 1909. As attaches and other 
officials of the Embassy frequently change, 
their names can not be included in this 
volume. 

THE FRENCH EMB.\SSY 
Fr.^nce, though long prominent in India 
and at one time influential in Siara, seems 
to have made little effort to open up inter- 
course with Japan during the period when 
Spain and Portugal, Holland and England, 
were endeavouring to exploit the treasures 
of the Far East. During the reign of 
Louis XIV, however, the great financier 
Colbert seems to have projected an expedi- 
tion to Japan for the purpose of obtaining 
gold and rehabilitating the depleted finances 
of France. Accordingly a French East 
India Company was established and prepara- 



tions made for opening up of trade with the 
Far East, with Caron, who had already been 
in Japan with the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, at the head of the expedition. The 
project finally fell through and we do not hear 
of any subsequent effort to establish inter- 
course with Japan until 1S43 when a French 
ship touched at the Luchu Islands. Three 
years later a French ship entered the harbour 
of Nagasaki to ask for provisions and to 
present a petition asking kind treatment for 
French subjects shipwrecked on ths shores 
of Japan, receiving no reply from the Japa- 
nese authorities. In 1859 Nagasaki was again 
visited by a French admiral who requested 
intercourse; but the strange ship was quickly 
surrounded by war-junks and the French 
left without accomplishing their mission. 
Eight years later the French frigate Cleo- 
patra called at Hakodate, Shimoda, and 
Nagasaki to open friendly intercourse with 
Japan on the same terms as had been accorded 
Commodore Perry. After being threatened 
by war-junks Admiral Cecille sailed up to 
Yedo Bay and demanded a treaty direct 
from the shogun, as Perry had done. The 
request was complied with after much 
negotiation and a French Minister was 
appointed to Yedo in 1859 in the person of 
M. Duchesne de Bellecourt, who was hon- 
oured with a personal audience by the shogun. 
Three years later he was succeeded by M. 
Leon Roches as Minister Plenipotentiary, 



68 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



who proved an able diplomat and carried his 
legation safely through the trj-ing period of 
anti-foreign agitation. In l86,-5 when the 
Tokugawa government repented of having 
granted concessions to foreigners and the 
ports opened were closed and the various 
daimyo warned to prevent the passage of 
foreign ships, a French ship was fired upon 
while passing through the Straits of Shimono- 
seki, leading to a Ijombardraent of the forts 
by a combined fleet of the powers. From 
this time onward relations between France 
and Japan proved of the most amiable 
nature. The French Minister, M. Roches, 
found able contemporaries in the British, 
German, and American Ministers in Yedo, 
but in friendly rivalry made, the mistake of 
siding with the shogun against the Imperial 
Restoration. The French Minister, how- 
ever, succeeded in thus ingratiating himself 
with the Bakufu authorities and a Japanese 
envoy was sent to France to make arrange- 
ments for introducing the French military 
system into Japan. In the wars of the 
Revolution French officers assisted the troops 
of the shogun, and the authorities were also 
on the point of utilising French warships 
to maintain their position, when it was sug- 
gested that a dangerous precedent for the 
interference of foreigners in Japanese affairs 
might thereby be established. In 1.868 the 
new French Minister. M. Maxime Outrey, 
arrived in Tokyo and continued to occupy 



the Legation for the next five years, during 
which period the Franco-Prussian War 
broke out. As France was worsted in the 
conflict Japan now abandoned her adoption 
of the French militars' system and took the 
German. In 1873 Compt de Berthemey 
came as French Minister to Japan, remaining 
until 1876, when a change again took place 
in the French Legation, M. de Geofroy be- 
coming Minister and Envoy Extraordinary. 
M. Guillaume de Roquette became Minister 
in 1880 and had to do with the revision of 
the treaties between France and Japan, 
which were again revised in 1900. The 
French Minister at Tokv'O in 1883 was 
M. Tricon, and iVl. Sienkiewiez became 
Minister in 1894, soon followed by M. Har- 
mand, who was in Tokyo when France united 
with Russia and Germany in excluding Japan 
from possession of the Liaotung Peninsula 
after the war with China. Then came M. 
Auguste Gerard, one of the ablest represen- 
tatives France has ever had in Japan, and her 
first Ambassador after the Legation was 
raised to an Embassy, in 1906. M. Gerard 
was exceedingly popular among all nation- 
alities and not least among the Japanese. 
He retired in 19 13 and was succeeded by 
M. Eugene Louis Georges Regnault, the 
present Ambassador of France in Tok\'o. 
M. Regnault was born on the 28th of Decem- 
ber, 1857, graduated in law and entered the 
Foreign Office in 1883, becoming secretary of 




THE FRENCH CONSULATE, .\T THE FOOT OF THE BLLFF, YOKOHAMA 



the Tunisian Government in 1884. He was 
appointed consul at Piraeus in 1891 and at 
Salonika in 1892, taking an important posi- 
tion in the Foreign Office again in 1 894. He 
went on a special mission to the East in 
1895, became chief of the foreign secretary's 
office in 1896, and went with the foreign 
minister to Petrograd on a mission in 1897. 
M. Regnault was appointed Constil-General 
at Geneva in 1898 and was made a charge 
of the Morocco mission in 1904. He was 
made an officer of the Legion of Honour in 
1904 and second plenipotentiary to the 
Algeciras Conference in 1906, and later 
became Minister to Morocco. He received 
the decoration of the Commander of the 
Legion of Honour in 19 12 and was appointed 
French Ambassador to Tokyo in 19 1 3. 
M. Regnault married Mile. Cardon. As 
the chief officials of the Embassy were absent 
during the war in Europe their names are 
not mentioned here. 

THE RUSSI.\N E.MBASSY 
Relations between Japan and Russia 
were for many years based on the circum- 
stance that Japan was a backdoor neighbour, 
until recent events, which have contributed 
to a mutual recognition of each other's rights. 
It is true that while other nations were 
endeavouring to open up commercial inter- 
course with Japan, Russia was lient upon 
similar favours, but she was constantly sus- 
pected of territorial ambitions as well. 
In 1 713 Russian ships explored the Kurile 
and other northern islands and later, in 1 736, 
a second attempt was made to regard these 
islands as Russian, the surveyors coming as 
far south as Yezo and even surveying some 
of the harbours of Japan. These explorations ' 
were renewed by Potonchew in 1777, and 
ten years later La Perouse made maps of 
Yezo and of the straits that bear his name, 
obtaining for Europe its first reliable knowl- 
edge of Japan. In 1783 the Empress of 
Russia, Catherine II, directed certain Japa- 
nese castaways to be returned to Japan, and 
advantage was taken of the mission to seek 
to open commercial and diplomatic inter- 
course with Japan. The expedition arrived 
at Matsumae in the north in 1792 and was 
informed that Japan had no intercourse with 
foreign nations and to depart and never 
return. The interest taken by Russia in 
Japan at this time may be seen from 
the fact that Japanese sailors cast ashore 
on the Russian littoral were employed 
as teachers of Japanese in schools in 
Irkutsk. In 1804 a Russian ship under 
Captain Krusenstern arrived at Nagasaki 
with Count Resanoff, an envoy from 
the Tzar, negotiations being carried on 
through Dutch interpreters. The Japanese 



PRESENT-DAV IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



69 



evinced abnormal suspicion of tlic mission 
and nothing could be accomplished, the 
Russians putting it down to the jealousy of 
the Dutch. In retaliation for this treat- 
ment reprisals were made on the Kuriles in 
1806, the raids creating immense excitement 
in Japan. In 181 1 Captain Golownin, a 
Russian naval officer, and his companions, 
while engaged in taking surveys of the Kurile 
Islands, were invited into a fort for negotia- 
tions and taken prisoner by the Japanese, who 
subjected them to great hardships. They did 
not succeed in obtaining their freedom until 
two years afterward when Captain Rikord 
came with a Russian apology for the raids 
on the Kuriles. No further attempts were 
made to open intercourse with Japan until a 
Russian squadron sailed into Nagasaki in 
1853 and demanded treatment similar to 
that accorded Commodore Perry. Admiral 
Pontiatine obtained his request, the new 
treaty being of great advantage to Russia 
at a time when she was at war with Britain 
and wanted a place of refuge for her ships 
in Oriental waters. A special embassy from 
the shogun's government was despatched to 
Russia in 1864 but without effect, and 
further negotiations were opened in 1875 
for the settlement of disputes regarding 
Saghalien and the Kuriles, when Japan was 
obliged to exchange the former for the latter. 
The first Russian representative in Japan 
was M. Eugenie Byustoff, who was Consul- 
General and charge d'affaires. He was 
followed by M. Sturve in 1875, the latter 
being created Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary in 1877. M. David- 
off was appointed Minister to Japan in 1883 
and two years later was succeeded by 
M. Schievitch, during whose tenure of office 
occurred the unfortunate attack on the 
Russian Legation and, in i8gi, the following 
year, on the life of the Tzarevitch who was 
on a visit to Japan. In 1893 M. Hitrovo 
became Minister to Japan, and remained 
until relieved by the arrival of Baron Rosen 
in 1897. He was succeeded by M. Iswolsky 
in 1900. Baron Rosen was again appointed 
to Tokyo in 1903 as relations between Japan 
and Russia then were such as to demand the 
presence of one well versed in Japanese 
affairs. Baron Rosen had the difficult task 
of the negotiations immediately preceding 
the war with Japan. Upon the resumption 
of peace the new Russian Minister to Japan 
was M. Bakhmeteff, who arrived in 1906, 
since when both countries have been on the 
best of terms, with ever brighter prospects 
diplomatically for the future, their mutual 
interests in East Asia rendering amicable 
relations essential. Russia sent her first 
Ambassador to Japan in 1908 in the person 
of M. Nicolas Malewitch Malewsky, who 



represented his country with distinction until 
his retirement in 1916, when M. Basilc 
Kroupensky came to the Embassy. 

M. Kroupensky began his diplomatic 
career as third secretary of the Russian 
Legation at Constantinople, being promoted 
to second secretary at the same place in 
1898. He was subsequently transferred to 
the same position in the Legation at Pekin, 
and was besieged there with the other diplo- 
mats during the Boxer Rebellion. Subse- 
quently he became councillor to the Russian 
Embassies in Washington and Berlin and 
later at Vienna. In 19 12 he became Russian 
Minister to China, and was promoted to 
his present position at Tokyo in 1916. The 
councillor of the Russian Embassy in Tokyo 



M. Shekine and the first secretary is Baron 



IS 



Behr. 



THE ITALI.\N EMBASSY 
In a way Italy has the honour of first mak- 
ing known to the Western world the existence 
of Japan. Before the thirteenth century 
Europe had some dim knowledge of the land 
of Far Cathay, but not even a suspicion that 
there was such a country as Japan. But in 
the year 1275 a Venetian traveller, Marco 
Polo, had succeeded in making his way by 
the Indian route to China where, at the 
court of the famous ruler, Khublai Khan, he 
learned of an empire still farther eastward 
whose wealth in gold was limitless. The 
information was brought back to Europe by 




A JAPANESE GARDEN K1 KYOTO 



70 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Marco Polo and resulted in the organisation 
of East Indian trading companies for the 
exploitation of East Asia. One of the first 
to take advantage of the knowledge im- 
parted by the returned traveller was another 
son of Italy, Christopher Columbus, the 
Genoese sailor, who set out for the East and 
discovered America instead. Thus did Amer- 
ica come between Japan and European inva- 
sion, tiuTiing the drift of immigration to the 
New World. In this way the sons of Italy 
have had a far-reaching effect on Japan even 
before any of them ever visited her shores. 

The first Italians to set foot on Japanese 
soil were Jesuit missionaries; and as these 
were imder the jurisdiction of the Pope of 
Rome, they naturally brought Japan into 
contact with Italy. An embassy went from 
Japan to Italy in 1582 and another in 1614. 
The Jesuit father, Sidotti, was one of the 
most fearless of the missionaries dming the 
days of bloody persecution; and from him 
the Japanese obtained much knowledge of 
Western countries. After the Japanese 
authorities began to concede treaties of inter- 
course to Western countries, Italy made 
application for similar favours and obtained 
them. In the year 1866 an Italian warship 
arrived for this purpose and concluded a 
provisional treaty with the shogun, a regular 
and permanent treaty being negotiated the 
following year, along the lines of those con- 
ceded to other countries. In the year 1869 
the first Italian Minister to Japan arrived 
in the person of Count Vittorio Sallier de la 
Tour, who was succeeded in the following 
year by Count Alessandro F6 D'Ostiani. 
The latter remained seven years and then in 
1877 Count Raffaele Ulisse Barbolani was 
appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary to Japan, during whose 
tenure an Italian Royal Prince visited Japan 
and was accorded imperial honours. In 
1882 came Chevalier Eugenio Martin Lan- 
ciarez who acted as charge d'affaires during 
the revision of the foreign treaties, and was 
succeeded by Count Renato de Martino in 
1883. Coimt de Martino remained until 
1894 when Count Ercole Orfini was appointed 
Minister to Tokyo. He continued in the 
Legation until 1901, when he was replaced 
by Coimt Gulio Melegari, w'ho represented 
Italy in Tokyo until 1904. Count Gulie 
Cesare Vinci then became Minister to Japan. 
After the European nations raised their 
legations in Tokyo to embassies the first 
Italian Ambassador to Japan was Count 
Giovaimi Gallina, who arrived in 1907, and 
was succeeded by Marquis Alessandro 
Guiccioli in the following year. The present 
Italian Ambassador to Tokyo is Count 
Fausto Cucchi-Boasso, who was appointed 
in 1916. 



GERMANY 
It is very natural that Imperial Germany 
should have long held a definite place in the 
mind of Imperial Japan, who has based her 
national constitution and many of her laws 
on those of Germany. In fact, the two na- 
tions have had so much in common in various 
ways that they have never been overdemon- 
strative, toward each other, and the war in 
Europe has separated them still farther. 
German influence in Japan, however, has 
been very great, especially on the national 
army and on the national educational system. 
Diplomatically Germany was somewhat 
behind Great Britain and America in opening 
up relations with Japan. A Prussian war- 
ship arrived in Yedo Bay in i860 and asked 
for a treaty of intercourse such as had been 
conceded to the United States and England, 
and though the Bakufii at first hesitated, the 
perseverance of the German admiral pre- 
vailed and a provisional treaty was finally 
arranged. Another German warship ap- 
peared in Yedo Bay in 1863 and proceeded 
to make a sur\'ey of the waters. In 1868 
Germany appealed for a more satisfactory 
treaty with Japan, and one was granted 
giving full rights and privileges. Herr von 
Brandt, the first German representative, 
took up his residence in 1863 as Consul and 
was made Consul- General in 1868. After 
the unification of Germany in 1871 Herr \-on 
Brandt was appointed the first German 
Minister to Japan, presenting his credentials 
from the emperor of the newly organised 
empire, William I. Herr von Brandt was 
German Minister in Tokyo during the time 
that Sir Harry Parkes represented Great 
Britain, and the two diplomats worked 
together in an amicable spirit for the progress 
of Japan toward modern ways, even keeping 
up a regular correspondence after the removal 
of the German Mini.ster to Pekin. The next 
German Minister to Tokyo was Herr von 
Eisendecher who came in 1875 and remained 
until 1880, when he was succeeded by Count 
Doenhoff as Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary. In 1879 the Emperor 
of Japan conferred on the Emperor of Ger- 
many the Grand Cordon of the Chrysan- 
themum, the highest honour within the 
imperial gift ; and in the following year Prince 
William Heinrich visited Japan and conveyed 
to the Emperor the Order of the Black Eagle. 
Dr. von Holleben was accredited Minister to 
Japan in 1886 and Baron von Gutschmid in 
1892. It was at this time that Germany 
united with Russia and France in ousting 
Japan from the Liaotung Peninsula, and 
diplomatic relations were much strained. 
Count Leyden was appointed Minister to 
Tokyo in 1898 and was succeeded three years 
later by Count von Arco Valley. When the 



Legation was raised to the rank of an Em- 
bassy in 1906 the first German Ambassador 
to Japan was Baron Mumm von Schwarzen- 
stein who remained until 191 1, when Count 
von Rex became Ambassador. Count von 
Rex held office until the rupture of relations 
with Japan in 19 14 on the outbreak of the 
war in Europe. Japan, in accordance with 
the terms of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 
took the side of England in the struggle, 
and requested Germany to withdraw from 
Kiaouchou. Germany refused and Japan 
invested Tsingtau and reduced the fortress 
to submission. 

.\USTRO-HUNG.\RY 

Though the Empire of Austro-Hungary 
forms one of the great powers of Europe, 
relations with Japan have been of such recent 
date that there is not a great deal to be said 
in the way of history. Austria, for many 
years both before and after its union with 
the Crown of Hungary, was engaged in such 
constant warfare that there was little time 
or opportunity for opening up intercourse 
with regions more remote. But as soon as 
Japan opened her ports to foreign commerce 
and began to make treaties with the nations 
of Europe, Austro-Hungary came in for 
similar favours. 

The first negotiations for treaty relations 
between Japan and Austria began in 1869, 
the proceedings being conducted by the 
Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs. The 
treaty concluded was signed on the 12th of 
September the same year, and the first 
Austrian Minister to Japan, Count Petz, 
presented his credentials and was accorded 
an audience by the Emperor of Japan. On 
the 28th of November, 1871, Japan opened 
further negotiations for improvement of 
treaty relations with Austria and a new treaty 
was formally signed on the 3d of December 
in the same year. The new Austro-Hunga- 
rian Minister was Heinrich Freiberr von 
Calice who remained in Tokyo until March, 
1874. During the year 1873 relations be- 
tween Japan and Austria were made closer 
by an invitation from Vienna asking Japan 
to participate in the great International 
Exhibition to be held there. This was one of 
Japan's earliest opportunities of introducing 
her arts and manufactures to the Western 
world, and she in t\irn brought back from 
Europe many valuable hints with regard to 
industry. In March, 1874, Pgnaz Freiberr 
von Schaeffer came as Minister to Japan, 
remaining three years, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Herr Carl Ritter von Boleslawski 
during whose two years of office no important 
event marked the relations between the two 
countries. From 1879 to 1882 Herr Mixi- 
milian Ritter Hoffer von Hoffenfels was 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



71 



Austrian Minister in Tokyo, after which the 
legation was occupied by Carl Graff Zalushi, 
during whose tenure of office the foreign 
treaties were revised. In 1888 Rudiger 
Freiherr von Biegeleben represented his 
country at the Court of the Mikado, remain- 
ing until 1895, when he was succeeded by 
Christoph Graf von Wydenbruch who con- 
tinued to represent his country until October, 
1899, during which period a revised Treaty 
of Navigation and Commerce was success- 
fully concluded with Japan. Adalbert Am- 
bro von Adamosz, who came as Minister in 
October, 1899, was promoted to the rank 
of Ambassador in 1907, and was succeeded 
by Baron Guido de Call in March, 1909. In 
September, 1912, Baron Ladislaus Miillcr 
was appointed Ambassador to Japan and 
remained until the rupture of diplomatic 
relations in 19 14 on account of the European 
war. 

LEGATIONS 

THE NETHERLANDS LEGATION 
The Dutch, as is well known, were among 
the first Europeans to open up intercourse 
with Japan. The first Hollander to set foot 
on the sacred soil of the gods was Derrick 
Gerritson who came on a ship of the Portu- 
guese East India Company in 1585. On 
his return to Europe Gerritson spread the 
report that there was a good opening for 
woollen cloth in Japan and a Dutch East 
India Company was established in 1602 to 
engage in trade with Japan and the Far 
East. The organisation of the company was 
furthered by the expulsion of the Dutch from 
Lisbon by Philip of Spain when he became 
king of Portugal in 1580; and to make up for 
their loss of trade as distributors of spices in 
Europe they started out to trade with the 
East on their own account. Indeed, the 
Netherlands had been so ruthlessly pillaged 
by Spain that the only hope of the country 
was on the sea whence the people endeavoured 
to repair their shattered fortunes by trade. 
Dutchmen arrived in Japan on the same ship 
with Will Adams, the Englishman; and one 
of these, Jan Yoosen van Lodenstein, was 
employed as an interpreter by the shogun, 
but he fell into debt and bad habits and was 
finally banished the country. He has left 
his name in Tokyo, however, Yalsucho in 
Nihonbashi, the place where his house stood, 
being called after him. The first Dutch 
ships that came to Japan were welcomed and 
given permission to trade where they would, 
and from 1608 to 1638 there was unre- 
stricted trade between Japan and Holland; 
but when foreigners were finally banished the 
Dutch were confined to Nagasaki and 
allowed to trade when all other foreigners 
except Chinese had been driven out. During 




A WELL KNOWN SPOT NEAR THE IMPERIAL HOTEL, TOKYO 



the seventeenth century Dutch ships came 
regularly to Nagasaki, save toward the end, 
when they had carried away so much gold 
that only two a year were permitted to 
arrive; and as these carried American sailors 
to avoid seizure by the English, the Japanese 
became suspicious of them and serious com- 
plications threatened. Up to the middle of 
the nineteenth century the Dutch settlement 
at Nagasaki was Japan's only means of com- 
munication with the outside world. In this 



way, however, sufficient knowledge was 
acquired to prepare Japan for the subsequent 
intercourse forced upon her by Western 
nations. Among the Dutchmen at Nagasaki 
there were some distinguished scholars, such 
as Kaempfer and von Siebold, who imparted 
stores of knowledge to Japan and made Japan 
known in the Western world. In i860 a 
Dutch subject in the employ of the American 
Legation as secretary and interpreter, Mr. 
Huesken, was assassinated. The first Consul 




METROPOLITAN POLICE OFFICE AND IMPERIAL THEATRE, TOKYO 



^2 



PRESENT-DAY I M I' U K S S I O N S OF JAPAN 



from the Netherlands came to Japan in 1 868 
in the person of Herr van Vorsblok and he 
was followed by Herr van Doerfen in 1871, 
who also acted for Norway and Sweden. 
He was the first foreign representative in 
Tok}-o to call at the imperial palace on New 
Year's Day to offer felicitations to the Em- 
peror, a custom subsequently adopted and 
since continued by all foreign representatives 
in Tokj-o. The first treaty between Japan 
and Holland was concluded in 1856 shortly 
after the opening of the country, this being 
replaced by another in 1866 and this again 
was changed, when the foreign treaties were 
revised and consular jurisdiction abolished. 
One of the most popular representatives of 
the Netherlands in Tokyo was Herr J. H. van 
Roj-en who remained until the appointment 
of the present Minister, Baron Dirk van 
Asbeck. The councillor of the Dutch Lega- 
tion, Herr Leon van de Polder, is one of the 
oldest and most respected diplomatic officials 
in Tokyo, having been in office there for a 
great many years. 

THE SPANISH LEGATION 
Spain was one of the first European na- 
tions to have communication witli Japan, 



her merchants and missionaries arriving about 
the middle of the sixteenth century. The 
saintly Francis Xavier landed near Kago- 
shima in 1548 and from that time there was 
a steady influx of missionaries until, in half 
a century, there were nearly a million Chris- 
tians among the Japanese. These Spanish 
missionaries and merchants gave Japan her 
earliest authentic knowledge of Europe and 
of Western civiUsation. But through the 
jealousy of the Portuguese the Japanese 
authorities began to hear of Spanish aggres- 
sion in Mexico, South America, and the 
Philippines, and this, together with the 
adverse attitude of the Spanish missionaries 
to Japanese laws and morals, aroused suspi- 
cion in the minds of the authorities and 
finally all foreigners were banished the coun- 
try except the Dutch and Chinese. The 
expulsion of the missionaries was not accom- 
plished without persecution of the most 
bloodthirsty nature, an account of which 
will be found in the article on Religion else- 
where in this volume. One can not refrain 
from seeing in the awful sufferings of the 
Spanish missionaries in Japan something of 
the Nemesis of fate for the tortures of the 
"Holy Inquisition" in Spain itself. Not- 



withstanding his determination to rid the 
countr>' of foreigners, the shogun had no 
desire to force a rupture of relations with 
Spain, and an embassy was sent to Europe 
in 1 61 4 with the idea of seeking an audience 
with the King of Spain as well as proceeding 
to Rome to see the Pope. In 1609 a Spanish 
ship bearing Don Rodrigo, then governor of 
the Philippines, was wrecked on the shores of 
Japan, when the castaways were cordially 
received and kindly treated, being allowed 
to build a ship imder the direction of the Eng- 
Hsh exile. Will Adams, in which they sailed 
for Mexico carrying with them a Japanese 
envoy to the King of Spain, with a special 
request that mining engineers be sent to 
Japan. From the time of the enforcement of 
the exclusion policy in 1623 down to the 
period of opening Japan to international 
intercoiu"se, there were no fiorther relations 
with Spain; and when a treaty was asked for 
it was cordially conceded by the same sho- 
gunate that had broken off all relations with 
Spain nearly two centuries before. The new 
treaty with Spain was signed on the 28th of 
September, 1868, since which date relations 
between the two countries have been of the 
best. The various ministers that have 




THE .MHONHASHI BRIDGE, TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



73 




THE GOLF LINKS AND CLUB HOUSE AT ROKKOSAN 



represented Spain at the Court of the Mikado 
have been well received and have left a 
very pleasing impression on Japan. The 
present Spanish Minister to Japan is Don 
Jose Caro y Szccheuyi. 

THE PORTUGUESE LEGATION 
After the famous Portuguese navigator, 
Vasco de Gama, made his way into the Indian 
Ocean around the Cape of Good Hope in 
1497 his country soon established itself in 
the East, taking the trade in silks and spices 
from the Arabs and Venetians. The adven- 
turers in time found their way to the shores 
of Japan. The first natives of Portugal to 
reach Japan were Anthony de Moto and two 
companions who were cast ashore by the 
wreck of a Chinese junk in 1542; and the 
following year came Mendez Pinto, also being 
driven ashore by contrary winds. From him 
the Japanese first learned of the existence of 
firearms, and one can imagine the astonish- 
ment and awe of the crowd that gathered to 
see him put his iron tube to his shoulder and 
bring down a bird. The people at first be- 
lieved that the energy exerted by the weapon 
was due to enchantment or magic. Pinto 
and his men were forthwith treated as won- 
der-workers and borne in palanquins through 
the town like daimyo. The musket was 
finally presented to the daimyo, who sent a 
present of 1,000 tales of silver in return. 
The Portuguese not only taught the Japanese 
how to use firearms but how to manufacture 
them. It was this advantage which won an 
opening for all foreigners who arrived in 
Japan afterward. It was Pinto who opened 
the way for the coming of the missionaries; 



for during his first visit in 1543 he took away 
with him to Goa a Japanese who learned 
Spanish and returned as interpreter with 
Francis Xavier in 1548, Pinto also accom- 
panying them. From this time all Portu- 
guese ships coming to Japan carried two com- 
modities: firearms and friars. All were suc- 
cessful until the arrival of the Franciscans 



from Manila, when jealousy broke out and 
backbiting created suspicion among the 
authorities. The rivalry of the Franciscans 
with the Portuguese Jesuits was further 
accentuated by rivalry between the Spanish 
and Portuguese merchants, finally leading 
to the banishment of religion and trade 
alike. 

For some ninety years after the edict ban- 
ishing foreigners no Portuguese ship ven- 
tured near the shores of Japan, and the one 
that did appear later was promptly dis- 
missed with a copy of the edict. Intercourse 
between Japan and Portugal remained qui- 
escent until the opening of Japan to Western 
nations, when the usual treaties were nego- 
tiated and signed between the two countries. 
This was in the year 1859, when a Portuguese 
ship sailed into the Bay of Yedo and re- 
quested a treaty such as had been accorded 
the United States. This was followed by a 
more permanent treaty in 1862. In 1873 
Sgr. Bicono San Shanwalico, the first Portu- 
guese Minister to Japan, arrived in Tokyo 
and was duly accorded an audience by the 
Emperor. Portugal amicably acquiesced in 
Japan's desire for a revision of her foreign 
treaties, and Portugal agreed to the abolition 
of her extraterritoriality in 1892, being the 
first of the Occidental nations to abandon 
consular jurisdiction in Japan. At present 
Portugal is represented in Japan by Sgr. 
Cesar de Sousa Mendes, as charge d'affaires. 




THE UNITED STATES LEGATION AT TOKYO 



74 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



THE BELGIAN LEGATION 
At a time when other European countries 
were pushing their interests in the Far East 
Belgium was subject to Spanish rule, passing 
successively into the hands of France and 
Austria; and later she united with Holland 
when that countrj' was extending its sea trade 
eastward, though there is no record to show 
how far Belgium shared in this. After Bel- 
gium separated from Holland and elected 
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as her king 
in 1 83 1, she began to take more interest in 
overseas trade. But formal negotiations for 
a treaty with Japan were not begun imtil 
some time after the other powers had achieved 
this end. A provisional treaty was agreed 
to in 1866 and in 1870 the first representative 
of Belgium, M. Auguste Kint, arrived in 
Tokyo, and was succeeded in 1873 by M. Carl 
de Claut. Japan was invited to participate 
in the International Commercial Congress at 
Brussels in 1880, and in the same year the 
King of Belgium conferred on the Emperor of 
Japan the Order of Knight of Leopold. 
When the conference for the revision of for- 
eign treaties was held in Tokyo in 1886 Bel- 
gium was represented by M. George Martins, 
and a new treaty was concluded with Belgium 
in I goo. Among the various distinguished 
citizens of Belgium who have represented 
their country in Japan none has been more 
favourably known than the late Baron 
d'Anethan, who was for many years the 
doyen of the diplomatic corps in the Japanese 
capital. The present Belgian Minister is 
Count della Faille de Leverghem, who has 
occupied the Legation since 1910. He was 
bom in 1871 and entered diplomatic life by 
being appointed attache to the Legation at 
Berlin in 1893, and secretary at Lisbon in 
1894. He was promoted to a similar position 
at Rome in 1898 and again to Berlin in 1900, 
being raised to the rank of councillor in 1906. 
From this time until 1909 he was councillor 
at the Belgian Legation at The Hague, 
coming to the Belgian Legation in Tokj'O as 
Minister in 1910. The Belgian Minister 
bears the royal decoration of a Knight of the 
Order of Leopold, and the First Class Order 
of the Rising Sun has been conferred upon 
him by the Emperor of Japan. He holds 
numerous other orders from Belgium as well. 
The Countess was a daughter of M. Maskins, 
Belgian Minister to Rome, and there are two 
children. The first secretary of the Belgian 
Legation is M. Lemaire de Warzee d'Her- 
malle. 

THE SWEDISH LEGATION 
While the Northmen were the greatest 
sailors of the early European world, they did 
not find their way to the Orient as soon as 
their southern neighbours, the Dutch; and 
Sweden did not open relations with Japan 



until 1868, when negotiations were begun for 
the conclusion of a treaty, which was signed 
on the 7th of November, 1870. This treaty 
was revised and enlarged in 1896, the same 
being true of Norway which was united with 
Sweden at this time. Relations between 
Japan and Sweden have always been very 
cordial; and when the distinguished traveller. 
Dr. Sven Hedin, visited Japan in 1910 he 
was accorded a most enthusiastic reception. 
Japan sent delegates to the Olympic Games 
in Sweden in 1912. Until the present war 
Japan has drawn her supply of wood pulp 
largely from Sweden. 

The present Minister of Sweden in Tokyo 
is M. Gustaf Oscar Wallenberg, who arrived 
in 1907, and represents his country at Pekin 
as well. M. W^allenberg was educated as 
a naval officer and served in that capacity 
at home, later becoming a member of the 
Swedish Parliament, and serving on many 
royal commissions. After his promotion to 
the rank of captain in the royal na\'y of 
Sweden he was appointed Minister to Japan 
and China. Captain Wallenberg holds many 
distinguished orders, including First Class 
Order of the Swedish Polar Star, the First 
Class Order of the Rising Sun, and the First 
Class Chinese Double Dragon, as well as 
various French and Spanish decorations. 

THE NORWEGIAN LEGATION 
Relations between Japan and Norway 
are included in those with Sweden, and since 
the separation of Norway from Sweden the 
representative of Norway in Japan has been 
Baron d'Anker, acting as charge d'affaires. 

THE CHINESE LEGATION 
The beginning of relations between Japan 
and China must be placed far back in the 
mists of prehistoric time; for they are as old 
as those of Britain with her ancestral shores 
across the Oceanus Germanicus. The first 
historic mention of diplomatic intercourse 
with China is in the time of the Emperor 
Suin, 40 A. D. The Han dynasty of China 
did all in its power to encourage intercourse 
with Japan. We have mention of presents 
brought to the Emperor of Japan in the 
middle of the third century A. D., which sug- 
gests diplomatic relations. The influence of 
Chinese literatitre and art as well as Budd- 
hism brought the two countries closer to- 
gether; but China's attempted invasion of 
Japan in the thirteenth century and Japan's 
attempted invasion of China in the sixteenth 
century show that diplomatic relations 
were never intimate after Japan secured her 
independence. A close study of the frequent 
embassies exchanged by the two countries 
between the years 600 A. d. and 1600 A. D. 
will show the truth of the last statement. 



These embassies, which were most elaborate 
and expensive in the eighth and ninth cen- 
turies, declined after the tenth century, with 
the rise of national autonomy. The twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries in Japan were taken 
up with the constant clash of mighty clans, 
and there was no time for foreign diplomacy, 
though China intruded by an abortive inva- 
sion. In the seventeenth century when Euro- 
pean ships were trading with Japan, those of 
China were accorded similar privileges, for 
it was a policy of the shoguns to keep the 
peace with China. 

When Japan consented to negotiate treaties 
with Western powers China was granted a 
like privilege, an agreement was concluded 
between the two countries in 1869, and the 
first Chinese consul arrived in Japan in 1877. 
Disputes with China over Formosa occurred 
in 1874 and over Korea in 1894, the latter 
trouble leading to war. In recent years 
relations between Japan and China have not 
been overcordial, chiefly owing to Japan's 
policy of seeking to control China so as to 
prevent foreign concessions, on the score of 
Japan's own safety. The present Chinese 
Minister in Tokyo is Mr. Chang Tsung- 
Hsiang, who was born in 1877 and educated 
at the University of Pekin and in Tokyo. In 
19 10 he became Commissioner of Police in 
Pekin, and was Chief of the Supreme Court 
in 1913, becoming Minister of Justice in 
1915. The following year he was appointed 
Chinese Minister to Tokyo. The first secre- 
tary to the Chinese Legation is Mr. Wong 
Hung-Nien. 

THE SIAMESE LEGATION 
Japan opened international relations with 
Siam in much the same way as she did with 
Portugal, Spain, and England, through her 
traders and merchant adventurers of the 
sixteenth century. Japan learned about 
Siam from the Spanish and Portuguese 
traders and missionaries coming to her shores, 
and many Japanese began to find their way 
to Siam. In 1605 it is recorded that the 
Shogun leyasu sent a letter to the King of 
Siam demanding tribute, and another 
missive five years later asking for guns and 
ammunition. The story of early Japanese 
adventure in Siam reads like a tale of 
the Arabian Nights. The Japanese settle- 
ment there was so large and influential that 
during a rebellion the Japanese aided the 
king in suppressing it, the king giving Ya- 
mada Nagamasa, the leader, his daughter 
as a reward for his valour. In 1625 the 
ruler of Siam sent an envoy to Yedo to 
thank the shogun for the assistance rendered 
by the Japanese. The Japanese, however, 
became too much for the Siamese and they 
were later banished from the country; which 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



75 




THE BRITISH CONSULATE AT YOKOHAMA 



did not much matter to the shogun, as about 
this time he issued an edict prohibiting all 
his subjects from going abroad. Thus from 
the middle of the seventeenth century to the 
year 1875, when negotiations were reopened 
between them, there was no formal inter- 
course between Tokyo and Bangkok. 

There was no definite outcome of the first 
negotiations with Siam, and not until Prince 
Deva Ouguz^ arrived in Japan in 1887 were 
formal relations fully restored. The prince 
presented to the Emperor of Japan the Siam- 
ese Order of the White Elephant, and in re- 
turn received for the King of Siam the Order 
of the Rising Sun. From that time the gov- 
ernment of Siam began to employ Japanese, 
and the relations have been most cordial. 
The present representative of Siam at the 
Court of the Mikado is Phya Chammong 
Dithakar, who came in 191 1. He was born 
in 1874, being the son of a former Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, and was educated in Siam 
and in England, entering diplomatic service 
in 1897. He became secretary of legation at 
Tokyo in 1901, when he also acted as charge 
d'affaires. He was transferred to London in 
1903 and acted as charge d'affaires at Paris in 
1904, returning to London in 1905. In 
1907 he was transferred to Petrograd where 
he remained until being appointed to the 
consular bureau of the Foreign Office in 1909, 
after which he was appointed Siamese Minis- 



ter to Japan. The Siamese Minister holds 
several distinguished decorations, including 
the Fourth Class Order of the White Ele- 
phant and the First Class Order of the Rising 
Sun. 

THE MEXICAN LEGATION 
How early Japan and Mexico had more or 
less distant relations is a matter of specula- 
tion; but there is good reason to believe that 
Japanese drifted to the shores of that country 
in prehistoric times as well as subsequently, 
and it is altogether likely that the ancestors 
of the tribes that peopled North and South 
America came from Asia. At any rate the 
archaeology of Mexico and Central America 
is more suggestive of Japan than of any other 
country. But Japan had no formal knowl- 
edge of Mexico until the Spanish came to her 
shores in the fifteenth century. During the 
Tokugawa period leyasu was anxious to pro- 
mote good relations with Mexico for reasons 
of trade, and even sent for miners from that 
country. The first treaty between Japan 
and Mexico was negotiated in January, 1888, 
the document being signed at Washington by 
the Japanese Minister there and a represent- 
ative of Mexico. Since then relations 
between the two countries have been very 
intimate, indeed, so much so as to have 
aroused suspicion in some quarters. The 
present Minister of Mexico in Tokyo is 
M. Manuel Perez Romero, who has been 



Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary since 1916. M. Romero belongs 
to an old family of Mexico and was educated 
at home and at Stanford University, Cali- 
fornia. On the election of his brother-in-law, 
the late Francisco Madero, as President of 
Mexico, M. Romero entered politics, taking 
a prominent part in the revolutionary move- 
ment initiated by President Carranza. Be- 
fore being appointed Minister to Japan 
M. Romero was a member of the Mexican 
Legislature and Governor of the State of 
Vera Cruz. The first secretary of the Mexi- 
can Legation is M. Manuel C. Tellez, who 
acted as Mexican consul in various countries 
before coming to Japan. 

OTHER LEGATIONS 

The remaining legations in Tokyo are of 
those nations that have but recently entered 
into close relations with Japan and keep 
usually but one official in residence. These are: 

The Danish Legation: Minister, Count 
P. Ahlefeldt Laurvig. 

The Swiss Legation: Minister, M. Ferdi- 
nand de Salis. 

The Argentine Legation: Minister, M. 
Francisco Ortiz. 

The Brazilian Legation: Minister, E. L. 
Chermont. 

The Chilian Legation: Minister, M. Fran- 
cisco Rivas Vicuna. 







IKUTA TEMPLE, KOBE 



VII. The Diplomacy and Foreign 

Policy of Japan 

By D. J. EVANS, Managing Editor o( "The Japan Chronicle" 

The Opening of the Ports— The Recognition of Japan as a Great Power— Japans Policy 
IN Korea— Japans Policy Toward China— Japans Southward Expansion 



Some twenty years ago, when that 
well-known figure in Japanese politics, 
Marquis Okuma, was Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, he delivered some obiter 
dicta on the subject of diplomacy which may 
well serve as an introduction to this brief 
sketch of Japan's foreign policy during the 
last sixty years. The then Foreign Minister 
said; "Diplomacy is justice. It may per- 
haps be well sometimes in diplomacy to be 
entrenched within fortifications, but I do 
not intend so to shield myself. I shall, on 
the contrary, be guided by a spirit of perfect 
frankness. Adhesion to this policy has, I 
think, been the secret of Japan's success." 

Much water has flowed under the bridges 
since this speech was made, but probably 
Marquis Okuma would say, if he were ques- 
tioned to-day, that what he said in 1896 ex- 
actly and precisely represented the views he 
held in 1916 as Premier, the notoriously un- 
just and unfrank Twenty-one Demands he 
made upon China notwithstanding, of which 
mention shall be made later. 

In outlining Japan's foreign policy and 
diplomacy during a period of sixty odd years, 
it will be convenient to divide the review into 
three sections: First, from the arrival of 
Perry to the abolition of extraterritoriality 
and the Sino-Japanese War; second, from that 
date down to the Russo-Japanese War; and 
third, from that great struggle down to the 



time of writing. All three periods have their 
own peculiar and particular interest, the first 
as showing the gradual awakening of Japan, 
the second as showing the consequences of 
that awakening, and the third as indicating 
more or less clearly the line of Japan's future 
development. 

It may be of interest to devote some little 
space to sketching Japan before the arrival 
of the Perry Expedition, which, of course, 
was not the first time that American ships 
had entered Japanese waters. During the 
first half of the nineteenth century the num- 
ber of American vessels engaged in sealing 
in the northern Pacific rapidly increased, and 
from time to time they put into Japanese 
ports, although the country was not open to 
foreign trade. Sometimes these visits were 
due to stress of weather, and ships made for 
the nearest port in order to get food or new- 
tackle. Sometimes foreign ships would call, 
to land Japanese fishermen carried out to 
sea by storms and rescued by a foreign ship. 
There is reason to believe that in some cases 
it was not altogether the humane- desire to 
restore to his fellow countrymen an unlucky 
castaway which jjrompted the master of a 
foreign ship to make for the coast of Japan. 
Enterprising men were the shipmasters of 
those days, and the prospect of doing a little 
prohibited, but profitable, trade with the 
Japanese probably counted for much in con- 



sidering whether the ship's course should be 
changed, and her head pointed direct for the 
coast of Japan to land two or three fishermen. 
The attitude of the Japanese toward these 
intruders, however, was not at all cor- 
dial; shipwrecked foreigners were sometimes 
treated well, but often with much harshness; 
unarmed foreign ships were usually fired 
upon, but men-of-war were received in quite 
a different spirit. They were towed in and 
out of harbour without charge, and so long 
as they did not wish to enter into negotiations, 
provisions were supplied free on the under- 
standing that they left at once. The delicate 
distinction shown in the manner of receiving 
armed and unarmed strangers — equally un- 
welcome — is decidedly interesting. 

THE OPENING OF THE PORTS 
It was about 1830 that the question of 
opening trade relations with Japan was 
actively discussed in America, and after 
various unsuccessful preliminary efforts in 
this direction. Commodore Perry in 1852 was 
instructed to proceed to Japan on a threefold 
mission — to make arrangements for the better 
treatment of shipwrecked Americans landing 
in Japan, to obtain permission for American 
ships to call at one or more ports, and to seek 
the concession of a coaling depot. The story 
of Perry's mission is so well known that it 
need only be briefly touched upon here. His 



I' R E S li N T - D A Y IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



11 



fleet of four men-of-war sailed into Uraga, 
Tokyo Bay, in July, 1853, and having ex- 
plained his mission. Perry sailed away nine 
days later, intimating to the Japanese that 
he would return in the following spring with 
a larger squadron. In February, 1854, he 
arrived with six ships, and at the end of the 
following month Japan opened relations with 
a foreign nation by signing a treaty opening 
the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to 
American ships. This treaty, however, did 
not give American citizens the right of resi- 
dence in Japan; it merely provided for 
American ships entering the two ports named, 
and landing goods and loading other goods in 
exchange. As a matter of fact, neither 
Shimoda nor Hakodate were places which 
offered much prospect of commercial develop- 
ment. It was a concession, however, which 
though not particularly valuable in itself, 
was an important one inasmuch as it placed 
relations between Japan and a foreign coun- 
try on a new and regular footing. Mr. Gub- 
bins (one-time Secretary of the British Lega- 
tion in Tokyo) quotes a Japanese authority 
to the effect that the men who negotiated 
this treaty with Perry took credit to them- 
selves for having conceded so little, an exam- 
ple of one-sided "reciprocity" which has been 
frequently repeated, and they also prided 
themselves upon having reached a settlement 
with Perry, without having answered the 
letter from the President of the United States, 
which Perry had handed to the Japanese on 
his first appearance in 1853. Further satis- 
faction was expressed at the fact that the 
whole affair had been arranged without the 
members of the council being called upon to 
place their seals upon any document, which 
"they thought was a worthy upholding of 
Japan's dignity." 

Seven months after Perry obtained the 
concessions above-mentioned. Admiral Stir- 
ling (who was accompanied by four war- 
ships) obtained a concession for Great 
Britain whereby Nagasaki and Hakodate 
were opened to British ships for supplies and 
refitting. No right of residence was granted, 
and it was actually stipulated that "no high 
officer coming to Japan should alter" the 
treaty which made the meagre concessions 
mentioned. Mr. Gubbins says this was 
evidently intended to place on record the fact 
that the terms of the convention marked the 
high-water mark of Japanese concessions. 
Certainly the British Admiral was content 
with very little, for although there was a 
most-favoured-nation clause in the treaty, 
it was also stipulated that this was not to 
apply to the advantage accruing to the Dutch 
and Chinese from their existing relations 
with Japan. Next came a Russian Admiral 
with four warships, and in due course Shi- 
moda, Hakodate, and Nagasaki were opened 




COMMODORE MATTHEW C. PERRY 



to Russian trade. There was another impor- 
tant feature of the first Russo-Japanese 
Treaty, however, inasmuch as it provided 
for the residence in the ports of Russian 
subjects with their wives and families, and 
for the first time the important principle of 
extraterritoriality was recognised. The fol- 
lowing year (1856) saw the arrival of Mr. 
Townsend Harris in Japan as the first Am- 
erican Consul-General, a very unwelcome 
visitor. The Japanese understood that the 



treaty made with Admiral Perry provided 
that a Consul should be appointed by the 
United States only if some difficulty arose 
between the two governments, and no diffi- 
culty having arisen they deeply resented the 
coming of Townsend Harris. This was for- 
eign invasion at last, and every form of 
annoyance and aggravation was resorted to 
in the hope of exhausting the American emis- 
sary's patience and forcing him to return to 
Washington disappointed and defeated. An 



78 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



appeal to the commander of the warship on 
which Mr. Harris crossed the Pacific, to take 
the undesired visitor away, proving ineffec- 
tive, the Japanese resorted to a deliberate 
plan of passive resistance amounting to boy- 
cott. Despatches were unanswered, and 
inquiries for information evaded. After ten 
months of prevarication and procrastination 
on the part of the Japanese, Mr. Harris was 
able in June, 1857, to conclude a treaty ampli- 
fying that made by Commodore Perry, open- 
ing the port of Nagasaki in addition and 
establishing the principle of extraterrito- 
riality. Realising the desirability of a still 
broader understanding, Mr. Harris resumed 
negotiations with the Japanese authorities, 
and on July 29, 1858, a treaty was signed at 
Kanagawa (in Tokyo Bay), on board an 
American warship, which amplified and ex- 
panded the preceding agreement. Lord 
Elgin next made a treaty for Britain, and the 
French, Russians, and Dutch concluded simi- 
lar treaties, closely following the lines of the 
British documents. On July 4, 1859, Mr. 
Townsend Harris landed from the U. S. A. 
Mississippi at Kanagawa, accompanied by 
the captain and officers, and at noon the Stars 
and Stripes was hoisted to mark the opening 
of Yokohama to foreign trade. The British 
Consul-General (Sir Rutherford Alcock) and 
other foreign officials were present on this 
notable occasion, which marked the success- 
ful termination of many months of patient 
and painstaking negotiations in the face of 
the most tremendous difficulties. In her first 
experiment in diplomacy, Japan's seclusion 
policy was defeated; the undesired alien won 
his point, and Japan was opened to foreign 
trade and residence. 

THE RECOGNITION OF JAPAN 
AS A GREAT POWER 

With the resumption of foreign intercourse 
after more than two centuries of seclusion it 
became necessary for Japan to frame another 
foreign policy. At first that policy was some- 
what obscvire owing to the strong opposition 
of a section of the Japanese to the foreign 
barbarian. This feeling was most marked 
among the "two-sworded men" of samurai 
class; the common people as a whole were 
friendly enough, but the warrior class were 
very bitter in their attitude toward the for- 
eigners. Loyalty to the Emperor, in their 
opinion, demanded that the intruders be 
driven out of the country, but the wiser 
among the nation had seen — or at least had 
heard of — the tremendous strength and 
resources of the Western Powers, and realised 
that any attempt to force the foreigners to 
surrender the rights they had gained by 
treaty (supported by warships) would result 
in swift and stem retribution. Those who 



had any doubts were convinced by the bom- 
bardment of Shimonoseki by American, 
British, French, and Dutch warships. Ja- 
pan's next foreign policy, then, was one of 
imitation. Experts were engaged in Europe 
and America to build railways in Japan, to 
establish telegraphs, lighthouses, to teach in 
schools, to act as naval and military instruc- 
tors, as jurists, as financial advisers, and in a 
hundred different ways to guide and assist 
Japan to follow in the steps of the nations 
with whom she had suddenly been brought 
in contact. The Japanese were apt pupils, 
and rapidly learned the Western arts intro- 
duced to them by the expert foreigners 
engaged by the Japanese Government to 
expedite the change from feudalism to 
modernism. So rapid was the process of 
advancement, indeed, that in 1872 we find 
an effort being made to take advantage of 
the opportunity given for revising the 
treaties with foreign powers, Japan's principal 
object being to obtain the abolition of extra- 
territoriality. Prince Iwakura was sent to 
America to conclude a new treaty to this 
end, but after a year returned with nothing 
accomplished. Japan's claims were regarded 
as premature. Under the extraterritorial 
system, foreigners residing in Japan in the 
settlements set apart for them, were under 
the jurisdiction of their Consuls. A foreigner 
committing a criminal offence, or engaging in 
civil proceeding as plaintiff, had the law of 
his own country administered by the resident 
Consul, but Japanese were never tried by 
foreign judges, and any process against them 
was conducted through the Japanese author- 
ities. One of the first aims of Japan's early 
foreign policy was to bring about the aboli- 
tion of this right of extraterritoriality, 
secured by the treaties with the various 
powers, and the achievement of that aim 
marks an important stage of Japan's diplo- 
matic policy. 

A well-known American writer on things 
Japanese, Dr. Griffis, has given quite a mis- 
leading account of the history of treaty 
revision. In his work entitled "Townsend 
Harris in Japan" the American writer says 
that Japan's efforts at obtaining a revision of 
the treaties were steadily repulsed by the 
Treaty Powers, and "her rights trampled 
upon and her wrongs multiplied by a delay 
every hour of which is injustice." Dr. Griffis 
describes the extraterritorial system as "the 
intolerable burden under which the govern- 
ments of both Yedo and Tokyo groaned for 
a generation." Yet Mr. Townsend Harris has 
put it on record that the Japanese without 
any demur whatever agreed to his proposi- 
tion that Americans should be tried by 
their Consul and punished in accord with 
American law, — indeed, it is difficult to see 



how the case could be otherwise, seeing that 
Japanese law, as law is understood by for- 
eigners, was practically non-existent. Vis- 
count Enomoto, who at one time was Japan's 
Foreign Minister, speaking some years ago 
in the Diet, admitted that when the treaties 
were made for the "intolerable burden" 
which Dr. Griffis says was placed upon Japan, 
his complaints regarding the delay in restor- 
ing to Japan complete autonomy over for- 
eigners resident within her dominions are 
equally unfounded. It was the vacillating 
attitude of the Japanese themselves which 
caused the delay. From 1880 to 1890 nego- 
tiations were going on between Japan and the 
Treaty Powers in regard to treaty revision, 
and more than once a settlement was almost 
reached, when the Japanese suddenly shifted 
their ground, and the task had to be com- 
menced afresh. The despatches which passed 
between the British Government and its 
representative in Tokyo show clearly that 
liberal concessions were made to Japan. In 
1889 the counter-draft of a treaty was sent 
from London to Tokyo in which practically 
all the Japanese claims were conceded. 
Then came the attack upon Count Okuma 
(now Marquis, who was then Foreign Minis- 
ter), and the would-be assassin's demonstra- 
tion of national hostility to the Japanese 
Government's attitude led to the resignation 
of the ministry and to further delay in the 
negotiations for treaty revision. To blame 
the Treaty Powers for the long delay in carry- 
ing out this first big move in Japan's foreign 
policy is quite unfair, but it is a charge fre- 
quently made by Japanese writers and by 
certain foreigners whose studies of Japanese 
affairs show an extraordinary bias against 
the foreign point of view. Professor Cham- 
berlain — than whom Japan has no warmer 
friend, and whose place as an authority on 
things Japanese is beyond question — sums 
up the situation very tersely. Some months 
after the attack upon Okuma the Japanese 
press started a new slogan, taito joyaku 
kaisei, on treaty revision on a footing of 
equality. This was the second classic exam- 
ple of "one-sided" reciprocity, for "on exami- 
nation it turned out to mean simply that the 
foreign powers should concede everj'thing, 
and Japan nothing at all." Incredible 
though it may seem, in due course Japan won 
her point, and thus revenged herself upon 
those who had disturbed her seclusion some 
forty years previously. 

"The year 1894-5 ffs-Y bs said to mark a 
turning-point in the modem history of Japa- 
nese diplomacy," writes a professor at Waseda 
University, Tokyo, in a brief essay on the 
history of Japanese diplomatic affairs, upon 
which subject he is regarded as an authority. 
The Sino- Japanese War "arising out of the 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



79 



rival claims of Iioth countries on Korea," 
was one notable event of this period, and the 
other was "that after repeated failures Japan 
finally succeeded in revising the humiliating 
treaties with the powers." It has been al- 
ready shown that the treaties were not 
humiliating to Japan, and that the repeated 
failures of negotiations for revision were due, 
not to the injustice and illiberality of the 
Western nations, as Dr. Griffis says, but to 
the attitude of the Japanese Government. 
Let us now turn to consider the " rival claims " 
to Korea, and what came of them, for this 
forms another important chapter in the his- 
tory of Japan's foreign policy. 

japan's policy in KOREA 
It was the Ming dynasty in China that 
placed the Korean emperors back upon the 
throne after Hideyoshi's expedition from 
Japan at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and thus gave China the rank of suzerain 
power in the peninsula. In this respect, 
when Korea was opened to foreign trade in 
1876, the position of that country vis-a-vis 
China and Japan was just what it was nearly 
three hundred years previously. The rapid 
adoption by Japan of Western ideas, and the 
abandonment of so many customs and preju- 
dices more or less shared with Korea and 
China in feudal days, was regarded with grave 
disfavour by the conservative Chinese and 
Koreans. Moreover, from the very begin- 
ning of the Meiji era in 1868 the military 
party in Japan adopted an aggressive attitude 
toward Korea, though there were other influ- 
ential men who tried to restrain this feeling, 
which they foresaw would lead to serious 
complications. The suspicions of the Kore- 
ans steadily developed into manifestations 
of fear and open hostility. Probably they 
realised that with the increasing strength of 
Japan, there was increasing danger to their 
own independence. If they did realise this, 
their expectations were fulfilled; if they did 
not realise it, they went the right way about 
it to hasten the fatal day. 

A series of outrages occurred in Seoul in 
the early eighties, of which Japanese were the 
frequent victims, together with many of 
the more progressive Koreans. These men, 
rightly or wrongly, were regarded as rene- 
gades by their conservative fellow-country- 
men. Some of them probably were, but 
there were others who were progressive with- 
out being so " pro- Japanese " that they were 
willing to further Japanese aims in the penin- 
sula. The conservative Koreans, how-ever, 
made no fine distinctions of this kind, and so 
the muddle went on. Irritation in Japan at 
the unsettled state of affairs in Korea steadily 
increased until in 1894 — the year in which 
judicial and tariff autonomy was conceded by 



Britain (followed by other powers) to Japan, 
as already mentioned — the crisis came. A 
secret society known as the Tonghaks — sus- 
pected in some quarters of being agents of 
Japan — started to make trouble in Korea, 
and the troops being unable to control them, 
the Korean Government appealed to the 
Chinese Resident at Seoul for help. Before 
troops from China could arrive on the scene 
Japanese troops had taken up positions 
around Seoul (by virtue of an agreement with 
China which provided for Chinese and 
Japanese troops in equal number to maintain 
order), and the Korean Government was 
informed that unless conditions were at once 
reorganised, Japan would undertake the 
task herself. At the same time Japan noti- 
fied China that the latter's suzerainty over 
Korea was not recognised. As proof of this, 
a transport loaded with Chinese troops on 
their way to Seoul was intercepted and sunk, 
and a week later Japan formally declared 
war against China. The fighting lasted 
about a year, but in spite of Japan's easy 
victory, the political situation in Korea was 
much the same as before the war, owing to 
the frequent plots and counter-plots peculiar 
to Oriental politics, as the result of which 
the men who were in power when Japan 
intervened, returned from their hiding- 
places and resumed authority. This was 
unfortunate indeed for Japan's policy in 
regard to Korea, and an attempt to improve 
matters led to still more disastrous results. 
Viscount Miura was sent to Seoul as the Japa- 
nese Minister Plenipotentiary, and five weeks 
after his arrival the Queen of Korea was mur- 
dered, together with a number of high coiu-t 
officials and the queen's women attendants. 
As the result in large measure of the action 
taken by the British Minister at Seoul, 
Viscount Miura was recalled to Japan and 
with a number of others was put on trial. 
The Court found that the conspiracy against 
the Queen of Korea was formed and the 
actual crime instigated by the Japanese 
Minister, the First Secretary in the Legation, 
and the Adviser to the Legation. But, the 
judgment of the Japanese Court proceeded, 
' ' there is not sufficient evidence to prove 
that any of the accused actually committed 
the crime originally meditated by them." 
In other words, though the accused con- 
cocted the plot and hired the assassins, and 
though the selected victim was undoubtedly 
murdered, the guilt of the conspirators was 
not established to the satisfaction of the 
Court. Whether persons of lesser importance 
than high diplomatic officials would have been 
discharged in similar circumstances, the 
reader may judge. The finding of the Hiro- 
shima Court, of course, deceived no one, and 
before long the frightened Korean King, 



accompanied by the Crown Prince, fled from 
his palace to the Russian Legation in Seoul, 
which was strongly guarded by Russian troops 
and marines. Chinese influence had indeed 
been completely crushed in Korea, but in 
its place Japan now found a still stronger 
influence — that of Russia. Mr Putnam 
Weale, in summarising the situation at this 
stage, says that "eighteen months after the 
war with China, Russia was entrenched more 
powerfully than China had ever been in 
Korea — thus making the net results of a 
conflict which had cost Japan at least £30,- 
000,000 absolutely nil." A new start had to 
be made by Japan with a view to retrieving 
this costly blunder in her Korean policy. Of 
the events leading up to the Russo-Japanese 
War it is not necessary to dwell at much 
length, since the facts are better known than 
those sketched above dealing with the previ- 
ous decade. Russian politicians, naval and 
military men, and financiers visited Korea 
in turn and started their own little schemes 
to their own ends. The Japanese, however, 
were not idle, and profiting by the lesson of 
the Miura contretemps, set to work in another 
direction. They succeeded at last in getting 
the Korean royal family away from the 
Russian Legation, and when the king said 
he wished to become emperor, it was Japan 
who first recognised the new title, knowing 
that whatever he might call himself, the last 
thing the nominal ruler of Korea would do 
would be to rule. A few successful railway 
deals, and the next thing was a Russo- 
Japanese convention recognising the sover- 
eignty and independence of Korea, and 
pledging the signatories not to interfere in 
Korean internal affairs. This was in 1898, 
but there were men in Russia who saw that 
Japan was making headway in Korea with 
various industrial and commercial under- 
takings, and considered that Russian prestige 
was consequently in danger. During the 
next four or five years Seoul was the centre 
of constant intrigue and counter-intrigue 
between Russian and Japanese interests, but 
something of the sort was also going on in 
Europe, where Japan was playing off Russia 
and Britain against each other. The manner 
in which the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was 
concluded has been told by a Japanese states- 
man. Count Hayashi. Only part of this 
extremely interesting story was published in 
Japan, the newspaper which commenced to 
publish the deceased diplomat's memoirs 
being warned by the Japanese Government 
that further disclosures would not be per- 
mitted. The whole story w-as made public, 
however, in England, but owing to the war 
attracted less attention from a preoccupied 
world than it otherwise would have received. 
In view of what has happened since, it is 



80 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



curious indeed to note that Germany was 
ready at this time to make an alliance with 
Great Britain and Japan with the object of 
maintaining the peace of the Far East. 
The British Government and Count Hayashi 
(then Japanese Minister in London) both 
approved the idea when first mooted, but the 
latter seemed to change his views somewhat, 
and during the informal conversations that 
followed, the British Secretary for Foreign 
Aflfairs had occasion to remind the Japanese 
Minister more than once that a triple alliance 
would have to include one other party in 
addition to Britain and Japan. Count 
Hayashi seemed to have some suspicion of 
Germa'ny's intentions, and Britain certainly 
had a lively fear of Russia's, for it was appre- 
hension of the apparent imminence of a 
Russo-Japanese Alliance that stimulated the 
British Government into abandoning the 
long observed policy of "splendid isolation," 
and joining Japan in an alliance which 
brought the latter country into line with 
the Great Powers. Count Hayashi himself 
has told how he played on the fears of Britain 
in getting his own plans accepted. Finding 
that negotiations with the British Govern- 
ment toward the conclusion of an Anglo- 
Japanese Alliance did not make progress at 
the pace he desired, he cabled to his Govern- 
ment in Tokyo suggesting that Britain might 
be "stimulated" into expressing speedy 
acquiescence with his proposal. 

Now in Japan there was another party, led 
by Marquis Ito, which favoured an under- 
standing with Russia as a preliminary to an 
Anglo- Japanese Alliance. Ito was of opinion 
— and events showed his view to be correct — 
that an alliance with Britain would arouse 
suspicion in Russia. Therefore, before con- 
cluding an Anglo-Japanese Alliance, he 
favoured the arrangement of an understand- 
ing with Russia disposing of the various out- 
standing issues which were causing constant 
irritation in Tokyo and Petrograd. Having 
obtained permission from high authority to 
see what could be done in this direction, Ito 
went to Europe via America on what was said 
to be a "holiday tour." Mention of Petro- 
grad as a holiday resort for a Japanese 
diplomat struck the British as rather strange, 
and soon it began to be rumoured that Ito 
was on his way to Russia to conclude an 
agreement. These reports had the "stimu- 
lating" effect desired by Japan's representa- 
tive in London, and before long the Anglo- 
Japanese Alliance was signed. Soon after, 
as Ito had prophesied would happen unless 
Russia's suspicions were first dispelled, Rus- 
sia and Japan were at each other's throats in 
a struggle which was to decide the doom of 
Korea. The contest resulted in the humil 
iating defeat of Russia by a nation numeri- 



cally and financially weaker at the outset, 
and further weakened almost to the verge of 
collapse by the tremendous sacrifices of men 
and money she had made. It was the incom- 
petence and cowardice of the Russian milita- 
ry leaders that gave Japan the victory, but it 
is results that count these days, not causes. 
Following close upon the moral triumph of 
securing an alliance with Britain came this 
material triumph over Russia, giving Japan 
undisputed control over chaotic Korea, and 
limited control over territory belonging to 
China which had been leased to Russia. 
Japan was now firmly established on the 
mainland. No longer was she merely an 
island empire; Korea was under her "pro- 
tection," and the Kwantung Peninsula was 
under her occupation for the period it had 
been leased by China to Russia — until 1923. 
Captain Brinkley, a never-failing apologist 
for Japan in all international dififerences, and 
for years the sturdiest champion in the local 
and London press that Japan had, or could 
have had, refers in his "History of the Japa- 
nese People" to the peculiar position which 
Japan found herself in after the Russo-Japan- 
ese War. Speaking of the peace treaty 
signed at Portsmouth — another quiet yet 
brilliant diplomatic success for Japan — Cap- 
tain Brinkley said: "Thus, Japan came to 
hold in Manchuria a position somewhat 
contradictory. On the one hand, she figured 
as the champion of the Chinese Empire's 
integrity and as an exponent of the new prin- 
ciple of equal opportunity and the open door. 
On the other, she appeared as the legatee of 
many privileges more or less inconsistent with 
that principle. Undoubtedly it was a posi- 
tion in which some nations would have felt 
embarrassed, but as nothing succeeds like 
success, Japan went boldly forward with her 
plans. Having established a protectorate 
over Korea in 1905, the country was wholly 
annexed by Japan in 1910. The independ- 
ence of Korea had been guaranteed by Japan, 
but the tearing-up of this ' scrap of paper ' was 
not protested against by Britain, America, 
or any other Great Power. Outside a few 
Christian missions, and a fewer number of 
gold-mining companies, there were no for- 
eigners personally interested in the fate of 
Korea, while those who were interested 
politically, recognised that Japan had reached 
the goal she had been striving after for so 
long, and as nobody but a few 'ungrateful' 
Koreans objected, there was nothing more to 
be said. Her position in Korea being now 
effectively established, Japan began to look 
to her interests in Manchuria." 

japan's policy toward china 
To deal adequately with Japan's diplo- 
matic i3olicy toward China would fill a book. 



and a very interesting book it would be. 
For twenty odd years it has been the pro- 
fessed object of Japan to develop Sino- 
Japanese friendship, but the good results of 
that policy are microscopic. In Japan this 
melancholy fact is explained in various ways: 
by the unwarrantable suspicions of the 
Chinese; by third parties who do not wish 
to see closer relations between the Chinese 
and Japanese peoples, circulating damaging 
reports regarding Japan's real motives; by 
all sorts of theories but the right one — that 
it is Japan's own record and attitude which 
stands in the way of closer relations between 
the two nations. In the Lansing-Ishii 
Agreement (which has just been concluded 
as these lines are being written), the world is 
again assured that Japan has no intention of 
encroaching upon the independence or terri- 
torial integrity of China, and that she pledges 
herself once more to uphold the commercial 
principles of the Open Door and "Equal 
opportunity." The publication of this agree- 
ment aroused much criticism in China, not 
because there was any objection to the main- 
tenance of the excellent principles set forth 
by the American and Japanese diplomatists 
who framed and .signed the document, but 
because China resented the idea of two other 
nations discussing the line of policy they 
intended to pursue in China without China 
being consulted in the matter at all. At 
first glance probably few people in America — 
and none at all in Japan — could see what 
grievance China could make out of the con- 
clusion of this agreement between America 
and Japan, but a moment's reflection will 
show that when two nations get together to 
guarantee the integrity and independence of 
a third, who is not approached, consulted, 
or considered in any way, the signs and por- 
tents regarding the future of the uncon- 
sidered and unconsulted third party are not 
reassuring. Further, the resentment of the 
third party at having his affairs discussed in 
detail by two outsiders without his own 
feelings being considered is natural enough, 
even though the intentions expressed are 
of the most honourable character. But 
when one of these two parties is regarded 
with considerable suspicion, a suspicion 
which it must be admitted is not without 
justification in the light of history, the 
indignation with which the news of the 
signing of the Lansing-Ishii Agreement was 
received in China can be easily understood. 
Japan declared war on Russia to main- 
tain the integrity and independence of 
Korea; that country to-day has neither 
integrity nor independence; it is Japanese 
territory, and, ruled with a rod of iron, its 
people are dumb, dispirited, and nationally 
dead. Is it to be wondered at that China 



rriii m, TWi'itii 1 1 '■ .■ ■ Tr^ 















iiiiii 



THE PRESENT IMPERIAL JAPANESE CABINET 

(Upper row, left to right) Lieutenant-General GiiCHi Tanaka, Minister of War — Tatsuo Yamamoto, Esq., Minister of Agriculture and 
Commerce — Utaro Noda, Esq., Minister of Communications. (Second row, left to right) Viscount KosAi Uchida, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs — Takashi Hara, Esq., Prime Minister and Minister of Justice — Takejiro Tokonami, Esq., Minister of Home Affairs. 
(Third row, left to right) ToGUC.ORO Nakahashi, Esq., Minister of Education — Vice-Admiral Tomosaburo K.\to, Minister of the Navy — 
Baron Korekiyo Takahashi, Minister of Finance 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



8i 



is suspicious of Japanese guarantees of 
her integrity and independence? 

For twenty years the necessity for drawing 
China and Japan into closer bonds of friend- 
ship has been preaclicd in Japan by the most 
brilliant speakers and writers in the country. 
To-day the bonds between the two countries 
are as far apart as they were at the end of 
the Sino- Japanese War. What is the reason? 
The undoubted advantages of territorial 
propinquity, to which reference is made in the 
Ishii-Lansing Agreement, have not led to any 
closer friendship between Chinese and 
Japanese; on the contrary, Chinese suspicions 
have been deepened. True, the formal 
diplomatic relations between the two govern- 
ments are on the surface friendly enough, 
especially since the fall of the Okuma Admin- 
istration, but as the more observant of 
Japanese publicists have frequently pointed 
out, it is closer friendship between the two 
peoples, rather than between the two govern- 
ments, that it is desirable to bring about. 
That twenty years of effort in this direction 
have been without result obviously shows 
there is some serious obstacle in the %vay, and 
it is necessary to find out where and what that 
obstacle is. As the result of the Sino-Japa- 
nese War the Island of Formosa was surren- 
dered by China to Japan. The record of 
Japanese administration in Formosa is not 
an enviable one. No doubt there have been 
a certain number of improvements of a char- 
acter likely to impress visitors; it may also 
be admitted that the administration is better 
than under the Chinese regime. Neverthe- 
less, things have been done in Formosa by 
the bureaucratic militarism which Japan has 
placed in power there which are no credit 
to a civilised nation. The victims have been 
Formosan Chinese and the savage aborigines, 
but, moreover, the Chinese at home have 
seen what happened in Formosa repeated in 
a measure in Korea. Formosa and Korea, 
with the assistance of subsidies, are being 
exploited for the benefit of Japanese rather 
than of the population of those territories. 
All this, it may be said, is of only academic 
interest to China, and does not affect her 
individually. This is true, but the policy 
adopted in the territory already under Japa- 
nese control is regarded as indicating Japan's 
real disposition to those weaker than herself, 
and as shadows of coming events in closer 
proximity to Peking. 

Long before the revolution which toppled 
the tottering power of the Manchus to the 
ground and established a republic in China, 
there were frequent "incidents" in Chinese 
territory wherein Japanese invariably figured, 
which led to considerable friction. A Japa- 
nese pedlar, wandering about in a part of 
the country where according to treat}', no 



foreigner should be, is murdered by bandits, 
whereupon an international "incident" is 
precipitated. Japanese newspapers loudly 
demand vigourous measures against China, 
naturally causing deep resentment and pro- 
voking angry retorts from the Chinese press. 
Eventually the matter is settled by the Chi- 
nese Government paying a heavy indemnity 
to the relatives of the murdered man, the 
fact that he met his fate by disregarding inter- 
national agreements stipulating which parts 
of the country are open to foreign trade 
and residence not being considered. In the 
civil disturbances which take place periodi- 
cally in China between rival bodies of troops, 
Japanese frequently disregard warnings that 
they should keep out of danger, and get hurt. 
Invariably a grave international "incident" 
is precipitated, and just as invariably, after 
a long and tedious series of conferences 
between Chinese and Japanese officials, an 
indemnity is paid by the Chinese Govern- 
ment. Clashes in South Manchuria between 
Japanese police and military and Chinese 
authority are common; hot-heads on both 
sides lose their tempers, triggers are touched, 
and men get killed. Another international 
and most regrettable "incident," and an- 
other series of conferences to decide what 
China shall pay in cash or grant in concession 
as indemnity for the insult to Japan's national 
honour. This sort of thing has been going 
on in China for years, and every incident of 
the kind loosens the friendly bonds between 
the two countries which Japan is constantly 
declaring it is her great ambition to tighten. 
The climax came in 19 15, when the Japa- 
nese Government, of which Marquis Okuma 
was then Premier, presented a series of de- 
mands to the Chinese Government which, 
had they been conceded, would have made 
China nothing more than a dependency of 
Japan. These demands, of which there were 
twenty-one, divided into five groups, were 
presented to China by Japan with injunc- 
tions that complete secrecy was to be observed 
in regard to the demands and the negotiations 
arising therefrom. Special privileges were 
demanded for Japanese subjects, Japanese 
were to be engaged to "advise" China in 
administrative, financial, and military affairs; 
a Sino- Japanese police force was to be estab- 
lished ; Japan was to be first approached when 
a foreign loan was required; China was to be 
bound to obtain a certain quantity of arms 
from Japan or a joint Sino-Japanese arsenal 
was to be established; — in short, the pro- 
posals submitted for China's acceptance (not 
for her consideration, be it noted) were such 
as threatened the sovereignty and independ- 
nece of the Chinese Republic. The usual 
one-sidedness of Japan's diplomacy was 
demonstrated, Japan giving nothing in return 



for what she asked. China, weakened by 
the constant struggles between rival factions 
of monarchist and republican leanings, 
partly as a result of the war, lacking a power- 
ful friend in the comity of nations to support 
her in flatly refusing to consider the Japanese 
demands, struggled through negotiations with 
her avowed friend and well-wisher. Even- 
tually the most objectionable demands in 
Group V were withdrawn by Japan for future 
consideration, and, stimulated by Japan's 
declaration of martial law in South Man- 
churia and by an ultimatum from Tokyo, 
the Chinese Government finally conceded the 
rest of the demands, with some modifications 
made by Japan in deference to the signs of 
irritation and annoyance shown in other 
parts of the world at Japan having chosen 
such a moment to force upon a helpless neigh- 
bour demands which no country could have 
conceded without loss of prestige. All this 
happened two years ago, but such an incident 
is not easily forgotten by the Chinese people. 
And when they read of yet another agreement 
guaranteeing the integrity and independence 
of their country — even though America is 
one party to the compact — they have sus- 
picions as to what may be behind the open 
move. The constant friction where Chinese 
and Japanese officials meet, the open defiance 
of Chinese laws and regulations by Japanese 
in Manchuria and elsewhere, the moral and 
material support given by Japanese indi- 
viduals and business firms to Chinese who are 
seeking to hamper the progress and weaken 
the power of the Central Government in 
Peking — all these things prevent that tight- 
ening and strengthening of the bonds of friend- 
ship between China and Japan that Japanese 
politicians and publicists are constantly 
preaching about, but do nothing to accomplish. 
Enough has been said to show how Japanese 
diplomacy has failed in China, in spite of all 
the advantages of territorial propinquity. 
Even the young Chinese sent to Japan to 
study, return to their own country with anti- 
Japanese ideas. Prominent Japanese have 
repeatedly complained of this, and demanded 
that something should be done to check such 
an unfortunate tendency. The only remedy 
for this, as for other indications of lack of 
Chinese sympathy for Japanese ideas, is to 
indicate by practical measures and policy, 
the reality of those friendly feelings for China 
which are so often proclaimed. When men 
like Lindsay Russell talk about the "bank- 
ruptcy" of China, and the necessity of Japan 
taking over the receivership, while Viscount 
Ishii declares that the ideals of Japan and 
America are the same, Chinese must be ex- 
cused if they fall into error in assuming that 
all international agreements affecting their 
vast territory are designed for China's undoing. 



82 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



japan's southward expansion 
A FEW words in conclusion regarding Ja- 
pan's diplomatic policy in other directions 
than the Far East. Some years ago there 
was a rather heated dispute regarding Japa- 
nese immigration to the United States. There 
was much wild talk in the press on both 
sides of the Pacific, but the two governments 
declined to be carried off their feet, and the 
Gentlemen's Agreement put matters on a 
mutually agreeable footing. Early this year 
(1917) there was some little commotion 
caused by Japan's protest against alleged 
anti- Japanese land legislation in certain 
States of the Union. This was another in- 
stance of that peculiar "one-sided reciproc- 
ity" of which mention has been made previ- 
ously. Japan has most illiberal ideas herself 
regarding foreign land ownership, but prompt- 
ly interferes when other States propose to 
enact laws for preventing aliens holding land. 
There were hints of "drastic action" being 
demanded by the Japanese people if the pro- 
posed land legislation in Oregon and Idaho 
was carried into effect, and on the friendly 
suggestion of the President to the Governors 
of the States concerned, further action on 
these measures was suspended. Japan's 
line of action at this time was unfortunate; 
America was on the eve of declaring war on 
Germany, and at such a moment was not dis- 
posed to argue with Japan about reciprocity 
in framing land-ownership laws. As a 
demonstration of what is fondly called 
"strong foreign policy" the protest was gen- 
erally approved in Japan, but there is reason 
to believe that in America the action taken 
by the Japanese Government through its 
ambassador at Washington was deeply re- 
sented, though Uttle was said about it by 
those most concerned out of a loyal desire 
not to embarrass the President, whose atten- 
tion was being directed to important matters 
on the other side of the world. One or two 
facts in regard to the immigration question 
are worth special attention. First, the in- 
troduction of Chinese labour into Japan is 
resented by Japanese just as much as the 
introduction of Japanese laboiu: is in Cali- 
fornia. Second, eminent Japanese sociolo- 
gists, who have gone into the subject care- 
fully, have frankly declared that Japanese 
immigrants in America have not tried to 
become assimilated and therefore cannot be 
regarded by American citizens as desirable 
additions to the community. When ne.xt 



the question of Japanese emigration to 
America is brought up, these points may be 
argued more fully. There is a tendency just 
now (November, 1917) for American and 
Japanese public men to denounce all criti- 
cism of Japanese policies, opinions, and 
actions as the work of hired slanderers bought 
with German gold. Men who write and talk 
in this strain either do not know, or deliber- 
ately suppress their knowledge, that in their 
daily newspapers and the periodical maga- 
zines views are expressed by eminent Japa- 
nese entirely different from those served up 
in foreign languages for foreign consumption. 
There can be no suspicion of German influ- 
ence behind such writings: they are written 
by Japanese for Japanese, and it is only by 
the occasional publication of translations of 
such articles that the outside world can 
get to know the real opinions of Japanese on 
important questions of international interest. 
For example, while Viscount Ishii was hand- 
ing bouquets to the American people in his 
speeches at San Francisco, Washington, and 
New York, the Japanese press was expressing 
views of America, her people and her policy 
which were as uncomplimentary as they were 
undeserved. It is difficult to write of Japan's 
' ' policy ' ' when such contradictions and incon- 
sistencies are constantly encountered. 

This brief and therefore incomplete review 
of sixty years would be inexcusably deficient 
without some reference to the political school 
in Japan which strongly advocates expansion 
southward. The fact that Japanese are 
investing largely in land in the Philippines, 
Java, and the Straits Settlements, gives rise 
occasionally to rumours of Japan's intentions 
in that direction, while whispers as to the 
ultimate fate of the Dutch Indies are fre- 
quently heard. The pioneer of this southern 
expansion school is Mr. Takekoshi, who has 
actually urged the annexation of Java by 
Japan, while Captain Hosaka, of the Japa- 
nese Navy, recently published a book on the 
Dutch East Indies in which the same idea 
was scarcely less plainly expressed. The 
Captain is of opinion that Japan finds herself 
compelled to develop southward, and it is of 
imperative necessity for her to do so. "If 
stable capitalists undertake proper enterprises 
in the South Seas with the interests of the 
nation as a whole at heart, Japan's economic 
development in that region will come by 
itself. This may at first appear (to Mr. 
Takekoshi and the annexationists?] a round- 



about way, but it will in practice prove the 
shortest cut to the goal." This Captain in 
the Japanese Navy also expresses regret that 
Japan's financial resources are inadequate to 
a scheme of annexation, and — mirabile dic- 
tu! — expresses surprise and annoyance that 
the Dutch officials in Java regard Japanese 
visitors, whatever their real or assumed sta- 
tion in life, with considerable suspicion. The 
Dutch authorities are doubtless kept in- 
formed of the activities of the "southward 
expansionists" in Japan, and if they regard 
every ragged Japanese pedlar landing in Java 
as a possible spy, they can scarcely be blamed, 
even if their suspicions are unfounded. Men 
in similar humble guise have been found in 
out-of-the-way parts of China, and sometimes 
the suspicions held regarding their mission 
have been confirmed — or at least the Chinese 
think so. 

All this, of course, is not really Japan's 
foreign policy. The Foreign Office in Tokj'o 
is not to be held responsible for the move- 
ments and actions of every Japanese huckster 
who ventures into Manchuria, Mongolia, the 
Philippines, or Java with a tew packets of 
matches and strings of coloured glass beads. 
Japan's foreign policy can be summed up in 
eight words — the maintenance of peace in the 
Far East. She has fought two wars to uphold 
that policy, — and a third, if ''he siege of 
Tsingtau can be regarded as a war. 

The number of prominent Japanese pub- 
licists who urge a more disinterested method 
of regarding foreign affairs is unfortunately 
few. Even Mr. Ozaki, the representative of 
democracy, not long ago declared in the Diet 
that if Japan and Japan's agents did wrong 
abroad, a patriotic Japanese would conceal 
the fact, not publish it, even to his own coun- 
trymen. 

In estimating Japan's foreign policy, it 
must be remembered that the country has 
made tremendous commercial and indus- 
trial progress within a few decades, and this, 
together with her military successes, have led 
to the creation of a feeling of national self- 
sufficiency. There are signs, however, of a 
very healthy counter-movement in the shape 
of sincere self-criticism, and the development 
of this faculty will gradually come to have 
considerable influence on home and foreign 
policy. Other nations have gone through the 
same evolutionary process as Japan is going 
through, and as they have recognised faults 
and remedied them, so vill she. 




t^V^- 






'^ 



PANORAMIC HISTORY OF THE PRIEST HONEN. A PORTION OF THE TENTH OF FORTY-EIGHT ROLLS, COLOURED. IJY YOSHIMITSU TOSA, 

THIRTEENTH CENTURY. OWNED BY THE TEMPLE TAIMADERA, YAMATO 

VIII. The Future of Japan 

By The HON. Y. TAKEGOSHI, Ex-Member of the House of Representatives 

The Alliance of Races — Self.Government— Expansion beyond the Seas — The Japan-China 

Wak — The Japan-Russian War — Lessons of History 



WHAT will be the future of Japan? 
In dealing with this question, 
there is a twofold argument. 
How shall we shape the future of Japan, 
and what will be the future of Japan? 

Some six or seven years ago, when Vis- 
count Motono was Japanese Ambassador in 
Paris, M. Lebon, the celebrated authority on 
evolution, discussed Japan's future with him. 
The trend of M. Lebon's argument was to 
the effect that Japan's appearance on the 
world's stage startled the world, like the 
sudden appearance of a brilliant comet in 
the sky, and that when we consider that no 
country in the world has ever before made 
such a sudden appearance, there is room for 
doubt whether Japan is not, like a comet, 
destined to disappear utterly below the 
horizon. By way of reply. Viscount Motono 
affirmed that Japan's appearance on the 
world's stage was not a sudden one, like that 
of a comet. Behind it there is a reason, a 
cause, and a history. M. Lebon then said 
that with regard to the future of Japan not 
a few people entertained the same view as 
he, and that though the Viscount had a 
certain amount of right on his side, yet to 
men like himself it was almost impossible to 
comprehend the real state of affairs. There- 
fore he suggested that Viscount Motono 
should write a book explaining why the 



appearance of Japan on the world's stage was 
not of such an abrupt and sudden nature. 
The Viscount was highly interested in this 
suggestion, and asked me if I would not 
cooperate with him in writing a book with a 
view to the explanation of this problem. I 
was also keenly interested in this suggestion, 
and thought of making an attempt, but have 
been hitherto prevented by pressure of other 
work. M. Lebon is not the only one to hold 
such a view concerning the future of Japan. 
It is quite possible that many statesmen in 
European countries regard the matter in the 
same light. 

THE ALLIANCE OF RACES 
There is another class of men who form 
their ideas of the customs and manners of 
the Japanese from the sketches drawn for 
them by men of letters, poets, and travellers, 
and who imagine, as though they saw her in 
general pictures, that Japan is a poetical 
nation full of classical beauty and charm, 
and who are desirous of preserving unchanged 
this nation well worthy of the fame of ancient 
Greece. When these people are brought to 
the knowledge of naked facts, and learn that 
this picturesque, poetical nation of their 
dream runs electric cars, builds guns, drives 
motor-cars, and uses electric light, they 
regard the nation as rapidly changing into 



one unbearably vulgar and prosaic. Among 
our own people, there are some who do not 
rightly interpret the history of their own 
country, and who do not take their national 
strength into proper consideration and who, 
being prompted by certain fanatical ideas, 
advocate the alliance of the yellow races 
against the white, an alliance of which Japan 
should be the leader, and with that object in 
view, they favour the partition of China. 
Those who argue in this strain have evidently 
lost their mental balance. Although they 
form an infinitesimally small portion of the 
Japanese people, they talk loud, and because 
they talk loud, Europeans and Americans who 
hear them are led to imagine that in future 
Japan will lead the combined force of the 
yellow races just as Genghis Khan at the head 
of the Orientals invaded Europe, and that the 
Japanese are a bellicose nation. Several 
years ago, the Kaiser drew a caricature show- 
ing Japan riding a yellow dragon (carrying 
on an invasion, too!) and invading Europe. 
The insinuation was that European countries 
should form an alliance against this invasion. 
This was no doubt a political move on the 
part of the Kaiser, but it was not without 
some foundation. In those days he watched 
Japan and must have been expressing what 
he really felt. Thus we see that diverse 
views are held about the future of Japan 



84 



P R E S E N T - D A V IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




A RECENT IMPERIAL JAPANESE CABINET 



(Upper Row, Left to Right) Baron Kenjiro Den, Minister of Communications — Admiral Tomosabiro Kato, Minister of Marine — 
Dr. Rentaro Mizuno, Minister of Home Affairs. (Middle Row) Ren Nakashoji, Esq., Minister of Agriculture and Commerce — 
Field-Marshal Count Masakata Terauchi, Prime Alinister — Baron Shimpei Goto, Minister of Foreign Affairs. (Lower Row) Dr. 
Itasu Matsumi-ro, Minister of Justice — Lieut. -Gen. Kenichi Oshima, Minister of War — Dr. Ryohei Okada, Minister of Education 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



85 



In my opinion, however, these views are wide 
of the mark. The reason is that most of 
these thinkers are ignorant of the history of 
Japan. 

A nation can not be manufactured as things 
are made in American factories. The state 
is not made, but is subject to organic growth. 
Biology teaches us that heredity and environ- 
ment govern all things, and nothing can 
escape their control. Then, what will be the 
future of Japan considered from the biological 
standpoint? Geology tells us that the earth 
consists of fixed strata, which are thin in some 
places and thick in others. Owing to earth- 
quakes and volcanic action, there may be 
more or less irregularity in these layers, but 
the construction of the strata is in the main 
the same in all places. Such strata are not 
confined to geology only, but are also found 
in the history of mankind. In every country, 
the transition is made from the nomadic life 
to that of agriculture and from agriculture 
to commerce and industry. The history of 
every nation shows the transition from feudal- 
ism to commercialism and industrialism. 
The reason why Europeans regard Japan as 
a peculiar nation arises from their failure to 
grasp the fact that Japanese historj' has had 
the same strata as that of Europe. Some of 
our fanatical statesmen have a blind belief 
in Japan's position — a belief which must be 
attributed to their ignorance of the fact that 
the history of Japan has passed through the 
same strata as those of European history. 

SELF-GOVERNMENT 
For instance, some European statesmen 
are inclined to believe that the Japanese 
were practically devoid of the idea of self- 
government and that they have only come 
to possess it because they have learned the 
self-government system by coming into con- 
tact with Europeans. This could hardly be 
the case. However clever a gardener may 
be, he can not graft a bamboo branch on the 
root of a tree. Had there not been the idea 
of self-government already in existence in 
this country, the imported and acquired 
European ideas would surely have perished. 
Therefore, self-government such as we have 
at present is none other than what has come 
down to us from our own history. It is only 
the form that has been taken from Europe 
and America. In Europe, there is a free city 
of Hamburg, which is a city built by mer- 
chants opposed to military government, and 
which has grown up to be a State in full 
possession of military and legal powers. The 
Belledame waterworks which are the oldest 
in Hamburg were constructed in 1531 which 
corresponds to the eleventh year of Tenbun 
according to the Japanese chronology, just 
one year before the Portuguese knocked at 



Japan's door. The city of Sakae whose 
prosperity has now shifted to Osaka, then 
existed strictly as a free city, being several 
times more prosperous than at present. At 
that time most of the daimyo exercised the 
feudal system and governed the people by 
strength. Although at one time taxed by 
these powerful lords, Sakae itself as a free 
city enjoyed self-government. The city was 
surrounded by a moat, being provided with 
its own soldiers who were placed under the 
command of the merchants themselves to 
resist outside invasion. When General No- 
bunaga, armed with tremendous power, 
made himself generalissimo, he proposed to 
levy heavy taxes upon the city. But its 
self-governing citizens not accepting Nobun- 
aga as the legitimate generalissimo, or 
shogun, repudiated the order for taxation, 
and made an attempt to resist Nobunaga's 
forces. The military strength of the general 
was so great that the city was ultimately 
compelled to pay taxes, but for the time being 
it made such a stubborn resistance thit 
Nobunaga was obliged for a while to abandon 
his scheme of taxation. Amagasaki which 
lies between Kob^ and Osaka was a free city 
which rejected the authority of the feudal 
lords, and the elders governed the city. We 
could cite a number of such instances. 

European history shows us that when the 
large cities of Europe assumed self-govern- 
ment, the market originally occupied a posi- 
tion like that of the kernel in fruit. In order 
to protect this market, the right of self- 
government was bestowed upon it, and for 
the purpose of ensuring the safety and 
development of the market, it became neces- 
sary to extend the same right beyond the 
market limits, whence it spread out in all 
directions until the entire city became 
self-governing. 

The development of our market has been 
similar to that of European cities. Feudal 
lords as large landowners found it insufficient 
merely to collect rice from their lands and 
sell it in order to support their troops. They 
found it expedient to protect and develop 
the city with a view to increasing their 
revenue, and they naturally gave it the right 
of self-government. Finding that the grant- 
ing of such right alone was not sufficient, they 
decreed that merchants in debt should be 
left unmolested by creditors while they were 
doing business in the market. Originally 
the object of these lords was to bring about 
the prosperity of the city by extending neces- 
sary protection, and to make it grow by 
allowing self-government, and thus to facili- 
tate the collection of taxes. Later on, how- 
ever, a law was made to exempt the market 
from taxation, and thus the growth of the 
market was encouraged. This policy doubt- 



less arose from the consideration that the 
increased prosperity of the neighbouring 
districts would be more advantageous than 
the collection of heavy taxes. It was in 
this wise that the market grew to be a city, 
which in its turn became a large city enjoying 
self-government. In these respects, the 
growth of these cities does not differ from the 
development of large cities in Europe: just 
as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions cause 
variations in the strata of the earth, the 
historic strata of our country, according to 
the conditions of the time, show some varia- 
tions from those of Europe — ours being some- 
times a century ahead and sometimes a cen- 
tury behind — but all the Japanese historic 
strata are the same as those of Europe. 

EXPANSION BEYOND THE SEAS 
Of European nations the Spaniards and 
Portuguese expanded overseas, being actu- 
ated by the desire to seek wealth abroad. 
From 1400 to 1600, maritime expeditions 
formed the thickest stratum in Europe, and 
this stratum extended to Japan. During 
this period, the Japanese despatched priva- 
teers to Manchuria, Korea, Shantung, Kiang- 
Su, Chekiang, Canton, Macao, Siam, Annam, 
Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula, where 
thousands of adventurers sought power and 
advantages beyond the seas. Hideyoshi's 
project of invading Korea, fighting with 
China, and attacking the Philippines was 
conceived because among the people there 
arose a keen desire to expand beyond the 
seas. Our hero who breathed this atmos- 
phere entered into a gigantic expedition. In 
fact, Hideyoshi was none other than the 
personification of the spirit of the people. 
When we take into consideration the fact 
that this about synchronises with the rise of 
the Spanish, the Portuguese, the English, 
and the Dutch East Indian Companies, it 
will become plain that the historic strata 
both East and West are practically the same. 
In spite of this, Japan fell behind Europe 
in commercialism, industrialism, democracy, 
constitutional development, and scientific 
investigation — things which have been the 
creators of modem Europe. This back- 
wardness is nothing more nor less than the 
result of the policy adopted by the Tokuga- 
was, who cut off the East from the West 
by shutting the door of Japan for three hun- 
dred years, a policy calculated to preserve 
the safety and inglorious ease of the Toku- 
gawa family. It was some sixty years ago 
that Japan opened the flood gate to inter- 
course with Europe which resulted in the 
creation of New Japan. 

The goal after which mankind strives is 
one and the same. As all roads lead to Rome, 
so the road of all mankind is, generally speak- 



86 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




ELDER STATESMEN 



(Left) Marquis Masayoshi Matsukata — (Upper Portrait) Marquis Kimmochi Saio.nji — (Lower Portrait) Marquis Shigenobu Okcma, 
Director General of Waseda University — (Right) Field-Marshal Prince Aritomo Yamagata, President of the Pri\^' Council 



ing, the same. "What will become of Japan 
in the future?" is not a distinct and separate 
question. It is the same question as "What 
will become of European countries in the 
future?" There may be differences of shade 
but not of colour. 

THE JAPAN-CHINA WAR 
Fanatics and bigots are found in Japan 
just as in any other country. There are 
some thinkers who believe and contend that 
Japan is the foremost country of the world; 
that her customs and manners are the finest 



in the world, and that Japan could unify the 
countries of the Orient. Europeans who 
have heard such fanatical arguments, seeing 
Japan's wars with China and Russia, jump 
to the conclusion that Japan is a bellicose 
nation because they couple these arguments 
with what they have actually witnessed. 
But Japan did not challenge China to fight. 
The neutrality of Korea was essential to the 
existence of Japan. Therefore if China 
recognised the independence of Korea, re- 
garding her as belonging neither to Japan nor 
to China, Japan never meant to fight against 



China. However, China in those days 
treated Japan with contempt, and tried to 
annex Korea at one stroke. 

In 1894, the Chinese Minister to Japan 
despatched a most laughable report to the 
Chinese Government concerning the home 
administration of Japan. China in those 
days sent many Chinese scholars to Tokyo 
who formed literary friendships over the 
wine cup with Japanese students of the 
Chinese classics. Japanese (scholars of Chi- 
nese classics) Sinologues in general were 
haters of European civilisation, and naturally 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



87 



criticised the government policy of following 
European ways and ideas. Some of these 
malcontents thought a great deal of the reign 
of the departed Tokugawas. The Chinese 
scholars at once came to the conclusion that 
Japan was filled with the atmosphere of reac- 
tionary revolution. The fact of this whole 
trouble in a nutshell is this: Prince Ito, the 
then Prime Minister, for all his desire to 
adopt European political forms, could not 
see his way to give consent to more demo- 
cratic reforms as advocated by a certain 
pohtical party among the people, and this 
brought about a discussion in Parliament. 
Chinese politicians observed the fact that in 
Japan there existed on the one hand those 
who opposed European civilisation and that 
a struggle was going on between political 
parties and the Government and, they formed 
an idea that Japan was already being divided 
into two factions, so that even if China 



annexed Korea, taking advantage of the 
situation, Japan would have no courage to 
fight. Actuated by these convictions, China 
suddenly sent troops to Korea with a view 
to annexing it. Should Korea become a 
possession of China and Ma-Shan-P'u and 
Fu-Shan-P'u be well fortified, Japan's safety 
would be jeopardised. Japan was forced to 
resort to warlike measures, and the result 
was the Japan-China War. Japan had not 
the least aggressive intention. 

THE JAPAN-RUSSIAN WAR 
In the twenty-eighth year of Meiji, the 
Russian minister locked up the King of 
Korea in the Russian Legation, which became 
in fact the Korean Government, all orders 
emanating from this quarter. Count Mutsu 
was then the Minister for Foreign Affairs 
and Prince Ito was Prime Minister. The 
wounds Japan had received in the war against 



China were not then -completely healed, and 
it was next to impossible to cope with Russia. 
Japan approached England comijlaiuing of 
the outrageous attitude of Russia in Korea, 
and asked England if she were prepared to 
take any steps. Lord Salisbury, the Premier 
of England, instructed the British Foreign 
Minister to inform our government to the 
effect that England could not stand aside 
and watch the forcible absorption of Korea 
by Russia. These words sounded strong 
enough, but when carefully analysed, the 
expression that England could not stand aside 
and watch the forcible absorption of Korea 
by Russia is merely a form of words intended 
to maintain the prestige of a great nation. 
It implied that should Korea of her own ac- 
cord become a dependency of Russia nothing 
could be done. The Japanese Government 
was simply powerless, and several years had 
to be passed in complaisance and indecision. 






\^:j-"r :-:'?^c-~.^"5?ss«^?^ 



^^TattcaKzTw 




LEADING POLITICIANS 

(From Left to Right) Mr. Ikuzo Ooka, President of the House of Representatives since 1911 — Prince Iyes.\to Tokugawa, Head of 
the Tokugawa Family and Descendant of the Last Famous Shogun — Mr. Takeshi Inukai, M. P., Leader of the Kokuminto, or 
National Party, in the House of Representatives — Viscount Takaaki K.\to, Formerly Japanese Ambassador to London, now a 
Prominent Political Leader — Baron K. Takahashi, Member of the House of Peers, and One of the Most Powerful Leaders of the 
Seiyukwai Party — Mr. Takashi Har.\, Present Prime Minister; Leader of the Seiyukwai Party in the House of Representatives. 



88 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



But Russian avarice and outrages knew no 
bounds. After occupying Manchuria, she 
was prepared to swallow up Korea. Japan 
was compelled to open negotiations with 
Russia. But even at that time Japan had 
still no intention of fighting against her. 
Japan would have consented to Russian occu- 
pation of Manchuria had Russia allowed 
Japan to hold Korea, making the Yalu River 
the boundary line, but Russian diplomats 
who had resided many years in Tokyo had 
reason to believe that Japan would be satis- 
fied if Korea could be divided, with the Tai- 
Tung-Kiang as the boundary line, and if 
matters could be delayed Japan would surely 
give her consent to the latter arrangement. 
The situation in both countries became so 
pressing that Japan had to wage war against 
Russia. In the midst of the Japan-Russian 
War, the Katsura cabinet published for the 
benefit of the Imperial Diet all the documents 
and correspondence that had passed between 
Japan and Russia. These documents were 
partly true and partly false. They were 
false in that they did not contain that part 
of the documents concerning the demand 
made by Japan to the effect that Japan would 
be satisfied if Russia took Manchuria, with 
the Yalu River as the boundary, leaving 
Korea to Japan's control. Thus it will be 
seen that Japan had very little notion of 
invasion and aggression in fighting against 
Russia. In order to maintain the safety of 
the country, it was necessary for Japan to 
bring about either the occupation of Korea 
or the preservation of Korean independence. 
Japan even went so far as to give her consent 
to Russia's control of Manchuria, but Russia 
would not listen to either of these proposi- 
tions, and Japan was obliged to fight. The 
most powerful reason for EiU"opeans' estimate 
of Japan as a bellicose nation is found in 
connection with Japan's wars against China 
and Russia, but the real causes of these wars 
are exactly as I have stated here. In these 
wars, Japan's attitude was one of passivity 
and not aggressiveness. 

LESSONS OF HISTORY 
Such being the past history of Japan, her 
future may easily be known. In the minds 
of most people, the future of Japan is at once 
associated with the future of China. Japan 
has not the least ambition in the direction of 
the territorial disintegration of China. The 
partition of China is only possible as far as 
Japan is concerned when China destroys 
herself, leaving none to be the heir to her 
inheritance. To take the initiative in these 
affairs is certainly not the national policy 
of Japan. This view of mind is shared by all 
the sagacious statesmen of Japan. To be 
sure, there are some fanatical thinkers who 



clamour for the division of China. These 
men a'-e small in number, but extremely 
boisterous, and therefore Europeans mis- 
understand Japan's policy. This, I say, is 
absolutely not in accordance with the na- 
tional policy of Japan. This is a problem 
about which Europeans are particularly 
sensitive, and any number of mere words, it 
is to be feared, wiU not mitigate their feelings. 
A few facts, however, will suffice by way of 
explanation. In order to maintain her 
existence, it is necessary for Japan that 
China should keep up her prestige, being 
neither destroyed nor divided, but developing 
adequately so as to preserve the power and 
honour of an independent nation. I do not 
deceive myself in making this statement, 
but rather, it is the expression of a selfish 
love for my own country. Why is this? 
Japan needs rice in order to live. In 191 5 
Japan's output of rice was 55,920,000 kokii* 
while the population in Japan proper num- 
bered 53,350,000. Even with this enormous 
amount of rice, the nation could not be prop- 
erly fed. Let us see how it is. The amount 
of rice required by the Japanese for a year is 
1 koku 8 lo per head. Now the amount of 
rice consumed by the population of 53,350,- 
000 is 96,000,000 koku, but, as I said before, 
Japan's output of rice is only 55,920,000 koku. 
This fact gives rise to the necessity of import- 
ing food from foreign countries. Foodstuffs 
thus imported from abroad in 1912 amounted 
in value to 48,470,000 yen of rice, 12,350,000 
yen of wheat, 7,130,000 5'en of beans, 1,780,- 
000 yen of wheat flour, and 2,410,000 yen of 
vegetables, making a total of 72,140,000 yen. 
In addition to these, Japan imports from 
Korea 40,000,000 yen of agricultural prod- 
ucts and 40,000,000 yen of the same from 
Formosa. The principal place where these 
imported foodstuffs are produced is China, 
Annam, and Tonking. It is quite natural 
for us to wish that China, the supplier of 
such an enormous amount of foodstuffs to 
Japan, should enjoy peace so that her agri- 
cultural products may be increased and thus 
the price of rice be naturally lowered to the 
great benefit of our countrymen. 

We need iron. Japan is very poorly sup- 
plied with iron. No iron is available in this 
country excepting the materials for pans, 
kettles, knives, and kitchen utensils. In 
1914, our output of iron ores was 4,550,000 
kanme of manganese iron, 30,820,000 kaiime 
of sulphuric iron, 564,000 kanme of chrome 
iron, and 24,000,000 kanme of iron. It is 
true that more than one-half of the iron 
mines are idle, but even if all these were put 
into operation, the output could not be 
doubled. The demand for iron in this coun- 
try is something enormous. Large, active 

* 1 koku = 4.9629 Imperial or 5. i American bushels. 



factories in Kyushu alone require more than 
one million tons of iron per year. We are 
therefore importers of a large amount of iron 
at present. We import from Europe, Amer- 
ica, and China 1,810,000 yen of pig-iron, 
7,940,000 yen of iron, 5,600,000 yen of iron 
rods, 77,790,000 of sheet iron, 1,220,000 yen 
of electro-plated sheet iron, 4,790,000 yen 
of leaf iron, 380,000 yen of iron wires, 1,170,- 
000 yen of electro-plated iron wires, and 
1 ,340,000 yen of iron tubes and pipes, making 
a total of 102,040,000 yen. The iron thus 
obtained is used for the purpose of building 
electric rails; it builds railroads throughout 
this country, and it builds machinery. This 
is the amount of iron for normal times. 
Should war break out, there wiU arise a 
greater demand both for iron and rice. 

When the Russo-Japanese War began, 
shells for our guns were provided at the rate 
of two shots and a half per gun, per day. 
These preparations were made after strict 
consideration of the history of war in Europe, 
and were thought to be more than sufficient. 
When the actual battle was fought in Nan- 
shan against Russia, Japan found to her 
great surprise that she had to fire fifty shots 
a day. The provision for our shells was at 
once exhausted. Japan was then obliged to 
put into operation small iron works through- 
out the country. The result was that Japan 
fired some one million shells in the war 
against Russia which lasted one year and a 
half. This was, indeed, a wonder in the his- 
tory of warfare. But what is the state of 
affairs in the present European war? It is 
no uncommon event for some seven or eight 
hundred thousand shots to be fired in a day. 
We can easily surmise the nature of future 
warfare. The lack of iron is keenly felt even 
in ordinary times, nay, when America put a 
ban on the export of steel to Japan, the latter 
was left in a state of complete dismay. We 
are pressed with the need of iron not only in 
normal times, but in time of war the lack of 
iron must be severely felt. Should our 
neighbour China entertain kindly feelings 
toward us, and we, on our part, help her, thus 
bringing the two nations nearer in economic 
relations, and mutual friendly intercourse; 
should China become a friendly nation able 
to supply us with iron even in war, then our 
joy and happiness would be infinite. 

Suppose that some day Japan were unfor- 
tunately placed in a position of ha\-ing to 
fight against a foreign enemy. She would 
put in the field some one million and a half 
soldiers, all of them able-bodied men be- 
tween twenty and forty years of age. Should 
these able-bodied men be collected from 
farms, and sent to a foreign country, the 
production of rice must be greatly reduced. 
On these occasions, should China's agricul- 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



89 



tural condition prove itself healthy and pros- 
perous, and if this should be combined with 
safety of communications and friendly senti- 
ment on the part of China to supply us with 
rice even during the war, and should China 
be a strong country, then Japan would indeed 
be blessed. The advantages to be derived 
by Japan from preserving the integrity of 
China, intact, — not causing her to be dis- 
membered or destroyed, but keeping her as 
a safe and friendly nation, and encouraging 
her growth, — are plain enough from these 
figures. It is needless for me to employ clever 
language and sophistry to prove the fact that 
Japan has no ambition against China. The 
bare statistics will amply prove this fact. 
Thus it will be seen that to Japan the inde- 
pendence of China is indispensable. If so, 
we must study the way to maintain her inde- 
pendence. In the matter of national inde- 
pendence, Japan is ahead of China, and she 
is prepared to give her advice, warning, and 
assistance so as to enable her to be inde- 
pendent. The assertion of the Oriental 
Monroe Doctrine made by our special envoy, 
Viscount Ishii, in America, was favourably 
received by the public in America and Eng- 
land. I believe that this fact shows that they 
fully appreciate the real sentiments of Japan. 
I have already made it plain that the 
strata of Japanese history in the past are the 
same as those of European history. I have 
also made it evident in connection with 
Japan's wars against China and Russia, that 
Japan is not a bellicose nation, and that she 
has no sinister designs on the future of China. 
In this, Japan is simply considering herself: 
it is not that she is moved by any love of 
China. These facts are demonstrated not 
only by the history of our country. That it 
is not to the advantage of Japan to conceive 
ambitious designs against continental coun- 
tries, is also proved by the history of Europe. 
The history of any country shows that the 
peninsula is very weak, because on the one 
hand it is in contact with the continent so 
that it must maintain an army, while on the 
other hand it must devote its strength to 
coast defence, since it faces the sea. That 
is to say, its productive capacity is squan- 
dered on national defence. History proves 
that it is fatal to the interests of the penin- 
sular or island empire to entertain any ambi- 
tious designs against the continent. England 
once held territory in what is now Normandy, 
but for years and years, war dragged on there, 
causing thereby the decline and weakness of 
England. When, however, England with- 
drew herself from Normandy and became 
purely an island empire, her greatness then 
began. Again, the history of mankind proves 
that it is fatal for the South to march against 
the North. The history of the twenty-four 



dynasties of China shows that invariably 
the people of the dark lands and gloomy 
skies of the north invaded the sunny south, 
where grapes ripen and the apricot blossoms. 
There are a few exceptional instances of the 
Southern people driving back the Northern- 
ers, but they are merely instances of lost 
ground being regained by remustered forces. 
We find the same in the history of Europe. 
It is simply the history of the oppression of 



the influence of heredity and environment. 
The blood that we inherited tells us that we 
are a maritime people; the history we read 
teaches us that we are a nation of the sea. 
It also teaches us that our destiny is to ad- 
vance South. The future of Japan lies not 
on the continent, but on the sea; not in the 
North, but in the South. The period of our 
forefathers' greatest activity was when they 
sought gain in the China Sea and the Indian 




THE HOME OFFICE 



the South by the North. Any ambition 
entertained by Japan, an island empire, 
against the continent, would be in defiance 
of the primary lesson of history. Japan has 
already assumed responsibility in Manchuria, 
and in order to shoulder this responsibility, 
she has had to maintain an enormous 
army. 

The comparatively slow progress that Japan 
has unfortunately made in productive indus- 
try within the last few years must be attri- 
buted to this military preparation, but her 
need for maintaining a navy has not in the 
least been lessened thereby. Thus, Japan is 
now obliged to keep both a strong navy and 
a strong army. Now, Japan keenly feels the 
actual lesson taught by history. No one 
but a madman could conceive the idea that 
Japan would assume the further responsi- 
bility of stationing troops in a dismembered 
China. 

What will be the future of Japan? The 
questions, What will be the future of Japan? 
and How shall we shape her future? resolve 
themselves into one. However hard we may 
struggle, it is impossible for us to get rid of 



Ocean. Many a thrilling tale of romance 
and bravery which fires the blood of our youth 
was handed down to us by our forefathers 
whose activities were on the sea. 

At present, among oiu- countrymen, there 
is an outburst of enthusiasm for the South. 
The conviction has arisen among us that 
those who control the tropics will rule over 
half the world. Our trade has begun to 
advance towards the South. The goal of our 
travellers has become the South; we find this 
aspiration toward the South revealed in the 
textile fabrics exhibited in the Mitsukoshi 
Department Store; we find it revealed in the 
pictures exhibited in our art exhibitions; we 
discover it in the fancy goods shown in the 
windows of our bazaars; it appears in the 
carvings which decorate the drawing rooms 
of the rich. Our future lies on the Sea: our 
hope is in the South. How shall we work in 
the South and on the Sea? Our ambition is 
to digest and harmonise the civilisations of 
both East and West, and convert them into 
a civilisation shedding a new light which 
shall be the glory of Asia and a beacon-light 
guiding us to the South and to the Sea. 



rn 




THE BANK OF JAPAN 



IX. Banking, Finance, and Insurance 

(Yokohama and Tokyo Section*) 

Economics of Old Japan — Financial Policy of the Tokugawa Shoguns— Early Meui 
Finance — The First Banks — Improvement of Monetary Organs — Currency Reform — 
Taxation and Revenue— The National Debt— Banks and Banking — Foreign 
Banks— Loan Associations — National Wealth of Japan— Exchanges- 
Foreign Banks — Insurance Companies— A Short 
History of Coinage in Japan 



Hew revenue and expenditure were 
adjusted in ancient Japan we have 
now no means of knowing. It is 
clear, however, that coins were early used 
as media of exchange, the custom probably 
coming from China, though exchange was 
chiefly in the form of barter. But there were 
no devices for accumulating precious metal or 
combining capital for enterprise, except the 
treasuries of the feudal lords in later times, 
each clan having a separate system of 
finance. Taxes were collected in kind, the 
gatherers being individuals or families that 
had displayed some talent for finance. And 
there is reason to believe that the tax- 
gatherer of ancient Japan was no less stern 
and unscrupulous than his proverbial con- 
temporary in Europe. As a system of 
finance developed the taxes collected in kind 
were converted into money and paid to the 
feudatories or to the Central Government, 
as the case might be. These financial 
families, some of whom were great rice mer- 
chants, often made loans to officials, did 
some exchange business, and occasionally 
'See Page 517, 



extended accommodation 
viduals. 



to private indi- 



ECONOMICS OF OLD JAPAN 
Before the opening of Japan to Western 
civilisation there were no banks in any Occi- 
dental sense of the term; for the financial 
concerns already mentioned neither col- 
lected funds by receiving deposits nor dis- 
tributed capital in loans to the public. The 
various fiefs were so isolated from one 
another that neither social nor financial inter- 
course was possible. In any case all who 
engaged in mercantile or manufacturing pur- 
suits were despised as " mone3'-grubbers " 
by the upper classes. And this condition 
continued until the first Europeans visited 
the country in the middle of the sixteenth 
century. The foreigners found gold plentiful 
in some places, and the coinage more than 
eighty per cent pure; but the Japanese did 
not appear to realise the full value of their 
coinage and allowed it to be exported by the 
Portuguese and Spanish and later by the 
Dutch in ever-increasing quantities. Gradu- 



ally, however, the Japanese became conscious 
of their mistake; for Hideyoshi learned from 
the visitors that the financial policy of Spain 
and other European countries was to hoard 
gold, and he made up his mind to do like- 
wise. But the supply became depleted and 
he was obliged to take over the gold mines 
of Sado to replenish his treasury. At the 
time of his death enormous quantities of gold 
were found stored in Osaka Castle; and 
lyeyasu, the first of the Tokugawa shoguns, 
was obliged to weaken the wealth and conse- 
quent power of Hideyori, the son of Hide- 
yoshi, by imposing upon him highly expensive 
undertakings. 

FINANCIAL POLICY OF THE TOKUG.\AVA 
SHOGUNS 
The financial policy of the bakiifu, like that 
of its successors in modem Japan, was one 
of temporisation. The underh-ing financial 
policy of all Japanese governments has been 
that inaugurated by Hidej'oshi and carried 
into effect by the Tokugawa authorities; 
namely, to increase at all costs the specie 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



91 



holdings of the nation. Modern govern- 
ments have tried to do this by discouraging 
imports and encouraging exports, as well as 
by raising foreign loans to cover deficits. To 
the Tokugawa Government, isolated as it 
was, foreign loans were impossible; and con- 
sequently the frequently recurring deficits 
had to be made up by resorting to habitual 
debasement of the national coinage, causing 
an abnormal increase of currency, a corre- 



crucial financial situations, until at last the 
currency was so inflated and imports so in- 
creased that the Finance Minister, Aral 
Hakuseki, had to limit commercial imports 
to the value of the copper held by the nation, 
in order to prevent outflow of specie. Sucli 
was the financial situation in Japan at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. By 
the efi'orts of Aral the coinage was finally 
restored to the purity and value of the 



EARLY MEIJI FIN.\NCE 
The story of Japan's financial rehabili- 
tation in the Meiji era is one of the most 
sensational in the history of national econ- 
omy. It is chiefly a tale of remarkable indi- 
vidualities dealing with striking incidents and 
vicissitudes in economic situations. Every- 
where on its pages stand out conspicuously 
the names of Ito, Inouye, Matsukata, Okuma, 
and Shibusawa, the fathers of modern Japa- 




(LEFT to right) viscount Y. MISHIMA, governor of the NIPPON GINKO (BANK OF JAPAN) MR. J. INOUYE, PRESIDENT OF THE 

YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK — MARQUIS MASAYOSHI M.^TSUKATA, KNOWN AS "THE FATHER OF JAPANESE FIN.A.NCE " 



spending rise in prices, and a serious insta- 
bility of national finance. 

At the beginning of the Tokugawa era in 
1603 the standard gold coin, the Keicho 
koban, was just over 80 per cent pure, the 
rest being silver, while the subsidiary silver 
and copper coinage w'ere proportionately 
good. Thus the currency of the Keicho 
period enjoyed the confidence of both for- 
eigners and Japanese alike. So much did the 
foreign merchants seek exportation of the 
national specie that the authorities had to 
place a limit on the sum annually taken out 
of the country. Even this could not maintain 
the necessary supply for the shogun's treas- 
ury, and reminting had to be done again and 
again, the new coinage being only 56.4 per 
cent pure gold, and the subsidiary coinage 
only 63 per cent pure silver. To ensure a 
sufficient amount of metal for reminting, the 
bakufu ordered all taxes to be paid in gold. 
As has been suggested, methods of debase- 
ment were resorted to repeatedly to tide over 



Keicho era; but by the middle of the eight- 
eenth centur\' an abnormal depreciation in 
prices and a consequent fall in rice, which 
created dangerous speculation, obliged a 
reversion to the policy of debased coinage to 
restore equilibrium. Various new and oner- 
ous taxes were also now imposed, and rice 
merchants became bankers to the impov- 
erished feudal lords. To meet the expenses 
of preparing defences against intruding for- 
eign nations, the coinage was once more re- 
minted at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century ; and revenue was further increased by 
finding wealthy husbands among the feudal 
lords for daughters of the shogun, as well as 
b)' selling permission to wear the shogun's 
crest and other marks of privilege or rank. 
Thus by a remarkable system of temporisa- 
tion the bakufu was enabled to meet its 
financial obligations and put off the evil day, 
until its downfall in 1868, when an empty 
treasury was the only inheritance of the 
new regime. 



nese finance. When the financial affairs of 
the nation fell into the hands of these men, 
after the abolition of the shogunate, the 
country was not only without money, but 
had no means of obtaining any, as the fiefs 
and their taxes were still in the hands of the 
feudal barons; and in the absence of anything 
like organised commerce or finance no access 
to funds presented itself. Samurai as these 
men were, and without any training in 
finance, it is remarkable indeed how they were 
able successfully to extricate their country 
from its impossible situation with compara- 
tive rapidity, reforming the hopelessly chaotic 
monetary system and placing it on a sound 
basis. The shogunate, in its slough of finan- 
cial embarrassment, had, as we have said, 
reminted and debased the coinage until 
coins were of little more value than tokens, 
while the country was flooded with the sur- 
reptitious paper money issued by feudal 
lords; and as these numbered 270 the confu- 
sion caused by their issues of script of 1,600 



92 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




>KYO CHAMBER OF COMMF-RCE 



different types may be imagined. The economic progress. After some easy natural 

story of the evolution of Japanese currency mistakes arising from inexperience, the work 

from this tangled situation is one of the of regeneration was commenced in 187 1 when 

most extraordinary in the history of national gold was adopted as the national currency; 



in 1878 it became a system of gold and silver 
bimetallism; in 1879 it was equal only to a 
system of inconvertible paper money; in 1886 
the paper had been redeemed by silver coins, 
and at the end of 1897 a gold standard was 
adopted to replace the silver system. 

To avoid the bankruptcy threatened by 
the expenses of the wars and rebellions of 
the Restoration period, the new Imperial 
Government was obliged to issue as an emer- 
gency measure in 1868 a large amount of 
paper money, at first convertible into specie, 
but in 1 87 1 declared inconvertible. This 
action failed to command public confidence, 
and in 1873 the Government was forced to 
make this paper exchangeable for gold notes 
(kinsatsu), or inconvertible exchange bonds 
bearing six per cent interest, with the hope 
of destroying the paper money thus brought 
in and promoting the establishment of banks 
which should issue convertible notes on 
security of these government bonds. 

THE FIRST BANKS 

Although special organs, such as exchange 
companies, had been appointed to take 
charge of national revenue, encourage indus- 
try, and promote trade by lending money at 
low rates, no such organs as banks yet existed 




TOKYO STOCK EXCH.^NGE. (THE BUILUlNo W.\b KEcENlLV P.YRTIALLY DESTROYED BY FIRE) 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



93 




PROMINENT TOKYO BANKERS 

(Upper Row, Left to Right) Mr. Kenzo Ikeda, President, One Hundredth Bank, Ltd. — Mr. R. Mizukoshi, President, Hokkaido 
Colonization Bank, Ltd. — Baron I. Morimura, Senior Partner, Morimura Bank, Unltd. (Middle Row) Mr. G. Shimura, President, 

The Hypothec Bank of Japan Dr. Y. Ono, Vice-President, The Industrial Bank of Japan — Mr. T. Shid.'^chi, President, The Industrial 

Bank of Japan — Mr. Y. vSasaki, President, Dai-Ichi Ginko — -Mr. K. Koike, President, Koike Ginko (Lower Row) Mr. Z. Yasuda, 
President, Imperial Hemp Weaving Co., the Dai-!3an Ginko, the Yasuda Ginko, and Other Banks and Industrial Enterprises — Mr. 
Shigetake Saito, President, Tokyo Prefectural Bank, Ltd. — Mr. K. Mori, Managing Director, Yokohama Seventy-fourth Bank, Ltd. 



in Japan. First there was a Business Bureau, 
then a Trade Bureau, and afterward these 
Commercial Companies and finally Exchange 
Companies in the principal cities, their per- 
sonnel consisting chiefly of great families 
like the Mitsui, the Shimada, and the Ono, 
of ancient repute in the world of Japanese 
finance. These companies were partnerships 
of a strictly joint-stock kind, but they could 
receive deposits or lend money to merchants 
and manufacturers as well as issue notes, 
and therefore they constituted the nucleus of 
banks. Neither the notes of these concerns 
nor of the Government were secured by any 
fi.xed specie holdings, and consequently they 
had soon to give way to the establishment 
of regular banks after a modern system. 
An American model was adopted on advice 
of Ito, afterward Prince Ito, who had been 



sent to the United States to study banking 
institutions and returned to submit to the 
Government the results of his investigations. 
He made three cardinal proposals: The 
adoption of the gold standard, the granting 
of interest-bearing bonds for the treasury 
notes in circulation, and the establishment of 
banks as the media for issuing paper money. 
These proposals were adopted in 1873, and 
soon national banks were established on a 
system that combined some of the features 
of English banking with the general bases of 
American practice. Each bank had to pay 
into the treasiuy sixty per cent of its capital 
in government notes, and was credited in 
turn with interest-bearing bonds to be re- 
tained in the treasury as security for the 
issue of bank notes to an equal amount, 
the banks being required to keep in gold the 



remaining forty per cent of their capital as a 
fund for converting the notes, which conver- 
sion must always be effected on application. 
To prevent the rise of mushroom financial 
institutions the capital of each bank had to 
bear a fixed ratio to the population of the 
place where it was established. The Govern- 
ment's desire to replace the paper money it 
had issued by convertible notes was not 
realised, however; and with an increasing 
unfavourable balance of trade, gold flowed 
out of the country until a sharp depreciation 
ensued in government paper, giving rise to 
the financial panic of 1874. Various circum- 
stances had combined to deepen the sense of 
insecurity. It will be remembered that for 
years the Dutch had been depleting the 
country of its gold, and the process continued 
until the opening of Japan to foreign trade. 



94 



PRESENT-DAY lAfPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



During the centuries of seclusion gold had 
come to bear to silver in Japanese coinage a 
ratio of I to 8 ; so that the yellow metal cost, 
in terms of the white, only one-half of what 
it cost in_ the West. Moreover, the new 
treaties had given foreigners the right to 
exchange their own silver coins against Japa- 
nese coins, weight for weight, so that a for- 
eigner going to Japan with a quantity of 
Mexican dollars could buy with them twice 
as much gold as they had cost in Mexico. 
Thus Japan lost heavily; and between 1872 
and 1874 the balance of trade swayed heavily 
in the wrong direction, creating consternation 
in financial circles, and the bank notes were 
speedily returned for conversion. No de- 
posits came to the aid of the banks and the 
circulation of money almost ceased. 

The Imperial Government was, therefore, 
obliged to issue a revised code of banking 
regulations which dispensed altogether with 
hard money and substituted treasury notes 
m its place. Each bank was required to 
invest 80 per cent of its capital in 6 per cent 
state bonds; and these being lodged with the 
treasury, the bank became competent to 
issue an equal quantity of its own notes, 
forming, with the remainder of its capital, a 
reserve of treasury notes for purposes of 



redemption. It was a complete subversion 
of the Government's original scheme; but 
there was nothing else to be done, and it 
worked well at a time when the Government 
had to commute the hereditary pensions of 
the feudatories by issuing bonds aggregating 
174,000,000 yen, which, if placed all at once 
on the market, would sufler depreciation; 
while the holders, unaccustomed to business, 
might easily be led to dispose of their securi- 
ties and invest the proceeds in hazardous 
ventures. Therefore the new regulations 
offered an excellent opportunity for these 
bond-holders to combine and form banks, 
continuing to draw from the treasury 6 per 
cent on their bonds, while at the same time 
acquiring competence to issue a corresponding 
amount of notes which could be lent out at 
profitable rates. The scheme was a success. 
The number of banking institutions soon 
grew to 153; the aggregate capital of the 
banks in three years increased from 2,000,000 
yen to 40,000,000 yen, and their note issue 
from :, 000,000 yen to 34,000,000 yen. It 
was a great and rapidly growing system based 
wholly on state credit, without special 
reference to specie. The rage for estab- 
lishing banks finally became a mania; and 
the Government had to put a limit on the 



number of banks and the aggregate of 
their note issues, which was placed at 
34,000,000 yen. 

IMPROVEMENT OF MONETARY 
ORGANS 

It has already been shown that owing to 
the social and political disaffection of the 
first few years of the Meiji era, which cost 
many millions to suppress, and also the diffi- 
culty of quickly reforming the complicated 
taxation systems of the 270 daimyo, the 
expenses of the Imperial Government in- 
crea.sed so enormously that further note 
issues were necessary; so that in 1878 the 
paper currency rose from 120,000,000 yen 
to 164,000,000, with a corresponding rise in 
prices and depreciation in the value of paper. 
By practising the utmost economy the Gov- 
ernment managed to produce a surplus which 
was added to the fund for redeeming the 
paper money and to swell the specie reserve, 
the latter being especially imperative in face 
of the demand for resumption of specie pay- 
ments. It was clear, however, even to the 
most inexperienced economist, that to amass 
notes for the redemption of notes could never 
prove a successful expedient. Consequently 
the great financiers of the day, Ito, Inouye, 




DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE 



P R IC S E N T - D A Y IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



95 



and Matsukata, hit upon the plan of accu- 
mulating metal by buying up exporters' bills 
with notes and receiving the proceeds in 
specie; which, together with the imposition of 
new taxes and the increase of old ones, helped 
over the crisis. The outcome of this official 
incursion into export trade brokerage was the 
establishment of the Yokohama Specie Bank, 
which from a struggling organ of exporter's 
finance, has grown to be one of the greatest 
financial institutions of the nation. Further, 
in its efforts to accumulate specie and resume 
payments in gold, the Government organised 
a central bank, the Bank of Japan, in 1882, 
with a capital of 4,000,000 yen, while the 
numerous national banks were dissolved and 
turned into joint-stock concerns for the 
redemption of their notes in circulation. 
Each of these banks was required to deposit 
with the treasury the government paper kept 
in its strong-room as securit}^ for its own 
notes, and from its annual profits to hand to 
the treasury a sum equal to two and one-half 
per cent of its notes in circulation. With 
these funds the state bank was to purchase 
state bonds, devoting the interest accrued 
from them to redeeming the notes of the 
national banks. The result was a rise in the 
price of bonds, which were soon in demand 
at a premium ; and since the Government 
began converting its six per cent bonds to 
fives, they no longer produced sufficient 
interest to redeem the notes of the national 
banks, in accordance with the scheme agreed 
upon, causing a tremendous outcry from 
these banks against the Government. The 
dispute lasted until 1896 when a bill was 
passed providing for the dissolution of the 
national banks at the end of their charter 
terms and their conversion into joint-stock 
companies without note-issuing competence. 
Out of a total of 153 banks only 132 continued 
under the new regulations, the rest being 
absorbed or liquidated, the notes being legal 
tender until 1899. In 1890 and 1893 minute 
regulations were issued for bringing all banks, 
except certain special ones, within one sys- 
tem of official accounting and auditing; 
while savings banks had to lodge security 
with the treasury for the protection of their 
depositors. 

CURRENCY REFORM 
According to the monometallic system 
prevailing at the beginning of the Meiji era 
the one-yen gold piece was the unit. To 
facilitate foreign trade one-yen silver pieces 
were issued for circulation in treaty ports, 
equal in weight and fineness to the Mexican 
dollar, then the universal medium of ex- 
change in the Far East. The relative value 
of the gold and silver ven oieces was fixed 
at the rate of 16. 174 silver to i of gold. In 




INTERIOR OF HALL OF THE TOKYO RICE AND PRODUCE EXCHANGE CO., LTD. 
(TOKYO BEIKOKU TORIHIKISHO) 



1873, when Germany adopted the gold stand- 
ard and began to dump her silver, the price 
of the white metal fell, in 1876 reaching as 
low as 20 of silver to i of gold, and the value 
of Japan's gold coins was seriously affected. 
To encourage circulation of silver, the use of 
the silver yen was extended to silver-standard 
countries and became legal tender side by 
side with gold, thereby creating a gold and 
silver bimetallic system. The Government's 
scheme for preventing the outflow of specie, 
meanwhile, had been more or less successful, 
and sufficient was accumulating to resume 
specie payments. In 1885 the Government 
announced that from the beginning of the 
following year it would be in a position to 
exchange silver for notes, thus placing silver 
on a par with gold and changing from a 
bimetallic standard to a silver standard. 
The result was an immense amount of dan- 
gerous speculation in the financial and com- 



mercial world, and the Government began to 
see the need of establishing a gold standard. 
The opportunity came after the war with 
China when Marquis Matsukata, then Minis- 
ter of Finance, asked that the indemnity, 
amounting to 360,000,000 yen, be paid in 
British money, thereby making a big addition 
to Japan's specie. Thus in 1896 Japan was 
ready for the adoption of the gold standard, 
and 76,000,000 in coin was immediately 
minted, the i-yen silver coins being discon- 
tinued, and ceasing to be legal tender after 
1908. The 75,000,000 in silver yen collected 
was disposed of partly by recoinage into 
subsidiary money; but 41,000,000 yen were 
sold to Shanghai, Hongkong, and elsewhere, 
while 6,750,000 was placed in circulation in 
Formosa, Korea, and other colonies. The 
new gold standard made the unit of coinage 
• 75 gramme of pure gold, the standard for 
subsidiary coins being as follows: 









Approximate 


Denomination 


Fineness 


Weight 


Value in 
British Money 


Gold 5 yen 


900 gold, 100 copper 


4. 1666 grammes 


£o:ios:6d 


10 " 


" " 


8-3333 


i: :6 


" 20 " 


11 It 


16.6665 


2: :ll.5 


Silver 10 sen 


720 silver, 280 copper 


2.25 


0: : 2.5 


" 20 " 


800 " 200 


405 


0: : 5 


" 50 " 


** 


10.125 


0: I : 0.25 


Nickel 5 " 


250 nickel, 750 copper 


4.66 


0: : 1.25 


Bronze i 


950 copper, 40 tin 


3.56 


0: : 0.3^8 


" 5 rin 


and 10 zinc 







96 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



The total arnount of coins and bank notes 
in circulation at the end of 191 5 was as 
follows: 

Gold Yen 37,112,103 

Silver 114,232,513 

Nickel 9,084,710 

Bronze 9,011,398 

Tola! 169,440,724 

Bank notes 430,138,010 

Grand lota! 599.5/8,734 

According to a statement issued by the 
Department of Finance, the total volume of 
money in circulation at the end of November, 
1917, was 956,859,998 yen, including coin and 
notes. These figures are further evidence of 
the striking improvement in the economic 
situation in the past two years. 

TAXATION AND REVENUE 

Naturally the confusion that had so long 
existed in the national banking system and 
in the circulating medium reacted unfavour- 
ably on finance generally, interfering with the 
collection of revenue. Under the feudal sys- 
tem the 270 daimyo had some 2,000 different 
kinds of taxes which the new Meiji Govern- 
ment had to straighten out and place on a 
modem basis. The principal revenues of the 
feudal barons had been land tax paid in rice, 
while the shogunate had a small revenue from 
the nation's trifling foreign trade with China 
and Holland, besides that from monopolies 
and imposts and from private estates. The 
aim of the new regime was a uniform system 
of taxation covering the whole Empire, 
reducing the burdensome land tax and making 
up the deficiency by indirect taxation, so as 
to encourage agricultiu"e. By 1872 a com- 
plete survey of the country had been made 
and titles to land ownership decided, the 
lands being assessed on a basis of the money 
value of their produce for the previous five 
years. The new land tax was levied at the 
rate of three per cent on this assessment and 
payable in coin, while the hitherto onerous 
duties and imposts were abolished. As the 
demand for more revenue increased with the 
nation's naval and military expansion new 
taxes were levied, especially an income tax, 
as well as imposts on soy, tobacco, confec- 
tionery, and stamps, the results being so 
satisfactory that in 1886 the Government 
was able to reduce the land tax again. After 
the war with China the demand for revenue 
became still more pressing, and it was found 
necessary to establish occupation and regis- 
tration taxes as well as to increase the taxes 
on sake and tobacco, those on vehicles and 
confectionery being at the same time abol- 
ished as thev had added little to the nation's 



income. By this means some 35,000,000 yen 
was added to the treasury. But taxation was 
further increased in 1896, and again in 1900, 
after the Boxer uprising in China which 
entailed an outlay in Japan of some 22,000,- 
000 yen. Further increase was found neces- 
sary in 1906 after the war with Russia, when 
taxes and loans greatly increased, the latter 
alone amounting to over 1,700,000,000 yen. 
The new taxes were raised by virtue of what 
is called the Extraordinary Special Tax Law, 
and at the same time tobacco was made a 
government monopoly. The new taxes were 
an additional burden of 145,000,000 yen on 
the people and were considered by no means 
light; but the country had been so far devel- 
oped that the tax-bearing capacity of the 
people had improved commensurately. There 
was considerable complaint, however, and 
some taxes had to be readjusted to allay 
disaffection. The following table will show 
Japan's revenue and expenditure at inter- 
vals of ten years for the last forty years: 



prevent deficit. The burden of taxation thus 
became markedly more onerous and the 
incidence of taxes was in some cases uneven. 
Moreover, economic changes necessitated the 
abolition of some taxes and the revision of 
others. And so in 1910 all taxes save that 
on income underwent readjustment, resulting 
in a decrease of revenue to the extent of 
15,000,000 yen; while in 1913 a further revi- 
sion resulted in a deduction of taxation by 
7,000,000 yen more, with special relief to 
persons of small incomes. As the burden 
was still more than land-holders could well 
carry a more radical revision came in 1914, 
relieving agriculturists of some 1 1 ,000,000 
yen in taxation. The Land Tax was thence- 
forth assessed upon a basis of ten times the 
annual rental value of the land. On this 
assessment residential land pays 2.5 per cent; 
rice and other fields, 4.5 per cent, but 3.2 per 
cent in Hokkaido; and the other fields, 
4 per cent. Income Tax is payable by persons 
domiciled or who have resided one year in 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Surplus 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


1876 

1886 

1896 


69,482,677 

62,156,835 

118,432,721 

535,256,392 

608,269,267 


69,203,242 

61,115,313 

85,317,179 

420,741,205 

602,610,719 


279,434 
1,041,522 

33,115,541 


1906 


114,515,187 


1916 


5,658,548 







A return of the national finances for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, gave the 
receipts as 813,293,836 yen, and the expen- 
diture as 603,714,531 yen, leaving a hand- 
some surplus of 209,579,305 yen. Revenue 
exceeded the budget estimate by 212,355,439 
yen, and expenditure was less than the esti- 
mate by 12,919,178 yen. Figures issued 
later in the year showed that this buoyant 
condition of the national finances was being 
more than maintained, revenue increasing 
by substantial sums, though the figures on 
expenditure were not available at the time 
this article was written. 

In any study of Japanese revenue and 
expenditure the question of surplus requires 
more consideration than space here permits, 
since deficits seem usually turned into sur- 
plus by means of loans and the transposition 
of funds, so that a table such as the above 
can not be taken fully at its face value. 

As to sources of revenue in detail, it may 
be remarked that in the course of these 
observations it has been shown that during 
the war with Russia taxation reached a higher 
ratio than at any time before; and after the 
war was over taxation was practically kept 
at a war level, as the debts and post-bellum 
responsibilities demanded extra income to 



places where the income tax law is in force, 
and by those who, though not thus liable, 
derive income from sources within the Empire 
which come under the said law. There are 
three kinds of income tax: (1) That for 
joint-stock companies and other juridical 
persons; (2) That for interest on public bonds 
or company debentures; (3) That on incomes 
not derived as in i and 2. In Class 2 the rate 
is 2 per cent, but in other classes an addi- 
tional rate of I per cent is paid on incomes 
of not less than 300 yen, the rate increasing 
proportionately to 22 per cent on incomes of 
100,000 yen or more, in accordance with the 
Extraordinary Special Tax Law; and also 
there is the ordinary rate of 2.5 per cent for 
Class I , while Class 2 ranges on a sliding scale 
from I per cent on incomes of not less than 
300 yen, to 5.5 per cent on those of not less 
than 100,000 yen. In 1915 the statement 
from this source was as shown in table at 
top of next page. 

There is no tax on incomes of army and 
navy officers and privates while engaged in 
war, while income derived from charity, 
pensions, or as legal support, or for school 
expenses or from government loan bonds, is 
also exempted. The Business Tax, which 
was first imposed in 1896, falls upon all 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



97 



Class 


Phrsons 


Incomk 


Tax 


I . 


16,605 
979,020 


202,627,878 

20,874,384 

622,589,302 


13,168,299 

410,933 

23.933.296 


2 

3 


'raid! 


945.625 


846,091,564 


37,512,528 





descriptions of industry and commerce, 
assessment being based on capital, sales, com- 
missions, contract values, rentals of buildings, 
and 2 yen for each employee other than 
labourers, the rate for the latter being 50 sen 
each. The rate for wholesale houses is 
12/10,000 on sales, and for retail houses 
36/10,000 on sales, plus 90/1,000 of the 
rental value of the buildings. The rate for 
banking and insurance companies is 5/1,000 
of the capital and 90/ 1 ,000 of the rental, 
while for manufacturing, printing, publishing, 
and photography, the rate is 3.7/ 1,000 of the 
capital and 90/1,000 of the rental value. 
Liquor Tax is levied on various classes of 
brewers, such as sake brewers of different 
kinds, beer brewers, distillers of wine and 
alcoholic liquors and so on, the rate vary- 
ing with the percentage of alcohol, from 20 
yen per 40 gallons for 20 degrees of alcohol 



to I yen for each degree per 40 gallons, in 
the case of sake brewers; while beer brewers 
pay 10 yen per 40 gallons, or about sixpence 
a gallon; and distillers pay l yen for each 
I per cent of pure alcohol per 40 gallons, 
though in no case less than 21 yen per 40 
gallons. The Soy Tax is levied at the rate of 
1.75 yen for each 40 gallons. Those making 
soy for their own use must pay a tax of 
from 50 sen to 4 yen per 40 gallons. The 
Mining Tax is at the rate of 30 sen for each 
4 square yards of land still prospecting, and 
double that rate for mines in operation. The 
rate on output is i per cent on the value, gold, 
silver, and iron ores being exempt. There 
is also a tax of 30 sen on placer mining for 
two and one-half acres in the case of alluvial 
and 4,000 square yards in non-alluvial soil. 
A Travel Tax was imposed in 1905 and applies 
to all passengers on trains, electric cars, and 



steamers, the rate being go sen first class, 
25 sen second class, and 4 sen third class for 
200 miles and upwards, 40 sen, 20 sen, and 
3 sen respectively for the various classes on 
distances between 100 and 200 miles, while 
passengers travelling less than 100 miles but 
more than 50 miles, pay 20, 10, and 2 sen 
respectively according to class, and those 
travelling less than 50 miles pay 5 sen for 
first class, 3 sen for second, and i sen for 
third class. The Succession Tax came into 
force in 1905, the rate varying according to 
the degree of relationship and other circum- 
stances connected with the successor to the 
headship of a house and the value of the 
heritable property, ranging from i to 5 per 
cent. A Tax on Bourses is levied, in respect 
of time bargains, upon exchanges, the rates 
being 5/10,000 of the amount of the transac- 
tion in the case of local loan bonds, and 
12/10,000 in the case of other securities and 
negotiable papers, exempting national loan 
bonds. The Consumption Tax is on textiles 
to the amount of 10 per cent ad valorem, 
and on kerosene to the amount of I yen per 
40 gallons. Sugar Excise applies to sugar, 
syrup, and molasses delivered at manufac- 
tories, or customs or bonded warehouses, 




MITSUI BANK AND MINING DEPARTMENT 



98 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



the rate being from 2 j-en to 10 yen per 
picul, according to quality and methods of 
manufacture. Tonnage Dues were introduced 
in 189C), and are imposed on all ships enter- 
ing port from foreign countries, the rate 
l)eing 5 sen ]')er registered ton of the actual 
capacity, but the payment at a port of 15 
sen per ton exempts a vessel from all further 
tonnage dues at that port. Stamp Receipts 
are those other than business tax and fees 
from stamps generally, and are over eighty 
in number, the most important bping the 
stamps on patent medicines and legal 
documents, the registration tax, shooting 
license tax, civil suit stamps, examination 
fees, and certain custom house charges. 
Government monopolies, which are treated in 
a separate article in this volume, comprise 
tobacco, salt, and camphor, as well as opium 
in Formosa, the tobacco monopoly being the 
most important. The revenue from Imperial 
Government Railways is treated as a special 
account, divided into Capital, Reserve, and 
Revenue Accounts, the excess of revenue over 
expenditure in the Revenue Account consti- 
tuting profit, and the balance remaining after 
deducting for the Reserve Account a sum 
not exceeding 10 per cent of the profit, is 
transferred to the Capital Account, the 
revenue of which is further constituted l^y 
any public or temporary loans which the 
Government may issue in the case of a deficit 
in railway' profit; by proceeds of sale of rail- 
way property and by other receipts. Expen- 
diture of Capital Account consists of disburse- 
ments for construction, improvements, up- 
keep and repair of railways, the redemption 
of debts and other charges. The expenditure 
of Reserve Account consists of disbursements 
to meet deficits in the revenues of the other 
accounts caused by accidents, natural catas- 
trophes, and the like. The Custom Duties 
which came into force in 1859 and were re- 
vised in 1866 and 1899, with the imposition 
of a special super-tax on imports in 1906, 
specify 538 articles in 19 different groups. 
The tariff was fiu-ther revised in 19 u, enu- 
merating 647 articles classified in 17 groups, 
the duties being specific as far as possible, 
raw materials mostly free and light duties 
on semi-manufactured articles. The duties 
on imports range from 15 to 40 per cent, the 
higher rates applying chiefly to articles of 
limited importation; while articles of luxury, 
also imported in small quantities, pay a duty 
of 50 per cent. A treaty with Great Britain 
provides for a reciprocal tariff on linen yams, 
cotton and woollen tissues, iron, and paints. 
As time goes on the question of revenue be- 
comes one of increasing importance, and 
every possible resource has to be called into 
service. The Japanese army is now three 
times what it was before the war with Russia, 



with corresponding naval increment, to say 
nothing of the millions involved by partici- 
pation in the European war. The national 
specie holdings which amounted to some 
353,000,000 yen before the war, however, 
have, on account of the enormous favourable 
balance of trade, risen to nearly 900,000,000 
yen in 1917, and in this sense Japan has been 
financially benefited by the war. The follow- 
ing table indicates sources of revenue for the 
last fifteen years, at intervals of five years for 
the sake of comparison: 

The table on the following page gives the 
expenditure for the same periods. 



THE NATIONAL DEBT 
In Old Japan the people were under obli- 
gation to lend money to feudal lords who 
usually entered into contracts without speci- 
fying any security. The rights of creditors 
being thus unrecognised, it was frequently 
the case that the lenders were forced to pro- 
vide further contributions or lose what they 
had already loaned. When the Meiji Gov- 
ernment assumed responsibility for the 
estates of the daimyo investigations were 
made as to debts so contracted, and the 
amounts due creditors were settled by public 
loan bonds, the people at the same time 



Sources: ORnixARY T.wes 



Land tax 

Income tax 

Business tax 

Succession tax 

Travelling tax 

Mining tax 

Tax on bank note issues 

Liquor tax 

Soy tax 

Sugar excise 

Consumption tax (textiles) 

" ,, (kerosene) 

Bourse tax 

Custom duties 

Tonnage dues 

Other taxes 

Stamp receipts 

Public undertakings, etc 

Posts, telegraphs, and telephones. . . 

Forests 

Government Monopolies: salt 

" " camphor. 

" " tobacco.. 

Railway profits 

State property 

Interest on transferred deposits. ... 
Transferred from Korean account . . 

" " Formosan " 
Other miscellaneous receipts 



Total. 



E.\TR-\ORDINARY REVENUE 



Sales of state property 

Chinese indemnity 

Issue of public loans 

Forestry funds transferred 

Transferred from naval funds 

Riparian funds transferred 

Local contributions by prefectures . . . 

Temporary' loans 

Surplus of preceding year transferred . 
Other miscellaneous receipts 



1907 



\\-n 



84,637,498 

26,348,739 

19,770.159 

1,409,425 

2,463,801 

1,928,152 

1,692,285 

71,100,004 

5,601,458 

16,156,704 

5.037.515 

4,679,831 

41.853,533 

580,581 

2I3,I7-1 

34,260,448 

1 liS,090,42l 

34,904,163 

5,468,786 

23,232,385 

1,163,826 

32,574,484 

l6,6iS7,452 

4,059,325 

3,268,885 

2,039,293 

:i. 7 70,346 



562,992,673 



Total . 



Total revenue. 



3,886,527 

2,200,201 

15,508,259 

1,771,830 



1,330,298 

57,160,585 
4,691,856 



■"^'',549,556 



649,542,229 



191: 



Yen 



74,936,085 

34,755,746 

24,598,612 

4,061,596 

3,918,334 

2,238,072 

1,388,160 

86,032,832 

4,828,316 

17,255.548 

18,916,151 

1,925,503 

4,799,625 

48,518,614 

6.53,817 

244,309 

29,073,697 

132,252,365 

51,963,732 
11,047,947 

I I,.S.)0,312 

179.903 
51,315.884 

5,904,587 
8,799,826 
1,348,065 

4,918,264 

3,095,146 



640,811,048 



3,704,396 
1,073,401 

11,200,730 
2,426,633 

12,000,000 
10,066,190 



101,247,795 
6,914.362 



148,633,507 



789,444,555 



I9I7 



Yen 



72,592,350 

33,438,186 

20,090,877 

2,853,302 

4.869,954 
2,958,781 
1,060,138 
91,719,091 
4,908,432 

25.3.39,357 

15,144,115 

1,457,021 

3.716,483 
32,024,415 

572,919 

247,739 

28.991,699 

165,702,494 

63,775,300 

10,659,246 

8,951,336 

49,248 

58,802,746 

23,464,618 

11,926,859 

5,011,606 

4,071,399 

3,095.935 



697.495.646 



3,740,201 
2,633,177 
1,550,000 
2,692,113 



2,346,390 
8,000,000 

24.437,759 
23,745,605 



69.145.245 



766,640,891 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



99 



I )KI)1N.\KV ExPiiNDITi:RH 



Imperial househokl 

Foreign affairs 

Home affairs 

Finance 

Army 

Navy 

Justice 

Public instruction 

Agriculture and commerce 

Communications 

Tola! 

Extraordinary Expenditure 

Foreign affairs 

Home affairs 

Finance 

Army 

Navy 

Justice 

Public instruction 

Agriculture and commerce 

Communications 

Total 

Total Expenditure 



1907 



Yen 



;, ,000,000 

^.672,573 

9.792,372 

2i6,894,,^37 

,V„S24.«95 
27.991.35" 
10,051,150 
5,004,547 
3.671.837 
23,051,172 



339,454.233 



2,308,141 

6.212,594 

1 6.039.521 

30,044,677 

33.885.320 

621,296 

1.935,862 

8,184,815 

25,089,124 



124,321,350 



463,775,583 



1912 



Yen 



4,500,000 

-1,558,942 

1 1,874,612 

185,1 1 1,582 

77.421,744 

40,208,251 

12,612,354 

9,025,399 

7.255.859 
57,320,301 



409,889,044 



1.097,531 

21,742,927 

37.842,241 

27.578,162 

60,255,366 

926,294 

1,422,928 

5,498,022 

19,122,096 



175,485,567 



585,374,611 



191; 



Yen 



4,500,000 

4,551,542 

12,788,981 

154.548.414 
78.855,757 
46,496,165 
11,588,000 

9,774,432 

7,130,440 

67,521,878 



397,755,609 



2,253,600 

34,641.248 
65,282,302 

15.457.357 

55.747.761 

992,664 

823.777 
13,418,081 
15.900,573 



204,507,363 



602,262,972 



being relieved of all further obligation to 
lend money, except voluntarily under a pub- 



lic loan system such as prevails in Occidental 
countries. 



The first loan raised by the new Govern- 
ment was one of 500,000 yen in silver from 
the British Oriental Bank in 1868, a tempor- 
ary accommodation hardly in the nature of 
a loan. In 1878 a loan was raised in London 
to the amount of £1,000,000 at 9 per cent for 
the construction of a railway between Tokyo 
and Yokohama. In 1876 and the following 
year pension bonds were issued, increasing 
the national debt to 250,000,000 yen. The 
first real domestic loan was issued in 1877 for 
the extension of public works, soon followed 
by certain other loans. In 1886, however, 
all loans at more than 5 per cent interest were 
called in and replaced by 5 per cent bonds. 
A second foreign loan of £2,400,000 was 
floated in London a few years later at 7 per 
cent; and in 1897, after the close of the war 
with China, a loan of 43,000,000 yen in war 
bonds was floated at 5 per cent in London, 
followed by another in 1899 in the London 
market to the amount of £10,000,000 at 

4 per cent for railway purposes. In 1902 a 

5 per cent loan for 50,000,000 yen was raised 
in the same market, and in 1905 a loan of 
£10,000,000 in New York and London. The 
war of 1904-5 increased the indel^tedness of 
Japan by the sum of 1,100,000,000 yen. 
The table below gives the general features 
of the Japanese national debt up to the end 
of March, 1916; since which time a further 



Japan's National Debt 



Intern.\l Loans 



Old Public Loan 

Five per cent Loans 

Five per cent Loan (Ko) 

Five per cent Loan (Special) . . 
Five per cent Loan (Onshi) . . . 

Four per cent Loan 

Korean Excheciuer Bonds, $% 
Railway Notes, 5% 



Total. 



Interest 
Paid 



None 
Mar., Sept. 
June, Dec. 

Mar., Sept. 
Mar., Sept. 
June, Dec. 
Mar., Sept. 



When 

Issued 



1872 
1906-16 
1 908-9 

1906 
1910-13 
1910-12 

1913 

1915 



Redemp- 
tion 
Period 



192 1 
1970 
1963 
1935 
1967 
1969 
1917 
1920 



Amount 
Issued 



Yen 



10,972,725 

59,151.800 

476,318,800 

310,407,000 

30,000,000 

276,220,000 

30,000,000 

30,000,000 



1,223,070,325 



Amount 
Redeemed 



Yen 



9,678,972 

422,750 

16,073,200 

162,275,800 

6,527,950 



194,978,672 



Amount 
Out-standing 



Yen 



1.293.753 

58,729,050 

460,245,600 

148,131,200 

30,000,000 

269,692,050 

30,000,000 

30,000,000 



1,028,091,653 



Foreign Loans 



Sterling Loan, 4J^2%, 1st issue . 
Sterling Loan, 4^-2 ?-c, 2nd issue 
Sterling Loan, 4%, 2nd issue . . . 
Sterling Loan, 5% 



Sterling Loan, 4%, 3rd issue . 
Exchequer Bonds (Paris), 5';f,i 
Hokkaido Railwaj' Bonds, 5''o 
Kwansai " " 4' 2'/ 



Total. 



June, Dec. 
Feb., Aug. 
Jan., July 

Jan., July 
Mar., Sept. 
May, Nov. 
June, Dec. 
May, Nov. 

Jan., July 
June, Dec. 



1899 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1907 
1910 
1910 

1913 
1906 
1906 



1953 
1925 
1925 
1931 
1947 
1970 
1970 

1923 
1921 
1926 



97,630,000 

292,890,000 

292,890,000 

244,075,000 

224,549,000 

174,150,000 

107,393,000 

77,400,000 

3,905,200 

9,763,000 



4,881,500 

29.311.455 

29,297,006 

4,100 

4,686 

3.290 

195 

194 



92,748,500 
263,578,545 
263,592,994 
244,070,900 

224.544.314 

174,146,711 

107,392.805 

77.399,807 

3,905,200 

9,763.000 



1.524.645.200 



63,502,426 



1,461,142,776 



Grand Total. 



2,747,715.525 



258,481,098 



2,489,234,429 












^:-^^^^^>-^'as^:-^e^^^»^g^^^i!i5^^^ 



SCENES IN TOKYO: JIUNISO, SHIMJIKU SACRED PIGEONS IN ASAKUSA PARK — PINES ON THE IMPERIAL PALACE MOAT- 
CHERRY BLOSSOMS IN UYENO PARK —CHILDREN AT PLAY IN THE PARK 

CHERRY BLOSSOMS OVERHANGING THE YEDO RIVER 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



lOI 



domestic 5 per cent loan has been contracted 
to the amount of 40,000,000 yen for railway 
purposes, such funds during the previous few 
years having been appropriated from the 
national sinking fund created for the reduc- 
tion of the national debt. 

In comparison with the above, the following 
table giving Japan's debts, raised, redeemed, 
or outstanding, for the past fifteen years will 
be found interesting: 



of the Katsura ministry the provision was 
not wholly respected, large sums being taken 
from the sinking fund for railway purposes; 
but the Terauchi cabinet promised to restore 
the annual appropriation of 50,000,000 yen 
to the sinking fund. Owing to the abnormal 
increase of specie holdings during the Euro- 
pean war further reductions have been made 
in the national debt; but there is a general 
conviction in financial circles that it is better 



Year 


Internal Loans 


Foreign Loans 


Total 


Debt per Head 


Yon 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

IQ07 


388,834,195 
404,596,140 

432,550,811 
441,332,521 
661,231,837 

899,975,947 
1,049,546,503 
1,088,645,228 
1,062,605,599 
1,417,128,864 
1,203,139,900 
1,116,216,270 
1,066,247,341 
1,054,633,854 

991,531,578 


97,630,000 

97,630,000 

97,630,000 

97,630,000 

605,306,000 

970,410,310 

1,146,160,579 

1,165,701,224 

1,165,701,224 

1,165,675,449 

1,447,215,716 

1,437,449,203 

1,427,682,905 

1,490,436,651 

1,485,550,664 


486,464,195 

502,226,140 

530,180,811 

538,962,521 

1,266,537,837 

1,870,386,257 

2,195,707,082 

2,254,346,452 

2,228,306,822 

2,582,804,313 

2,650,355,615 

2,553,665,473 

2,492,930,245 

2,545,070,505 

2,477,082,242 


10.412 
10.843 
10.865 
25.262 
36.922 
42.912 
43-486 
42.141 
48.438 
39-356 
38.001 
35-780 
34-198 
34- 155 
32.525 


1908 

1909 

1910 


IQI I 


I9I2 

I9I3 

I9I4 

I9I5 

I9I6 



During the buoyant times that have pre- 
vailed since the outbreak of the war the 
Government has taken every opportunity of 
redeeming portions of the national debt. 
At the close of September, 19 17, the total 
stood at 2,485,913,311 yen, of which 1,353,- 
470,089 yen was foreign obligations and 
the balance was owed internally. If these 
figures are compared with those for 1916 
in the table above it will be seen how 
Japan, while her debt has increased by only 
about nine millions, has reduced her foreign 
obligations by over 130,000,000 yen, while 
she has become a greater debtor to her own 
people — in other words, more self-contained 
financially. 

Japan took advantage of the low rate of 
interest prevailing in 1910 to raise 4 per cent 
loans for the purpose of converting her 5 
per cents, so far as the period for not redeem- 
ing which had expired, thus saving the 
treasury an annual outlay of £368,739 in 
interest. The total amount of loans so 
redeemed or converted was 523,300,000 yen. 
The National Debt Consolidation Fund Bill 
provides that not less than 110,000,000 yen 
shall be set apart annually from the general 
account for the purpose of redeeming the 
war bonds issued in connection with the 
Russo-Japanese War; and later a sinking 
fund was established to receive an annual 
allotment of 50,000,000 yen toward reduc- 
tion of the national debt; but after the fall 



to hold the debt at present than have to bor- 
row at higher interest after the war. 

BANKS AND BANKING 
It has already been shown that the Gov- 
ernment, finding itself without proper mone- 
tary organs at the beginning of the Meiji 
era, induced wealthy companies to undertake 
banking business under special control of a 
Board of Trade; but the privilege of issuing 
gold and silver certificates, which they 
possessed, led to their undoing and the whole 
banking system of the Empire had to be 
reorganised in 1872, the Government pro- 
mulgating National Bank Regulations mod- 
elled on the National Bank Act of the L^nited 
States. The new regulations provided for 
the conversion of national bank notes into 
specie. Further regulations were issued in 
1883 depriving national banks of the right 
to issue notes; and other regulations in 1884 
provided for the establishment of savings 
banks. Meanwhile the producing power of 
the people was growing, capital was accum- 
ulating, foreign trade was fast developing, 
and bank desposits experiencing unprece- 
dented increases. By 1893 the number of 
banks had grown to 763, with 94,000,000 yen 
of capital, 45,000,000 yen of deposits, with 
loans amounting to 178,000,000 yen, and 
bills discounted aggregating 211,000,000 yen. 
In 1903 the number of banks was 2,307; total 
capital, 377,000,000 yen; deposits, 755,000,- 



000 yen; loans, 579,000,000 yen; bills dis- 
counted, 3,587,000,000 yen. Thus rapid 
development continued until, in 1913, the 
number of Japanese banks was 2,165; capital, 
704,000,000 yen : deposits, 1 1 ,048,000,000 yen ; 
loans, 3,050,000,000 yen; and bills discounted, 
3,059,000,000 yen annually. 

The banks of Japan are divided into two 
classes, ordinary and special banks, the 
former for the general circulation of capital 
and the latter for specific functions. The 
ordinary banks are under control of the 
Minister of Finance whose license is required 
for their establishment or for the amalga- 
mation of existing institutions. He is em- 
powered to investigate the condition of a 
bank at any time; and all banks must submit 
to him semi-annually a balance sheet and 
publish the same in the press. The special 
banks are, as has been said, for special pur- 
poses, on which account they have certain 
restrictions which are compensated for by 
certain privileges, enabling them to make 
more profit, while at the same time they are 
under government protection and control. 

FOREIGN BANKS 
Among the foreign banks doing business in 
Japan are the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking 
Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, 
Australia, and China, The International 
Banking Corporation of the United States, 
and the Russo-Asiatic Bank, for further 
details m connection with which the reader 
is referred to the Foreign Banking Section 
(see page 129), following the detailed descrip- 
tion of the Japanese banks. 

LOAN ASSOCI.\TIONS 
Besides the banks there are in Japan 
Loan Associations for the purpose of affording 
financial facilities to the poorer classes. The 
Mutual Loan Society Act, passed in 19 15, 
restricts promoters of loan associations to 
persons with a capital of at least 30,000 yen. 
At present these societies throughout the 
country number 831, with a capital of 
20,336,750 yen of which only 6,946,884 yen 
is paid up, and having liabilities of 137,000,- 
000 yen. In Japan much use is made of 
pawnbrokers, of whom there are some 
30,000, whose interest on loans amounts to 
from 20 to 48 per cent per annum. There 
is great need for enlarging the scope of the 
Credit Associations to provide still greater 
accommodation to those now exposed to the 
rapacity of usurers. 

A difficulty which foreigners experience in 
connection with investments in Japanese 
securities should here be mentioned. It is 
very difficult for those not able to read the 
Japanese language to ascertain just when 
securities are redeemed; and it often occurs 



102 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



that the holder of bonds does not find this 
out until the coupons for the next half-year 
are presented, when he discovers that the 
bonds were redeemed six months before and 
he must lose half a year's interest. This is 
especially the case with municipal bonds, 
notice of the redemption of which may be 
published in some obscure journal, and even 
banks sometimes are unaware that the secur- 
ities they have in safe-custody have been 
redeemed. 

NATION.^L WEALTH OF JAPAN 
Outside the realm of government finance 
and banking, statistics are not so easily 
available, but the finances of the larger towns, 
villages, and municipaUties are known. The 
revenue of prefectiu-es consists of taxes, 
rates, and also of grants from the national 
treasury. A sur-tax is levied on the five 
national taxes: on business, land, income, 
mining, and placer mining tax. The total 
amount granted from the national treasury 
to prefectures in 1915 was 43,000,000 yen; 
and special subventions are made in' cases of 
epidemic, flood, for riparian work or indus- 
trial encouragement. The revenue of towns 
and municipalities comes from property, 
rents and taxes, school fees and treasury 
grants, with the same sur-taxes as prefectures 
levy. The total revenue for Japanese pre- 
fectures, towns, villages, and ■ municipaUties 
during the year 1915 ^^'as 286,755,540 yen, 
and the total expenditure 283,746,924 yen, 
while the total indebtedness of the towns, 
villages, and municipalities of the Empire 
was 334,892,234 yen. Of this indebtedness 
the amount of 191,359.000 yen rests on the 
cities of Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Yokohama, 
and Nagoya, as foreign loans. 

The present national wealth of Japan as a 
whole is estimated as follows: 

Yen 

Land 17,052,000,000 

Buildings 6,771,000,000 

Furniture and valuables 3,428,000,000 

Domestic animals, poultry, etc. 205,000,000 

Minerals 1,059,000,000 

Marine products 1,476,000,000 

Forestry products 776,000,000 

Electric, gas and water works . . 337,000,000 
Ships, warships, and rolling 

stock 772,000,000 

Gold and silver coins and 

bullion 401,000,000 

Banks and companies 1,060,000,000 

Merchandise 1,511,000,000 

Railways, telegraphs, and tele- 
phones 1,338,000,000 

Libraries 27,000,000 

Harbours, rivers, and canals. . 1,303,000,000 

Total 37,516,000,000 

Wealth per capita 725,000 



THE BANK OF JAPAN 
The Bank of Japan was created in 1882 
as a necessary part of the Government's 
scheme for replacing the paper currency by 
metal and for bringing private banks and 
banking companies into uniformity, and 
soon it became the only institution authorised 
to issue notes. The bank started with a 
capital of 10,000,000 yen, which has been 
three times increased, and now stands at 
60,000,000 yen, of which 37,500,000 yen is 
paid up. This bank is privileged to issue 
notes against gold and silver coins and bullion 
and, further, to issue notes on security of 
government bonds or treasury bills and 
other bonds or bills of a rehable nature, the 
maximum of notes in the latter case being 
120,000,000 yen. In case of necessity the 
maximum may be exceeded, provided the 
bank pays a tax of at least 5 per cent per 
annum. The business of the Bank of Japan 
is principally to discount or purchase govern- 
ment bills, bills of exchange, or commercial 
bills; to buy or sell gold or silver bullion; to 
make loans on security of gold or silver coins 
or bullion; to collect bills for banks, com- 
panies, or merchants, who are regular cus- 
tomers; to receive deposits and accept cus- 
tody of articles of value in precious metals 
or documents; to make advances for fixed 
periods on security of government paper or 
documents guaranteed by the Government. 
The Bank of Japan is also entrusted with the 
management of the treasury receipts and 
disbursements. 

The expansion of business transacted by 
the bank is illustrated by a comparison of the 
figures shown in the following tables: 

The Amount of Note Issues and Specie 

Reserve on Hand at the Close of 

Five-Year Periods 



Year 



Note 
Issues 



1885 

1 890 

1895 

1900 

1905 

1910 

IQ15 

1916 

191 7 (June 30) 



Yen 



Specie 
Reserve 



3,956,161 
102,931,766 
180,336,815 
228,520,032 
312,790,819 
401,624.928 
430,138,010 
601,224,410 
605,918,047 



Yen 



44,622,413 
60,370,797 
67.349,129 
115.59,5,026 
222,382,465 
248,417,800 
410,519,000 
486,520,060 



Tot.^l Transactions of the Bank 



Year 

1882 (for S3 days from Oct 

10 to Dec. 31) 

1885 

1890 



Yen 



roTAL Transactions of the Bank 
(Continued) 



Year 



1895 
1900 

1905 
1910 

1915 
1916 



Yen 



3,013,921,253 
9.748,987,192 
29.156,254,123 
38,702,112,955 
34,674,112,431 
40,610,210,097 



5,762,270 
882,315,837 
,213,369,812 



The administration of the Bank of Japan 
is in the hands of the Administrative Board 
consisting of one Governor, one Vice-Govem- 
or, and four Directors. The Governor 
presides over the Administrative Board and 
executes the resolutions passed at the 
meetings of the board. The present Govern- 
or is Viscount Yataro Mishima, and the 
Vice-Govemor is Kesaroku Mizumachi, 
Hogakuhakushi. 

The business at the head office of the bank 
is actually conducted through the following 
divisions, under the management of a chief 
officer for each division: (i) Inspector's 
Bureau; (2) Business Department; (3) Cash 
Department; (4) Treasury Department; 
(5) Secretary's Department; (6) Securities 
Department; (7) Accountant Department; 
(8) Economic Research Department; (9) Pri- 
vate Secretary's Bureau The bank has 
eleven branches which are located at Osaka, 
Saibu (Moji), Kyoto, Xagoya, Otaru, Hako- 
date, Fukushima, Hiroshima, Kanazawa, 
Niigata, and Matsumoto. 

The Bank of Japan publishes a half-yearly 
balance sheet in February and August of 
each year, when the general meetings of 
shareholders are to be held, and at the 
general meeting in February also publishes 
a business report for the preceding year. In 
addition to these reports the bank publishes 
on each Wednesday a weekly balance sheet. 

The half-yeariy report to June 30, 1917, 
showed a surplus, or net profit for the term, 
of 4,691,961.54 yen which was distributed as 
follows: Ordinary dividends at 6 per cent 
per annum, 1,125,000 yen; secondary divi- 
dends at 6 per cent, 1,125,000 yen; depre- 
ciation in properties, 10,000 yen; bonuses 
and social expenses for officers, 182,000 yen; 
carried forward, 1,749,961-54 yen. 

THE VOKOHAIIA SPECIE BANK, LIMITED 
The Yokohama Specie Bank, Limited, 
officially known in Japan as the Yokohama 
Shokin Ginko, is perhaps the most prosperous 
and popular of all the banking institutions 
of the Empire, being second to none save the 
Bank of Japan, Founded in 1880 with a 
capital of 3,000,000 yen, for the purpose of 
affording financial facilities to the nation's 
foreign trade, the institution passed trium- 
phantly through the economic vicissitudes 




THE HEAD OFFICE OF THE YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK, LIMITED, YOKOHAMA 



I04 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



of early Meiji finance and became inde- 
pendent of state aid as early as 1S89. Since 
that time, owing to steady expansion and 
augmentation of business, the bank has been 
obliged to double its capital four times, until 
now it stands at 48,000,000 yen, of which 
36,000,000 yen is paid up, with a substantial 
reserve fund amounting to 22,100,000 yen, 
and paying an annual dividend of 12 per 
cent since 1902. 

The Yokohama Specie Bank was originally 
conducted under the provisions of the 
National Banking Law; but a special Imperial 
Ordinance, entitled " The Yokohama Specie 
Bank Regulations," promulgated in 1887, 
provides strict government supervision, under 
which all the business of the bank is now 
carried on. The accounts of the bank are 
always open to the government auditor, and 
a half-yearly balance sheet approved by him 
has to be presented to the Government and 
published in the press. The term of the 
bank's business operations was originally 
fixed at a period of twenty years from the 
foundation of the institution; but at an 
Extraordinary General Meeting of the share- 
holders convened on September 10, 1897, it 
was decided, with the approval of the Minis- 
ter of Finance, to prolong the term for 
another twenty years, commencing from 
February 28, 1900; after which there is no 
doubt that the term will again be extended. 

Among the great financial institutions of 
Japan the Yokohama Specie Bank, Limited, 
occupies a position of yearly increasing 
importance. It is often entrusted with 
matters relating to foreign loans and with 
the management of public money for inter- 
national account. As the chief monetary 
organ of the nation's foreign commerce, the 
Yokohama Specie Bank pays particular 
attention to foreign exchange and the finan- 
cial adjustment of trade. During the war 
in Europe this bank took an important part 
in floating the British, French, Russian, and 
other loans in Japan for the promotion of 
the interests of the Allies. The bank is 
authorised to issue in the Province of Kwan- 
tung and in China bank notes convertible 
into silver. 

The ordinary business of the Yokohama 
Specie Bank consists of foreign and inland 
exchange, loans, deposits of money and safe- 
custody of articles of value, discount and 
collection of bills of exchange, promissory 
notes and other securities, as well as exchange 
of coins. The bank may also buy and sell 
public bonds, gold and silver bulUon, or for- 
eign specie, as circumstances may dictate. 

The enormous extent of the bank's business 
may be inferred from its increasing extension 
in every part of the world. In Japan the 
bank has branches in Tokyo, Osaka, Kob^, 




THE PALACE OF THE GOVERNOR OF KANAG.^AVA PREFECTURE AT YOKOHAMA 



and Nagasaki, while abroad it has branches 
at London, England, and Lyons, France. 
In the United States branches of the Yoko- 
hama Specie Bank, Limited, are found at 
New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, 
as well as at Honolulu. Further branches 
are at Sydney, Australia, Bombay and Cal- 
cutta, India, and Hongkong and Singapore. 
In China branches are estal^lished at Shang- 
hai, Tsingtau, Sinanfu, Hankow, Tientsin, 
Pekin, Newchwang, Dairen, Port Arthur, 
Mukden, Tiehling, Changchun, Antung- 
Hsien, Harbin, and Liaoyang. The bank 
also has correspondents in all the chief 
cities of the world, numbering in all some 
three hundred and fifty. 

The superb structure which forms the head 
office of the Yokohama Specie Bank, Limited, 
at Yokohama adapts the best features of 
modern bank buildings of the most advanced 



type to the requirements of customs and con- 
ditions peculiar to Japan, architectural beauty 
being skillfully modified both externally and 
internally to secure solidity in a land of 
earthquakes, as well as to ensure utility 
of service. 

The Yokohama Specie Bank, Limited, has 
always been fortunate in the character and 
capacity of its personnel. The present presi- 
dent of the institution, J. Inouye, Esq., is 
one of the most distinguished of the nation's 
3-ounger financiers, as well as a master of 
foreign economic knowledge; while the vice- 
president, Mr. Y. Yamakawa, and all the 
directors are no less prominent among the 
financial circles of the Empire. 

The table below, giving the balance at the 
end of each year, will indicate the progress of 
the bank's business during ten ordinary 
years. 



Year 


Authorised 
Capit.^l 


Reserve 
Fund 


Deposits 


Loans 


Earnings 


Net 
Profit 


Divi- 
dend 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yun 


Yen 


Yen 


Per 
Cent 


1906 


24,000,000 


13.934.861 


120,004,921 


82,981,221 


22,125,099 


4,903,032 


12 


1907 


24,000,000 


14,591,707 


120,747,331 


99.379.166 


24,105,828 


4,030,405 


12 


1908 


24,000,000 


15,490,928 


116,526,482 


63,958.138 


22,238,051 


3,830,125 


12 


1909 


24,000,000 


16,483,130 


144,864,900 


54,740,180 


21,024,000 


3.655.731 


12 


1910 


24,000,000 


17,064,101 


120,864,978 


68,339,947 


21.415,574 


3,500,382 


J 2 


1911 


48,000,000 


17.514.833 


140,435,183 


83,461,469 


20,859,329 


3,837,346 


12 


1912 


48,000,000 


18,210,252 


166,191,379 


105,017,699 


28,166,562 


4.323,925 


12 


1913 


48,000,000 


19,819,232 


187,851,101 


107,274,127 


43,325,951 


4,348.427 


12 


1914 


48,000,000 


20,085,268 


180,890,765 


104,012,185 


43,229,419 


4.367,7,59 


12 


1915 


48,000,000 


21,350,172 


174.573.759 


94,320,381 


38,108,817 


4,401,468 


12 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



105 



Liabilities 


Assets 


Yen 


Yen Yen 


Capital (paid up) 36,000,000 . 00 

Reserve fund 22,100,000.00 

Reserve for doubtful debts. . . 2,828,504.21 
Notes in circulation 20,023,208 95 


Cash account : 

In hand.... 39.915,479-39 

At bankers. 133,320,613. 13 173,236,092.52 

In\'estments in public securi- 
ties 25,780,5 II . 68 

Bills discounted, loans, advan- 
ces, etc 225,531,618.83 

Bills receivable and other sums 

due to the bank 551,767,497.66 

Bullion and foreign money.. 3,476,836.33 

Bank's premises, properties, 

furniture, etc 2,963,397 . 00 


Deposits (current, fixed, etc.) 527,004,429.91 

Bills payable, bills rediscount- 
ed, acceptances and other 
sums due by the bank. . . .368,909,057.45 

Dividends unclaimed 10,304.77 

Balance of profit and loss 
brought forward from last 
account 2,226,757 .81 

Net profit for the past half- 
year 3,653,690.92 


Yen 982,755,954.02 


Y'en 982,755,954.02 





Pkofit and Loss Account 



1)K. 


Cr. 


^■n 


Yen 


To interests, taxes, current ex- 
penses, rebate on bills cur- 
rent, bad and doubtful debts, 
bonus for officers and clerks, 
etc 46,084,294 . 89 

To reserve fund 1,000,000.00 

To dividend: 

6.00 yen per old share for) 

240,000 shares ( . 

, , ) 2,160,000.00 
3.00 yen per new share fori 

240,000 shares \ 

To balance carried forward to 

next account 2 720 448 73 


By balance brought forward 

June 30, 1917 2,226,757.81 

By amount of gross profits for 
the half-year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1917 49.737.985-81 


Y'en 51,964,743.62 






Yen 51,964,743.62 






PHCENIX PAVILION, SHOWING ARCHITECTURE OF 1,200 YEARS AGO 



The figures in the tables on this page 
show the position of the Yokohama Specie 
Bank as at December 31, 1917. 

Following are the Directors of this impor- 
tant institution: Messrs. Junnosuke Inouye, 
President; Yuki Yamakawa, Vice-President; 
Nagatane Soma, Kokichi Sonoda, Riyemon 
Kimura, Rokuro Hara, Masnoske Odagiri, 
Tchunosuke Kawashima, Baron Koyata 
Iwasaki, and Konojo Tatsumi. 

THE DAI-ICHI GINKO, LIMITED 

This important institution, which deserv- 
edly ranks very high in banking circles in 
Japan, was formerly the First National Bank, 
and was established in 1873. Several changes 
took place in the early history of the bank, 
and its capital was at different stages in- 
creased to enable it to extend its operations. 
The Dai-Ichi Ginko was formally incor- 
porated under the present Banking Act of 
Japan in 1896, and its development has been 
such that now it is one of the richest and most 
sound of the first group of important banks 
in the country. The capital is 22,700,000 
yen, of which 16,250,000 yen has been fully 
paid up, and its reserves amount to the sub- 
stantial total of 11,200,000 yen. A general 
banking business is conducted on a wide scale 
both locally and abroad. The bank's head 
office is at No. i Kabutocho, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo. Branches are maintained in Yoko- 
hama, Kyoto, Hakodate, Kob^, Osaka, 
Nagoya, Otaru, and Shimonoseki, as well as 
sub-branches in each of the most important 
centres, the total in Japan being twenty-four. 
In Korea the Dai-Ichi Ginko has branches 
at Seoul and Fusan, while in foreign countries 
it is represented by correspondents among 
the leading banks of the world. The Board 
of Directors consists of the following: 
Chairman, Mr. Y^. Sasaki; Directors, Baron 
H. Mitsui, Prince Y. Tokugawa, and Messrs. 
T. Kumagai, Y. Kusaka, S. Sasaki, and 
G. Tanaka. The Auditors are Messrs. T. 
Doki and J. Odaka. In the forty-second half- 
yearly report for the period ending June 30, 
191 7, the Directors were able to show a very 
satisfactory state of affairs for this famous 
bank. The gross profit was 5,676,277.55 
yen, from which had to be deducted the 
general expenditure of 3,963,614.10 yen, 
lea\'ing a net profit of 1,712,663.45 yen, to 
which was added the balance brought for- 
ward from the last account, viz., 819,535.93 
yen, making a total divisible profit of 2,532,- 
199.38 yen. Of this sum 700,000.00 yen was 
added to the reserve (thus raising that 
account to 11,200,000.00 yen). Dividends 
were declared totalling 864,187.50 yen; 
85,630.00 yen was allotted as bonus to direc- 
tors, auditors, and chief officers; 34,250.00 
yen was added to the pension fund and a 



io6 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



i 




TOKYO PREMISES OF DAI-ICHI GINKO, LIMITED 



Liabilities 


Assets 


Yen 


Yen 


Capital 22,700,000 . 00 

Reserve fund 10,500,000 . 00 

Redemption fund for the bank 

notes 5,122,000.00 

Current accounts 95,526,764.47 

Deposit receipts 83,855,274.08 

Other liabilities 14,886,374.03 

Due to correspondents 3,802,545 . 59 

Acceptances for customers . . . 1,843,586.38 

Balance brought forward 819,535 . 93 

Net profits for the half-year. . 1,712,663 .45 


Unpaid capital 6,450,000.00 

Cash in hand and with the 

Bank of Japan 18,666,938.25 

Investments 32,251,864.35 

Bills discounted 58,211,560.63 

Loans and advances 118,073,420.42 

Due from correspondents. . . . 3,162,882.07 
Liability of customers for 

acceptances per contra. . . . 1,843,586.38 
Rank premises, etc 2,108,491 .83 


Yen 240,768,743.93 


Yen 240,768,743.93 



balance of 848,131.88 yen was carried for- 
ward to the next half-year. The balance 
sheet for the period to June 30, 1917, is 
given above. 

THE JUGO GINKO, LIMITED 
This institution is also known as the 
Fifteenth National Bank, or Nobles' Bank. 
It was founded under the old National Bank- 
ing Act in May, 1877, and on the termination 
of the original charter it was reorganised in 



all respects as a joint-stock concern with a 
capital of 18,000,000 yen. In the following 
year Mr. K. Sonoda was elected President. 
By October, 1913, the capital of the Jugo 
Bank, Ltd., was increased to 40,000,000 yen, 
of which 23,500,000 yen is now paid up. 
The reserves now total 5,800,000 yen. The 
Governing Board comprises the Hon. Iwao 
Matsukata, President; Mr. Masayasu Na- 
ruse, Vice-President, and the following 
Directors: Mr. Kokichi Sonoda, Viscount 



Hisayoshi Kano, Viscount YukiyoshiAoyama, 
Mr. Yoshitero Shimizu, Marquis Yorimichi 
Tokugawa, and the Hon. Nayayuki Asano. 
The Auditors are Messrs. Mazakazu Hisano, 
Naoyoshi Yamamoto, and Tomaki Hano. 
Mr. Yutsuha Sato is the Manager and Mr. 
Kazusuke Kumai is the Sub-Manager. The 
head office is at Xo. 6 Kobiki-cho, Shichi- 
chome, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo, and there is 
one branch at Nihonbashi-ku in the metro- 
politan area. The Jugo Bank, Ltd., has the 
following London branches and agencies: 
Parr's Bank, Ltd., Lazard Bros. & Co., and 
the Union Discount Co., of London, Ltd. 

The Jugo Bank, Ltd., does a general bank- 
ing business and its record is one of continued 
and pronounced success. The last balance 
sheet, to June 30, 1917, showed the state of 
affairs for the six months' operations (see 
next page). 

THE INDUSTRI.\L B.\XK OF J.\P.\N, 
LIMITED (NIPPON KOGYO GINKO) 
The Industrial Bank of Japan is one of 
the special banks under direct charter from 
the Imperial Government, and was estab- 
lished in 1902, under the provisions of a 
special act of the Imperial Diet which 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



107 



Dr. Yen 

Capital 40,000,000 . 00 

Reserve funds 5,540,000.00 

Deposits, current accounts, etc. 44, 750, 246. 10 
Due to other banks and agents 388,913.68 

Dividends unpaid 579-39 

Rebate on bills discounted and 

interest unpaid 536,681 .96 

Profit 2,364,203.40 



93,580,624.5;, 



Cr. Yen 

Capital unpaid 16,500,000.00 

Loans on securities and bills 

discounted 39,700,684 . 85 

Account with Bank of Japan 

and other banks 5,659,263.40 

Government bonds (face value 

33,726,300.00 yen) 22,232,980.25 

Foreign government bonds. . . . 998,000.00 

Other securities 3,459,600.00 

Due from other banks and 

agents 340,176.84 

Bank premises, etc 462,961 .06 

Cash 4,226,958. 13 

93,580,624.53 



Profit akd Loss Account for the Sik Months Ending Junf 30, 191 



To reserve fund 260,000 . 00 

" bonus for the officers 68,000.00 

" dividends for the half-year 

at the rate of 9 per cent 

per annum 1,057,500.00 

" balance carried forwarii to 

next account 978,703 , 40 

2,364,203 40 



By net profit for the half-year. . 1,394,894. 13 
" Ijalance brought forward 

from Dec. 31, 1916 9^9,309 27 



2,364,203.40 



promulgated laws for the organisation and 
control of industrial banks. The object of the 
bank's existence is to deal in negotiable 
instruments, supply capital for various 
industrial operations, act as a medium for 
the importation of foreign capital, and deal 
with trust business. In detail, the special 
operations of the Industrial Bank may be 
described as follows: (i) making loans on 
the security of national loan bonds, pre- 
fectural or municipal loan bonds, or deben- 
tures and shares; (2) subscribing for, or 
underwriting, national loan bonds, etc.; 
(3) receiving money on deposit and valuables 
for safe custody; (4) undertaking trust busi- 
ness; (5) discounting bills; (6) buying and 
selling of exchange; (7) making loans on the 
security of estates (zaidan) created by virtue 
of special laws; (8) making loans on the 
security of lands and buildings belonging to 
factory companies; (9) making loans on the 
security of land and buildings in cities and 
towns designated by Imperial Ordinance, and 
(10) carrying on other banking business sanc- 
tioned by the Minister of Finance in accord- 
ance with laws or ordinances. As indicated 
by these items the Industrial Bank of Japan 
is under direct Government control. The 





PREMISES OF JUGO GINKO, LIMITED 










PREMISES OF THE NIPPON KOGYO GINKO (INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN, LIMITED), TOKYO, AND A CORNER OF 

THE BANKING CHAMBER 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



109 



President, Vice-President, and Directors are 
all nominated by the Government, and the 
auditors are selected among the shareholders. 
Since the organisation of the bank some of 
the most prominent business men of Japan 
have been on the directorate, and the whole 
history of the institution, together with its 
sound and conservative control and its pres- 
tige, well warrant the very high reputation 
in which it is held, not only in Japan, but in 
foreign countries. The original capital of 
the Industrial Bank was Yen 10,000,000, but 
with the rapid expansion which took place 
an increase of capital was imperative. In 
April, 1906, this was raised to Yen 17,500,000, 
the additional amount being easily secured 
in the foreign money market. A further 
increase took place in August, 191 7, when 
new shares were issued of a face value of 
Yen 12,500,000, 75,000 being offered for pub- 
lic subscription, and the rest being assigned 
to the original shareholders at the rate of one 
new share against every two old ones. With 
this new capital a broad scheme of extension 
is now being carried out by the bank, includ- 
ing the financing of industrial workers at 
home, and the capitalisation of cooperative 
enterprises in China. The Vice-President, 
Dr. Ono, paid a visit to the United States 
in 1917, and consulted with the leading 
financiers of that country on questions of an 
industrial and financial nature on which the 
two groups of banking institutions are 
mutually interested in the development of 
public works in China. 

The general expansion of the business of 
the Industrial Bank has been remarkable in 
the last few years. Not only has it invested 
money in all parts of Japan proper and 
Korea, but as suggested above, it is heavily 
involved in China and has decided to expand 
its influence in that field to a much greater 
extent. On the other hand, the bank has 
been the medium for the importation of 
several hundred millions of foreign money 
from the French, British, and American mar- 
kets. Again, the Industrial Bank has in- 
vested a large sum of money in the Franco- 
Japanese Bank, which was established with 
the cooperation of Japanese and French 
capitalists. That the President of the 
Industrial Bank is at the same time Vice- 
President of the Franco-Japanese Bank, and 
the directors of the former are on the board 
of the latter institution, shows how substan- 
tial is the backing of the Franco-Japanese 
Bank. Since the opening of the foreign ex- 
change business the Industrial Bank has been 
dealing not only with the sale and purchase 
of foreign bills of exchange, but has exerted 
all its influence to make the Western and 
Eastern monetar>' circulation more and more 
smooth. 



The officers of the Industrial Bank of Japan 
are: President, Mr. T. Shidachi; Vice- 
President, Dr. Y. Ono; Directors, Messrs. T. 
Aoki, T. Iwasa, and M. Ninomiya; Auditors, 
Messrs. N. Soma, F. Uriu, and K. Kawakami. 
The head office of the bank is at No. r Zeni- 
game-cho, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. Below is 
given the statement of assets and liabilities 
as at June 30, 1917. 

THE BANK OF CHOSEN 
Vitally important to the development of 
the Japanese territory of Chosen (Korea) is 
the existence of a strong financial institution, 
under government auspices, and such a need 
is fulfilled by the Bank of Chosen which 
operates under special charter from the 
Imperial Japanese Government. This bank 
was formerly known as the Bank of Korea, 
and was established in October, 1909, as the 
central bank of Chosen with a capital of 
Yen 10,000,000. In the following year 
Korea was annexed by Japan, and in conse- 
quence the bank was reorganised under its 
present title, with a charter from the Govern- 
ment. 

During the first few years of the bank's 
existence, its energies were devoted exclu- 



sively to Chosen, there being a great deal to 
be done there, just as the Bank of Taiwan had 
found much to do in Formosa when com- 
mercial and industrial order and system had 
to be established in the place of chaos. In 
Chosen the work of coinage reform, which had 
been set afoot by the Imperial authorities, 
was still going on, and the Bank of Chosen 
was required to complete it. The Govern- 
ment and the municipalities were greatly in 
need of funds to prosecute various public 
works and the bank was called upon to supply 
the money; new enterprises were springing 
up in all directions, and those that were at all 
worthy of encouragement had to be accom- 
modated financially. Generally Chosen was 
in its commercial and financial birth, and all 
needs had to be met by the bank, as far as 
possible. By the time the institution began 
to turn its attention to the market outside 
the peninsula, the country was in a fair way 
to prosperity, a fact readily admitted to be 
largely attributable to the work of this 
institution. 

In the year 1913 the Bank of Chosen was 
ready to extend its operations abroad, and a 
ready field was found in Manchuria, not 
only because it lies so close by, but because 



Dk. 


Cr. 


Yen 


Yen 


Capital (350,000 shares of 

50 yen) ly.soo.ooo.oo 


Cash on hand and at bankers' 1,485,188.62 


Debentures issued 76,853,400.00 

Deposits 38,071.703.73 


Advances current account .... 213 ,044 . 40 
Fixed loans 34 495 608 40 


Reserves 2,116,800.00 

Dividend unclaimed 71,490.25 

Correspondents' accounts 26,885 • 34 

Net profit for half-year 675, 1 38 . 00 

Funds in trust and other sums 


Loans on lands and buildings 767,323.50 

Bills discounted 32,123,061 .43 

Internal national loan bonds . . 10,195,220.03 
Foreign national loan bonds. . 21,016,873.72 
Local loan bonds. . . 8 474,778 58 


due by the bank 16,981,665.82 


Shares and debentures 4,078,525.28 

Funds in agencies 15,447,326.50 

Difference on subscription of 

debentures 1.753>i47 02 

Correspondents' accounts. ... 112,142. 15 

Bank premises, etc 235,800.99 

Properties acquired through 

liquidation of debts 235,062 . 86 


Yen 152,297,173.14 


Yen 152,297,173.14 



Profit and Loss Account 



DR. 


Cr. 


Yen 


Yen 


Current expenses, interests 3,592,481 . 10 

Reserve fund 68,000 . 00 

Dividend 525,000.00 

Remuneration to officers 20,000 . 00 

Balance carried forward 62, 138 . 00 


Gross profits for the half-year 
including 60,138 yen. Balance 
of Profit and Loss Account, 
Dec. 31, 1916 4,267,619. 10 


Yen 4,267,619. 10 


Yen 4,267,619.10 



no 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




HliAD OFFICE OI- THE BANK i U iH'iSEN, SEOUL 




MAP SHOWING THE SPHERE OF ACTIVITY OF THE BANK OF CHOSEN 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



III 




MR. SHlNKlCHr MINOBE, L.OVERNC1K i IF THE 
HANK OF CHOSEN 

the economic relations between the two 
countries, which were steadily growing, 
necessitated some banking facilities being 
established between the two. This initial 
step was fvirther justified by the fact that the 
Bank of Chosen had had a foothold in Man- 
churia for some time through its branch at 
Antung, from which centre its bank notes 
had widely circulated. The establishmetit of 
branches in Mukden, Changchun, and 
Dairen was the next step in the northward 
movement. To-day the Bank of Chosen has 
twelve branches in Manchuria including, 
besides those above mentioned, Newchwang, 
Harbin, Kirin, Szupingchieh, Kaiyuan, Fuch- 
iatien, Yongchungchon, and Tsingtao. Mean- 
while the bank's relations with eastern 
Siberia had been constantly growing, but as 
no branch of a foieign bank can be estab- 
lished on Russian territory, the Bank of 
Chosen took over the business and premises 
of the Matsuda Bank of Vladivostock, which 
had been doing business there for some years. 
The activity of the bank in Japan proper, 
where it has three branches, namely, Tokyo, 
Osaka, and Kob6, has naturally been less 
conspicuous, though it has been no less 
significant. Its bitsiness there could not but 
grow along with the increase in the trade of 
the country with Chosen and Manchuria. 
Besides, as a member of the syndicate of large 
banks in Japan, not a single loan of national 
importance has been floated there of recent 
years but that the Bank of Chosen has taken 
a part in the operations. With the expansion 
of its network of branches and the resultant 
inclusion in its sphere of activity of such 
important ports as Dairen, Harbin, Vladi- 



vostock, and Kob^, the relations of the bank 
with the world at large became closer. The 
foreign business of the bank has in conse- 
fiuence assumed an importance never before 
known, and the recent establishment at its 
head office of a foreign department was 
necessitated by these circumstances. This 
enlargement of business in all directions 
necessarily entailed a greater need of funds. 
Thus it naturally followed that an augmen- 
tation of the capital of the institution had to 
be considered and the proposal to double its 
capital from Yen 10,000,000 to Yen 20,000,000 
was submitted to the general meeting in 
February, 191 7, and was unanimously car- 
ried. At the same time 30,000 shares were 
offered for public subscription, the rest 
being allotted to old shareholders. The 
shares were over-subscribed three times, and 
only those applications offering a premium 
of Yen 29 or over were considered, those of 
Yen 29 i^rcmium being accepted in part only. 

THK BANK OF TAIWAN, LIMITED 
The rapid economic development of the 
newly acquired territories of Formosa (Tai- 
wan) and Chosen, is largely attributable to 
excellent banking facilities which have been 
provided for those dependencies under a wise 
system of state-aided institutions such as the 
Bank of Taiwan, Limited. This bank was 
founded under Government auspices, at a 
time when there existed great need for some 
substantial financial organisation to sta- 
bilise credit, normalise interest, maintain a 
uniform monetary system, and generally 
restore order out of the chaos which had 
existed in the island under the old regime. 
It was also necessary, if the economic state of 
Taiwan was to be in any sense equal that of 
Japan, or the island to become a valuable 
trade acquisition to the Empire, that a bank, 
backed by the Government, and to that 
extent a state-controlled institutior^, should 
be established. This was accordingly done 
by a law passed in March, 1897, which em- 
powered the Imperial Government to estab- 
lish the Kabushiki-Kaisha Taiwan Ginko, and 
to finance it in certain directions. The organ- 
isation of the institution was immediatelj' 
entered upon, and a charter was granted for 
twenty years to a group of promoters, ap- 
jjroved by the Government. The Govern- 
ment took up stock in the bank to the extent 
of Yen 1 ,000,000.00, out of the original capital 
of Yen 5,000,000.00, and in July, 1899, loaned 
to the bank the sum of Yen 2,000,000.00 in 
one-yen silver coins for fi\-e years without 
interest. Under the charter the bank was 
authorised to conduct a general banking 
business; to issue currency notes; to act as 
the Imperial Government's bankers; to regu- 
late the monetary system, and generally to 



fulfil the broad objects which had led to its 
foundation. With the Government and 
members of the Imperial Household as share- 
holders, and under the most influential offi- 
cial and commercial support, the Bank of 
Taiwan formally opened for business on 
September 26, 1897, its head office being at 
Taipeh, and with branches in Tokyo and the 
other principal cities of Japan, China, Hong- 
kong, Singapore, Soerabaya and other East- 
ern centres and in London and New York. 
That the Bank of Taiwan in its eighteen 
years of existence has fulfilled the hopes of 
its promoters, and has rendered an immensely 
valuable service to Taiwan and the Japanese 
Empire generally, there is no doubt. Fur- 
thermore, it has proved a big financial suc- 
cess, and it is to-day one of the most powerful 
and substantial financial institutions in the 
Orient. In fulfilment of the object of its 
establishment, the Bank of Taiwan has 
lessened the difficulties of the monetary cir- 
culation, reduced the general rate of interest, 
and has helped in the development of various 
enterprises by supplying ready funds at low- 
rates of interest. The directors have brought 
the natives to understand the nature of 
credit and to appreciate the services rendered 
by the bank; also to induce the Japanese 
colonists to engage in various industrial enter- 
prises by giving them financial facilities. 
The bank has carried out the great work of 
reforming the monetary system of the Island 
of Formosa, by establishing the gold stand- 
ard, and adjusting local and foreign currencies 
in their confused circulation. As agent of 
the Hypothec Bank of Japan, the institution 
under review has granted loans on long terms 
to induce the development of agriculture and 
other industries, and as a government bank, 
in charge of the treasury funds and loans, it 
has aided the construction of railways, har- 
bour conveniences, water and electric works 
and so on. The Bank of Taiwan's beneficial 
influence has also extended into South 
China and the South Sea Islands, and has 
helped materially to stabilise financial trans- 
actions involved with trade in that large 
territory. 

In international finance the Bank of Taiwan 
holds a very prominent position, transacting 
business direct through its London branch at 
58 Old Broad Street with large financial 
institutions interested in Far Eastern affairs, 
and operating also in the LTnited States, 
Russia, Manila, and other foreign countries. 
Some idea of the growth of the bank may 
be gathered from its increases in capital. 
The first took place in April, 1910, when the 
amount was raised to Yen 10,000,000.00, 
which sum was doubled in October, 1915, at a 
special meeting of shareholders. Of this 
large capital Yen 17,500,000.00 is fully paid 







BANK OF TAIWAN, LIMITED; MR. TETSUTARO SAKURAI, PRESIDENT MR. KVOROKU YAMANARI, GENER.\L MANAGER - 

TOKYO PREMISES OF THE BANK, EIRAKU-CHO, KOJIM.ACHI-KU 



iri>-.^^i^^^>r^^<:^?^^5^^^^g r^I^^^'^^ "M5 @:-'>f 




TOKYO PREMISES OF THE HOKKAIDO COLONIZATION BANK, LIMITED 



114 



PRESENT-DAY I^FPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Balance Sheet, June 30, 1917, Hank oi' Taiwan 



Liabilities 


Assets 


Yen 


^•L-n 



Capital subscribed 20,000,000 . 00 

Reserve funds 5,080,000 . 00 

Notes in circulation 26,841,120.00 

Current accounts, fixed de- 
posits, etc 127,756,124, 17 

Deposits in trust 17,252,711 .06 

Bills payable, accejitaiices and 

other sums due by the bank ,107,911 ,040 . 09 

Balance brought forward from 
last account 273,563 .09 

Net profit for the past half- 
year 1,180,729.56 

Total Yen 306,295,287.97 



Cash account: 

In hand 8,770,433 . 03 

At bankers 4,231,221.26 

Loans to Government 5,696,507 . 00 

Bills discounted, loans, ad- 
vances and other sums due 
to the bank 252,802,591 .65 

Government bonds, etc 16,312,404.07 

BiiUion and foreign money. . . 13,424,710.72 

Capital uncalled 2,519,550.00 

Bank's premises, properties, 

furniture, etc 2,537,870 24 

Total Yen 306,295,287 .97 



Profit and Loss Account 



Dr. 



Yen 



Current expenses, interests, etc. 12, 164,7 1 5. 24 

Reserve funds 300,000 . 00 

Bonus 60,000.00 

Dividend (iot; per an.) 768,000.00 

Balance carried forward to next 

account 326,292 . 65 

Total Yen 13,619,007.89 



Cr. 



Yen 



Balance brought forward from 

last account 273,563 09 

Amount of gross profits for the 

half-year ending June 30, 

1917 13.345.444^" 



Total. 



.Yen 13,619,007.89 



since then its scope of operations has been 
considerably enlarged and it is now doing a 
general business throughout Japan and 
abroad. There are seven branches in Hok- 
kaido, three in Karafuto, and one in Tokj'O. 
Business is transacted with clients in all 
parts of the world, especially in London, 
where the Hokkaido Bank has an agency 
established at the time of the issue of coloni- 
zation debentures amounting to Yen 5,000,- 
000, which were placed in London. Alto- 
gether colonization debentures of a total of 
Yen 21,000,000 have been issued. The 
reserve funds of the bank aggregate Yen 
1,768,700. Mr. R. Mizukoshi is the Presi- 
dent of the Hokkaido Colonization Bank and 
the other directors are Messrs. U. Akabana, 
\V. Majima, and M. Seki. The Auditors are 
Baron K. Okura and Messrs. T. Matsumoto 
and I. Nagata. The head office is at No. 7 
Nishi e-chome, Odori, Sapporo. 

In the thirty-fifth half-yearly statement for 
the period ending June 30, 1917, it was shown 
that the net profit for the half-year were 
Yen 325,481.35, which with Yen 98,567.26, 
made the gross sum available for distribution 
Yen 424,048.62. This was disposed of as 
follows: To general reserves Yen 34,000; 
to reserve for equalisation of dividends. Yen 
8,500; to special reserve Yen 22,000; dividend 
at 9 per cent per annum. Yen 239,000; bonus 
to directors and auditors. Yen 21,000; carried 
forward. Yen 99,548.62. The balance sheet 
for the term ending June 30, 1917, was as 
follows: 



up, and the reserves amount to Yen 5,380,- 
000.00. The principal officers of the Bank of 
Taiw^an, Ltd., are: President, Mr. Tetsutaro 
Sakurai; Vice-President, Mr. Kojuro Naka- 
gawa; and Directors, Messrs. lyetoshi Sada, 
Kyoroku Yamanari, and Shingo Minami. 
Above are the financial statements pre- 
sented at the thirty-sixth half-yearly meeting 
of shareholders held at Tok>'0 on September 
I, 1917, for the period ending June 30, 1917. 

THE HOKKAIDO COLONIZATION BANK, 
LIMITED 

This bank, known as the Hokkaido Taku- 
shoku Ginko, is one of the special banks of 
Japan founded under Government direction 
for the specific purpose of promoting the 
development and colonization of Hokkaido 
by supplying the necessary capital to enter- 
prise and immigration. Its operations began 
in April, 1900, at Sapporo, Hokkaido, with a 
capital of Yen 3,000,000 which has since been 
increased and now stands at Yen 10,000,000 
of which Yen 6,250,000 is paid up. At its 
inception the bank devoted its energy only 
to transacting local banking business, but 



Assets 

Yen 

Unpaid capital 3.7.S0.937 ■ 50 

Loans on immovable properties 21,566,063.77 

1,484,481 .66 
Loans on movable properties . . . 36,936 . 43 

Bills discounted 9,754,060. 14 

Documentary draft 1.035,637 , 51 

Overdrafts 513,167.64 

Deposits at call 5,300,980.45 

National loan bonds 3,487,384.40 

Shares and debentures 302,000.00 

Difference on subscription price 

of debentures 746,000 . 00 

Fund for payments at agencies 63,724.08 
Balances due by other banks . . 476,476 . 1 5 
Bank premises and furnitures . . 699,780 . 86 
Loans in account with the 

Hypothec Bank of Japan . . 151 ,964 . 54 
Loans in Saghalien branches. . 208,191 .65 
Immovable properties in posses- 
sion 236,643 . 62 

Provisionary payments 2,837. 12 

Reserve fund for new building 11,258.25 
Cash on hand 1,262,891 .29 

Total Yen 51,091,417.06 



LIABILITIES 



Yen 



Capital 1 0,000,000 . 00 

Reserve against losses 1,154,000.00 

Reserve for dividend equali- 
sation 325.200 . 00 

Special reserve 289,500.00 

Unclaimed dividend 15,410.44 

Amount of debentures issued. .20,728,090.00 

Deposits 16,090,679.01 

Drafts payable 3IO.779-50 

Balances due to other banks. . 695,776.03 
Guarantee for loans in account 
with the Hypothec Bank of 

Japan 151 .964 • 54 

Balance with the Hypothec 

Bank of Japan 2,820.92 

Balance with the Industrial 

Bank of Japan 61 1 . 76 

Provisionary receipt 900,720.85 

Trust deposits 1,815.40 

Brought forward 98,567 . 26 

Net profit for the half-year. . . 325.481-35 

Total Yen 51,091,417.06 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



115 




HEAD OFFICE, TOKYO, OF NIPPON KWAMAO GINKO (HYPOTHEC BANK OF JAPAN, LIMITED) 



NIPPON KWANGYO GINKO 
(the hypothec BANK OF JAPAN, 

limited) 

(l, Itchome, Uchiyamashita-cho, Koji- 
machi-ku, Tokyo. ^ 

The Hypothec Bank of Japan is a joint- 
stock company with a capital of Yen 40,000,- 
000 (£4,000,000), divided into 200,000 shares 
of Yen 200 (£20) each. This amount may, 
subject to the approval of the Government, 
be increased by the decision of a general 
meeting of shareholders. The bank is incor- 
porated for a period of one hundred years 
from the date of its establishment, 1897: but 
the said term may, subject to the sanction 
of the Minister of Finance, be extended by 
the decision of a general meeting of share- 
holders. The Governor and the Vice-Gov- 
ernor are appointed by the Government for 
a term of five years from among share- 
holders owning at least one hundred shares. 
The Directors are appointed by the Govern- 
ment for a term of five years from among 
shareholders owning at least fifty shares, 
who have been elected as candidates at a 
general meeting of shareholders. The Audi- 
tors are elected at a general meeting of share- 
holders for a term of three years from among 
shareholders owning at least thirty shares. 
The Governor, the Vice-Governor, and the 
Directors are not allowed to engage in any 
other business or trade under any circum- 
stances whatsoever, although exceptions to 
this rule may be made by the special permis- 
sion of the Minister of Finance. 

The business of the bank is as follows: 
(i) To make loans, on the security of im- 
movable property, redeemable in annual 
installments within a period of fifty years; 



(2) To make loans, on the security of immov- 
able property, or fishery right, redeemable at 
a fixed time within a period of five years; 

(3) To make loans, redeemable in annual 
installments, on the security of loans redeem- 
able in annual installments made by Agri- 
cultural and Industrial Bank, together with 



the mortgages connected therewith; (4) To 
make loans without security to prefectures, 
countries, cities, towns, villages, and other 
public bodies organised by law; (5) To take 
up agricultural and industrial debentures; 
(6) To make loans without security to Arable 
Land Readjustment Associations conforming 
with the Law for the Readjustment of Arable 
Lands, or to persons carrying out such read- 
justment on their joint responsibility, indus- 
trial associations, fishery associations, for- 
estry associations, livestock associations or 
unions thereof; (7) To receive deposits and 
to accept for safe deposit gold and silver 
Vnillion and negotiable instruments, provided, 
however, that the total amount of the former 
deposits may not exceed the paid up capital; 
(8) To make loans, on the security of "the 
mass of property" belonging to factories or 
Hght railways, redeemable in annual install- 
ments within a period of fifty years, or 
redeemable at a fixed time within a period of 
five years; (9) To engage in other kinds of 
business prescribed for this bank by law. 
In order to meet the demand, the bank is 
authorised by the said law to issue special 
debentures (Kwangyo-Saiken), with or with- 
out premiums, up to an amount not exceeding 
ten times its paid-up capital, and they are 
redeemed by means of semi-annual drawings 
within a period of fifty years. The debentures 



Liabilities 


Assets 


Yen 


Yen 



Capital 40,000,000.00 

Loss, equalisation and special 

reserve 6,444,400 . 00 

Dividends unclaimed 9.885 28 

Total issue of debentures. . . .210,837,680.00 

Total issue of savings deben- 
tures 16,782,38.5.00 

Deposits and current accounts 6,602,852.01 

Due to other banks 6,010.70 

Unclaimed interest and pre- 
miums of debentures 3,797,228.60 

Unclaimed interest and pre- 
miums of savings debentures 67 1 ,582 66 

Fund for the payment of pre- 
miums of debentures 988,269 . 55 

Fund for the redemption of 

savings debentures 125,189.00 

Provisional receipts 282,989.74 

Amount brought forward from 

the last account 145.555 ■ I3 

Profits 1,940.143 29 

7^0/(1/ Yen 288,634,170 97 



Capital unpaid 1 5,000,000 . 00 

Loans redeemable in annual 

installments 74.035,378.95 

Loans guaranteed by agricul- 
tural and industrial banks 
redeemable in annual install- 
ments or at a fixed time .... 143,046,093 . 78 
Loans redeemable at a fixed 

time 4,715,331.32 

Agricultural and industrial 

bank debentures 468,383 . 50 

Bills discounted 5,343,105 .00 

Deposits at the Deposit Bu- 
reau of the Department of 

Finance 20,028,595.00 

Deposits at other banks and 

postal savings oflfices 1 1,057,983. II 

National bonds 5,092,020.00 

Shares and debentures 94,860.00 

Foreign bonds 6,726,799.69 

Difference between face and 

issue value of debentures. . 507,111.00 

Agencies accounts 1,263,777. 81 

Bank buildings and fixtures. . 50,151 .00 

Immovable properties 150,770.02 

Provisional payments 935,044 53 

Cashonhand 118,766.24 

Total Yen 288,634,170.97 



!• 




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PREMISES OF THE TOKYO PREFECTURAL HYPOTHEC BANK, LIMITED 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



117 



with premiums, this being the exclusive 
privilege of the bank, are at present of the 
value of Yen 10 (£1) each, and carry five per 
cent interest, while those without premiums 
are issued in denominations of Yen 50 (£5), 
Yen 100 (£10), Yen 500 (£50), Yen 1,000 
(£100), Yen 5,000 (£500), Yen 10,000 
(£1,000) each, carrying interest at the 
rate of from five to seven per cent per 
annum. 

The Minister of Finance exercises a general 
control over the business operations of the 
bank, and may suspend such operations as 
he deems contrary to laws or ordinances, or 
to the articles of association of the bank, or 
injurious to the public interest. The bank 
must obtain the sanction of the Minister of 
Finance in making alterations in its articles 
of association, and in fixing the rate of divi- 
dend to be distributed among its share- 
holders. The Minister of Finance appoints 
special government officials to supervise the 
business operations of the bank. 

The financial statement of the bank, as at 
December 31, 1916, appears on the second 
preceding page (115). 



The following are the officers of the Nippon 
Kwangyo Ginko: 

Governor, Mr. Gentaro Shimura; X'ice- 
Governor, Mr. Usaburo Yanagiya; Directors, 
Messrs. Naonosuke Kawakami, Junzo Kawa- 
mura, and Keisaburo Kato; Auditors, 
Messrs. Kwanzo Matsuo, Kahei Otani, and 
Katsuoki Mizuno. 

THE TOKYO PREFECTURAL HYPOTHEC 

B.\NK, LIMITED 
This bank came into existence in 1888 in 
accordance with the Law Relating to the 
Agricultural and Industrial Banks. As its 
name suggests it was established to meet the 
requirements of Tokyo Prefecture, and it 
may well claim to have done a great deal in 
the direction of promoting agriculture and 
industry generally in this district. The 
Tokyo Prefectural Hypothec Bank, Ltd., 
deals principally in advances to farmers and 
industrial people, supplying funds at low 
interest and on long credit, on the security of 
farms, home lots, buildings, and so forth. 
The bank is also authorised to provide fitnds 
for the self-governing authorities of counties, 



cities, towns, or villages, to enable them to 
carry out necessary works and improvements 
that will lead to a greater expansion of indus- 
try. Loans are repaid under the system in 
operation in yearly installments, comprising 
a portion of the principal and interest, so that 
the liquidation of liabilities presses very 
lightly on those who derive so much benefit 
from the system. 

The capital provided for the loans made by 
the bank is raised by debentures, the bank 
being authorised to raise up to five times the 
amount of its paid-up capital. Some idea of 
the development of this institution may be 
gathered from the facts that at its inception 
the authorised capital was only Yen 350,000, 
while to-day it is Yen 4,000,000; the amount 
of debentures issued totals Yen 9,300,000, 
and loans of Yen 15,000,000 in the aggregate 
have been made. Since the original charter 
was issued the Tokyo Prefectural Hypothec 
Bank has been authorised to receive deposits, 
give short-date loans, and conduct general 
discount and banking business. The assets 
of the Tokyo Prefectural Hypothec Bank 
total Yen 21,715,000, and its reserves amount 




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PREMISES OF THE YOKllU.\M.\ SEVENTY-FUl k 111 l;ANK, LIMITED 



Ii8 



PRESENT-DAY I M P R E S S I O X S OF JAPAN 



to Yen 1,543,000. Mr. S. Saito is the 
President, and the managing director is 
Mr. T. Hoshikavva. The bank is located at 
No. I. Vurakucho, Nichome, Kojimachi-ku, 
Tok-yo. 

THE YOKOHAMA SEVEXTY-FOURTH 
BANK, LIMITED 

The Yokohama Seventy-fourth Bank, 
Limited, or the Yokohama Shichi-Ju-Shi 
Ginko, is a popular institution in the port, 
and has won a full measure of public confi- 
dence and support by its record as a sound 
and conservatively managed concern. This 
bank operates almost exclusively in the 
Y'okohama district, conducting a general 
business, and facilitating in a marked degree 
the large volume of trade which annually 
passes through Yokohama. The Board of 
Directors comprises a nimiber of well known 
business men and consists of the following: 
Mr. K. Otani, President; Mr. K. Mori, Man- 
aging Director; Mr. S. Mogi, Mr. C. Minoda, 
and Mr. R. Nagai, Directors. The Auditors 
are Messrs. R. Okano, J. Takahashi, and 
S. Minoda. Branches of the bank are main- 
tained at Moto-machi, Noge Ishegakicho and 
Kanagawa, Yokohama, and at Honcho, 
Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo. The capital of the 
Y'okohama Seventy-fourth Bank, Ltd., is 
Yen 2,000,000 of which Yen 1,400,000 has 
been paid up. Out of profits a handsome 
reserve fund of Yen 810,000 has been estab- 
Ushed. The financial returns of the bank 
showed the following position on June 30, 
1917: 




DRUM BRIDGE, KAMEIDO, TOKYO 

THE YASVDA BAXK 

The Yasuda Bank is one of the oldest in 
Japan, and it is one of the few that sur\-ived 
the early and troublous times of banking in 
the Empire. To-daj' it commands con- 
siderable influence, and the substantial 
nature of its business and the soundness of 
its methods are known and appreciated not 
only in Japan but abroad. That this is so is 
due to the business acumen of Mr. Zenjiro 
Yasuda, the founder of the bank. He was 
bom at Toyama, Tetchu Province, in Octo- 



LlABILlTIES 



Yen 



Capital 2,000,000.00 

Reserve fund 810,000.00 

Amounts due on deposits 7,454,194.64 

Due to other banks 1,305,819.23 

Acceptances for customers .... 41,897 . 75 
Rebate of interest on bills not 

due 55.772 07 

Balance brought forward from 
previous period and net prof- 
it for half-year 104,415 . 77 

Total Yen 11,772,099.46 



Assets 



Yen 



Uncalled capital 600,000 . 00 

Bills discounted, loans and ad- 
vances 6,589,385 . 89 



Due from other banks 96,724 

Liabilities of customers for 

acceptances per contra 41,897 

Deposit receipts 1 ,479,343 

Stock, bonds, and securities. . . 2,370,096 

Sundry accounts 8,171 

Bank premises and furniture. . 157,991 

Cash in hand 428,488 



Total . 



.Yen 11,772,099.46 



03 

75 
98 
21 
.37 
33 
90 



The Profit and Loss Account showed the 
following items: Transferred to reserve 
fund, 15,000 yen; bonus to staff, 6,412 yen; 
dividend for the half-year at the rate of 
seven per cent per annum, 49,000 yen; 
amoimt carried forward, 34,003.77 j-en. 

The head office of the Yokohama Seventy- 
fourth Bank, Ltd., is at Minami, Naka-dori, 
Yokohama. 



ber, his father being Zenyetsu Yasuda, one 
of the warriors of the Mayeda family. At the 
age of eighteen Mr. Yasuda went to Tokj-o, 
then known as Y'edo, in the first year of 
Ansei (1854). He studied in the capital for 
some years, and saved some money, always 
with the idea of investment in a suitable 
business. He realised, with the influx of 
foreigners and the spread of Japan's com- 



mercial relations with the outer world, that 
there would be a vast development in money 
exchange. He organised the Yasuda Shoten 
in March, 1864, to carrj' on the exchange 
lousiness, and this was in fact the beginning 
of the Yasuda Bank. The Yasuda Shoten, 
under the direction of its young manager, 
was at once successful, and its development 
was such as to warrant its reorganisation 
under the company laws in January, 1880, 
when it became the Yasuda Ginko with a 
capital of Yen 200,000. In July, 1887, the 
capital was further increased to Yen 1,000,- 
000. When the Commercial Law and Bank 
Act came into force in July, 1893. the Y'asuda 
Bank was registered as a joint-stock company, 
and increased its capital yet again in July, 
1900, to Yen 2,000,000. There were several 
subsequent changes in organisation and 
status, and finally the bank became a regular 
limited liability company in January, 1912, 
with a capital of Yen 10,000,000. 

The second vital factor in the groi;\'th of 
the Yasuda Bank has been the service ren- 
dered to the institution by Mr. Zenzaburo 
Yasuda. This gentleman is now the head of 
the family. He was bom in October, 1870. 
Upon graduation in 1892 from Tokj'o Im- 
perial Universit}^, he entered the Yasuda 
Bank to succeed Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda, and 
soon demonstrated his capacity for carr\-ing 
on the work so ably started. Mr. Zenzaburo 
Y'asuda brought new and vigourous ideas of 
business into the management of the bank. 
In the years 1901 and 1902 he journeyed 
through America and Europe, making a 
close study of the various financial systems, 
and applying to his own institution the best 
results of his investigations. In 1909 Mr. 
Y'asuda succeeded to the headship of his 
family, which includes many strikingly suc- 
cessful and briUiant business men such as the 
Messrs. Zennosuke, Zengoro, Y'oshio, Zen- 
shiro, Y'oshiye, Zenzuke, Zenya, Zenbei, and 
Zenzo Yasuda, all of whom are distinguished 
alike for their business success and their 
probity, tact, and enterprise. 

The Yasuda Bank is situated at Kofuna- 
cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokj'O. Branches are 
being opened ever>' year. Thej' now extend 
to Fukushima, Utsonomiya, Akita, Aomori, 
Sendai, Wakamatsu Morioka, Nakamura, 
Kori}-ama, Y'okohira, Y'onezawa, Honjo, and 
Sakata. With such a mde spread of activi- 
ties it is not surprising that the Yasuda Bank 
is in a most flourishing condition. The offi- 
cers of the bank are as follows: President, 
Mr. Zennosuke Yasuda; Directors, Messrs. 
Zenshiro and Zengoro Yasuda; Auditor, Mr. 
Y'oshio Yasuda; Chief of Business Depart- 
ment, Mr. Yasutaro Sudzuki; Chief of Gen- 
eral Business Department, Mr. J. Kondo. 
Besides these officers Mr. Zenzaburo Yasuda 




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THE HEAD OFFK IC dl- IHK \A>II1A HANK, TOKYO PREMISES OF DAISAN GINKO (THIRD BANK, LIMITED), TOKYO 



120 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



is Superintendent, and Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda 
is general business adviser. Such close 
relationship between members of the one 
family in the common interests of all, which 
are involved in the Yasuda Bank, is one of 
the secrets of its great success. According 
to the report and balance sheet submitted 
up to June 30, 1917, the net profit of the 
Yasuda Bank was Yen 670,000, and the 
amount carried forward after the dividend 
had been paid was the large sum of Yen 
340,000 which showed an increase of Yen 
140,000 over the amount carried forward the 
previous year. The balance sheet to June 30, 
1917, is shown in the accompanying table. 

THE DAISAN GINKO (tHE THIRD BANK, 

limited) 
Prior to the passing of the National Bank 
Act in 1872, none of the financial houses 
applied the name of "Ginko" to their insti- 
tutions. The act was revised in 1876 and it 
was at this time that Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda 
organised the Daisan Ginko, or Third Bank, 
with a capital of Yen 200,000. Two years 
later the capital was increased to Yen 300,000, 
and upon the amalgamation with the Forty- 
fourth Bank in 1882, the amount of capital 
was raised to Yen 1,000,000. On the expira- 
tion of the national bank business in 1896 
the status of the Third Bank was changed 
to that of a joint-stock company and the 
capital was doubled. Further increases in 
capital followed upon the amalgamation with 
the Eighty-second Bank in 1898; again in 
July, 1910, when it was raised to Yen 5,000,- 
000 and finally in May, 1917, to Yen 10,- 
000,000. The Third Bank has foiu" branches 
in the city of Osaka, and thirteen other 
branches scattered throughout Japan in such 
cities as Yokohama, Hakodate, Tottori, 
Matsuye, Yonago, Sakai, Imaichi, Kurayi- 
shi, and Nishiwaki. It was also recently 
decided to install a further branch at Osaka. 
The Third Bank has had a remarkable history 
of expansion and of continued success. For 
many years it has paid an annual dividend 
of twelve per cent. The last balance sheet 
presented up to the end of April, 19 17, 
showed the total deposits to be Yen 74,058,- 
505. The capital is as stated above. Yen 
10,000,000, of which half is paid up, and the 
reserve fund amounts to Yen 3,450,000. 

THE TEIYU BA.\K, LIMITED 
L\ 1897 the Fifteenth National Bank at 
the expiration of its business term distributed 
amongst the shareholders a large amount of 
profit and reserves as the result of a very 
successful term. Prince Iwakura, Prince 
Shimazu, Prince Mori, Marquis Mayeda, 
Marquis Asano, Count Tsugaru, Count li, 
and some others, who were amongst the prin- 



cipal shareholders of the Fifteenth Bank, 
pooled their dividends from that institution, 
and with the fund thus raised they started 
the Teiyu Bank under the joint-stock com- 
pany laws, with a capital of Yen 2,000,000. 
As the founders were nearly all peers, it 



naturally followed that the new bank had a 
strong position in public confidence, and its 
business became very brisk. For fourteen 
years the Teiyu Bank, Limited, was con- 
ducted as an entirely separate institution, 
although it was commonly accepted as a 



Assets 


Liabilities 


Yen 


Yen 


Loan and temporary overdrafts 41, 847, 252 . 70 
Call loans. . . . 5,900,000 00 


Capital 10,000,000.00 

Reserve funds 'k 020 000 00 


Discount bills, etc 8,365,960 . 00 

Loans to other institutions 1,022,450.13 

Land, building, etc 196,375 . 43 

Real estate 30,443 1 8 


Deposits 72,794,842.38 

Loans from other institutions . . 2,637,635 . 13 
Interests unclaimed and dis- 
count rate unexpired 716,763.23 


Bids and bullion 27,057,604.20 

Cash in hand 6,342,808.04 


Profit for fiscal term 674,877. 17 

Balance brought forward 211,584.82 


Total 90,762.893 . 68 


Total 90,762,893.68 




i *-« ■ 



THE HANDSOME NEW PREMISES OF THE TEIYU BANK, LIMITED, TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



121 



branch of the Fifteenth Bank. In 191 1 its 
stocks were purchased by the Fifteenth 
Bank, and the capital was increased to 
Yen 5,000,000, while Mr. M. Naruse, Vice- 
President of the Fifteenth Bank, became the 
President of the Teiyu, and Mr. S. Ogawa, 
from the same institution, was appointed 
Managing Director of the new company. 
The solid foundation of the Teiyu Bank has 
resulted in a highly successful career, and it 
is to-day at the height of its prosperity. The 
Directorates of the Fifteenth and the Teiyu 
Banks are practically the same, the board of 
the latter being: President, Mr. M. Naruse; 
Directors, Messrs. K. Sonoda, Viscount Kano, 
Viscount Aoyama, and Managing Director, 
S. Ogawa. The Auditors are Messrs. S 
Mayeda, Y. Sato, and T. Imai. The head 
office of the Teiyu Bank, Ltd., is at No. 13 
Sojurocho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo, and there 
are branches at Gofukucho, Nihonbashi-ku 
and Tomiyoshicho, Fukagawa-ku. Tokyo. 

THE ONE HUNDREDTH BANK, LIMITED 
The Dai Hyaku Ginko, or One Hundredth 
Bank, Ltd., of Tokyo, was originally founded 
under government charter in 1878, in con- 
formance with the laws governing national 
banks. In those days the pensions of the 
old daimyo and samurai were granted in 
bonds and it was their custom to mortgage 
these bonds and get special rights to issue 
paper money. For this purpose therefore 
numerous banks of this class were established, 
not only in the principal cities, but also in 
every principal town or port. About 150 
such banks were formed, and the One Hun- 
dredth Bank was one of them, being organised 
under the auspices of Marquis Ikeda, the 
Chief of the Tottori Prefecture and the samu- 
rai of that prefecture. The capital was 
Yen 200,000 and the bank was known as Dai 
Hyaku Kokuritsu Ginko, or the One Hun- 
dredth National Bank. At the same time 
the Dai Hachiju-ni Kokuritsu Ginko (the 
Eighty-second National Bank) was opened 
in Tottori Prefecture with a capital of Yen 
200,000. The rate of special privilege 
granted for the issue of paper currency was 
eight-tenths of a l:)ank's capital, and the 
amount of paper money issued by mort- 
gaging public loan bonds to the Government 
was Yen 160,000. The founders of the One 
Hundredth Bank were Messrs. Rokuro Hara, 
Saneatsu Kawasaki, Tadami Yoshida, Zen- 
jiro Yasuda, Kageyoshi Kawada, Hisashi 
Miyabe, Chohei Takasaki, and Yoshizo 
Enjoji. 

In May, 1 883, when the revision of the laws 
of the national banks took place, and their 
old functions were suspended, the One 
Hundredth Bank continued in operation as 
an ordinary bank, and has ever since held a 



prominent place in public esteem, giving 
facilities to merchants and in every way 
endeavouring to hasten the development of 
the resources of Japan and to promote 
exports. The old paper money issued by the 
bank was all paid off at the expiration of the 
business term in August, iS()8. The One 



Hundredth Bank conducts a general business 
throughout Japan and her dependencies, as 
well as abroad. In addition, it handles trust 
company business and maintains a safe 
deposit department at the Yokohama branch. 
The head office of the bank is at Awomono- 
cho, Tokyo. Branches are maintained at 



Resources 

Yen 

Cash and bullion in hand 6,374,697 . 70 

Cash in Bank of Japan 447,869 . 85 

Total 6,822,567.55 

Money at call 410,000.00 

Investments: 

Securities of Japanese Gov- 
ernment 4,880,905.00 

Foreign governments treas- 
ury bills 2,406,744.47 

Japanese corporation bonds . 54,6oo . 00 
Japanese corporation stocks, 12,500.00 

Total 7,764,749.47 

Bills discounted 25,472,989.26 

Loans and overdrafts 35i7i7i455- 13 

Foreign bills purchased 3i992i797.8o 

Liabilities of customers on ac- 
ceptances and guarantees as 

per contra 7,458,502.93 

Due from other banks 1,976,326.39 

Bank premises and real estates 890,859.57 
Suspense accounts 11,835.01 

To'al 91,108,083. II 



Liabilities 



Yen 



Yen 



Capital : 

Subscribed. . 10,000,000.00 

Paid up 6,000,000 . 00 6,000 . 

Reserve fund 4,090, 

Demand deposits 30,687, 

Time deposits, certificates 37,379, 

Acceptances and guarantees . . . 7,458 
Liabilities on foreign bills sold . . 329, 

Due to Bank of Japan i ,900, 

Due to other banks 1,885, 

Transit account 357, 

Unclaimed dividends, interest 

due, rebates, etc 524, 

Profit and loss : 

Balance brought 
forward 46,798.74 

Net profit for the 
half-year ....447,786.55 494, 



000 . 00 
000 . 00 
923.98 

.507-83 
502.93 
,630.99 
000 . 00 

877.81 
610.97 

443 31 



585 . 29 



Total 91,108,083. II 




PREMISES OF THE TOKYO BANK, LIMITED 



122 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




A COMMON TYPE OF RIVER BOAT 

No. I Torihatogocho, Nihonbashi, and No. lo 
Ginza, Tokyo, as well as at Yokohama, 
Osaka, Kyoto, and Tottori. The London 
correspondents are Messrs. Brown, Shipley & 
Company, and in New York, Messrs. Brown 
Brothers & Company. Mr. K. Ikeda is the 
President of the One Hundredth Bank, Ltd., 
and Mr. S. Choh, the Managing Director. 
Some idea of the growth of this institution 
may be gathered from the fact that its capital 
to-day is Yen 10,000,000, of which Yen 
6,000,000 is paid up, and the reserves 
amount to Yen 4,120,000. The balance sheet 
as at June 30, 191 7, is given on the preced- 
ing page. 

THE TOKYO BANK, LIMITED 
The Kabushiki Kaisha Tokyo Ginko, or 
Tolcyo Bank, Ltd., is one of the special trade 
banks of Japan, having been established to 
give facilities to the cotton and dry-goods 
merchants, who have derived a great deal of 
benefit from its operations. This bank was 
founded in 1896 by the late Mr. Ginjiro 
Kobayashi, with a capital of Yen 1,000,000, 
and it has been highly successful, its financial 
position to-day being a particularly strong 
one, which has warranted the directors in 
extending the operations in other directions 
than those in which the institution has exclu- 
sively worked in the past. The Tokyo Bank 
is now working as a deposit bank, transacting 
a general business, and meeting with all 
success. There are branches at Hongo, 
Kanda, Fukagawa, and Koishikawa in the 
metropolitan area of Tokj'o. The head office 
is at No. 10 Tadokorocho, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo. A staff of about one hundred is 
employed in the head office and branches. 
Following are the officers of the Tokyo Bank : 
President, Mr. Tabei Mayekawa; Vice- 
Presidents, Messrs. M. Aizawa and S. Mine- 
mura; General Manager, Mr. Yujiro Anraku; 
Manager of Hongo Branch, Mr. M. Kato; 
Manager of Kanda Branch, Mr. M. Kawabe; 



Manager of Fukagawa Branch, Mr. Y. 
Watanabe; Manager of Koishikawa Branch, 
Mr. K. Sugimoto. (See illustration on pre- 
ceding page.) 

THE MORIMURA BANK 
This well known institution in financial 
and banking circles of Japan was founded in 
1897 l)y Baron L Morimura, a millionaire 
famous throughout the Empire for his 
important business interests which he directs 
with conspicuous ability. Baron Morimura 
is the Senior Partner of the bank. The 
President is Mr. S. Hirose, and the Manager, 
Mr. K. Morokudzu. A general banking 
business is done from the headquarters at 
No. 3 Tori-Itchome, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo. 
The capital of the Morimura Bank is Yen 
500,000, the legal reserve fund, Yen 580,000, 
and the deposits total Yen 10,000,000. 



THE NISHIWAKI BANK, LIMITED 
The Nishiwaki Bank, Ltd., is doing a 
steadily increasing general business, and 
stands high in public estimation. It was 
established eight years ago with a capital of 
Yen 1,000,000 which is fully paid up, the 
shares being mainly in the hands of the 
Nishiwaki family, who are well known in 
financial circles throughout the Japanese 
Empire, and are closely identified with several 
large undertakings. The Board of Directors 
of the bank is as follows: President, Mr. 
Seizaburo Nishiwaki; Kenji Nishiwaki, and 
Otoya Tomono; Auditors, Messrs. Shimbei 
Nishiwaki and Shimjiro Nishiwaki. On the 
following page is the fifteenth half-yearly 
balance sheet for the period ending June 

30, 1917- 

The operations of the Nishiwaki Bank 
for the half-year under review resulted in a 




premises of MORIMURA BANK, TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



123 



Assets 


Ll.\BII,ITIES 


Yen 


Yen 


Securities against loans 269,482.24 

Bills against loans 5,000,925.41 

Current account overdrafts 27,106.22 

Bills discounted 1,532,002.53 


Capital 1 ,000,000 . 00 

Current deposits 2,380,854.21 

Special current deposits 77,504.86 

Fixed deposits 1,758,104.06 

Various other deposits 180,155 . 12 

Loans from other firms 61,950.88 

Loans 1,590,000.00 


Deposit monev 18,301 .38 


Public bonds 225,000.00 


Shares 2 1 ,088 . 00 


Discounts not overdue 12,598.22 

Net profit for half-year including 
Yen 331,368.98 brought for- 
ward 361 ,722 . 86 


Properties, furniture, etc 96,939 . 78 

Cash on hand 205,183.09 


Total Yen 7,423,290.21 


Tolal Yen 7,423,290.21 



profit of Yen 30,353.88, which together with 
the amount brought forward from the pre- 
vious half-year, viz., Yen 331,368.98, was 
carried forward. 

THE TAIYO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
LIMITED 

This is one of the vigourous concerns 
founded under the auspices of the Nishiwaki 
family, proprietors of the Nishiwaki Bank, 
Ltd. Although of comparatively recent 
origin the Taiyo Life Insurance Co., Ltd., 
has already won a permanent position in life 
insurance circles in Japan, and the report 
for the year 1916 disclosed a healthy state of 
affairs and the growing popularity of the 
company. Early in the year general business 
conditions became active owing to the 
influences of the war, but as it is well known 
that life insurance does not respond imme- 
diately to improved business conditions, it 
was some time later in the year before the 
insurance companies began to feel the benefit 
of the change. In the case of the Taiyo Life 
Insurance Co., Ltd., the latter half of 1916 
was particularly brisk. Before the close of 
the period, the new contracts for 1916 
exceeded in total those of the previous year, 
and the number of policies surrendered de- 
creased substantially, showing that the 
policy-holders were in a much better position 
to meet their premiums. New insurance 
written during 1916 totalled in value Yen 
3,420,000, or an increase of eight per cent. 
Contracts surrendered or cancelled totalled 
in value Yen 2,360,000, a decrease of 57 per 
cent. The total amount insured with the 
Taiyo at the end of the year was Yen 14,- 
200,000, or 17 per cent increase over the 
previous year. Premiums to the total value 
of Yen 729,000 were received, representing an 
increase of twelve per cent. During the 
year insurances totalling Yen 135,000 were 
paid (increase d^ / 10 per cent); money re- 
turned on surrendered policies wasYen 39,000, 
or a decrease of 41 per cent, and business 



expenses totalled Yen 248,000, being an in- 
crease of 2''/ J II per cent over the previous 
year. The reserves of the company were in- 
creased by 29 per cent, and now stand at Yen 
1,989,000, and the total assets are Yen 
2,228,000, or an increase of 21 per cent. 

The Taiyo Insurance Co., Ltd., has its 
head oflRce at No. 12, 2 Chome, Minami- 
Demmacho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. There 
are eight branch offices, which are located in 
Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Sendai, Fukuoha, 
Kanagawa, Hiroshima, and Kyoto. At the 
end of 1916 the company had 1,503 agencies 
spread all over the Japanese Empire. Fol- 
lowing are the officers of the Taiyo Life 
Insurance Co., Ltd.; President, Mr. Seiza- 
buro Nishiwaki; Managing Director, Mr. B. 
Shimidzu; Directors, Messrs. Kenji Nishiwaki 
and O. Tomono; Auditors, Messrs. Shinjiro 
Nishiwaki and K. Shibata. 

THE KOIKE BANK, LIMITED, TOKYO 
This institution is directed and controlled 
by Mr. Kunizo Koike, a prominent financier, 
industrial organiser, and general business 
man of wide repute. The bank was originally 
founded in 1888 as an institution for the 
financing of the wooKdealing interests in 
Tokyo. It was then known as the Shoyei 
Ginko. Business was transacted along sound 
lines among a restricted clientele of solid busi- 
ness men, and the bank developed very 
strongly. In May, 191 1, Mr. Koike pur- 
chased the bank, and in 1917 its title was 
altered to the Koike Bank. 

Mr. Koike's record as a business man is an 
interesting one. He was born in Kofu, 
Yamanashi Prefecture, in 1866. When 
young he was in the employment of Mr. 
Ippei Wakao and engaged in raw silk, mining, 
and banking businesses. After seventeen 
years of all-round commercial experience he 
left the service of Mr. Wakao and proceeded 
to Tokyo. There, in April, 1897, he com- 
menced his business as a broker on the Yokyo 
Stock Exchange, and was soon appointed a 



member of the Committee of the Brokers' 
Association. 

Later on he was elected chairman of that 
body and also a member of the Tokyo Cham- 
ber of Commerce. In April, 1907, he estab- 
lished the Koike Joint Stock Company, and 
was engaged solely in the sale and purchase 
of stocks, bonds, and in general investments. 
His effort in the introduction to Japan of 
foreign capital by cooperating with British, 
American, and French financiers soon made 
his name well known throughout Japan and 
abroad. In August, 1909, Mr. Koike was 
among the body of prominent Japanese busi- 
ness men which was organised to visit the 
United States for the purpose of promoting 
business relations between the two countries. 
In 1910, when the Katsura Government had 
issued the four per cent public loan, he took 
a prominent part in its flotation, and raised 
a large amount of money, demonstrating 
once more his financial influence. Since 
then his investment business has been on 
a very large scale, and he has long been 
recognised as a leader in the field of high 
finance. 

On April 15, 1917, which date is recorded 
as twenty years after his first connection with 
the stock business, he retired from the 
membership of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 
and at the same time the Koike Joint Stock 
Company was dissolved. Since that time 
he has devoted his energy entirely to the 
business of the Koike Bank which business 
is solely to underwrite national loans, float 
local bonds, and issue debentures on behalf 
of municipalities, public corporations, etc. 
Thus, among his recent operations, for in- 
stance, are a large loan for the city of Tolvyo, 
and the flotations of several industrial issues, 
amounting in the aggregate to some tens of 
millions of yen, and for further extension in 
this line of business Mr. Koike will exert all 
his force. 

Apart from his financial business, Mr. 
Koike's career in industry is also a prominent 
one. In November, 1915, he estabhshed the 
Japan Chemical Pulp Co., Ltd., in Saghalien, 
northern extreme of Japan, the exploitation 
of which island has been so long neglected. 
The company's goods made their first appear- 
ance in the market in Maj', 1917, and at once 
acquired a reputation for the excellence of 
their quality. The product is largely sold 
on the local market and is also exported to 
India and elsewhere. The field of the com- 
pany's activity covers forestry, mining, and 
agriculture, and it is largely contributing to 
the colonisation of that island. 



EDITOR'S NOTE: — Details of other important 
Banking and Financial Institutions will be found in 
connection with the cities in which they are located. 



^ 










— ^ • T^ . V ^- T. "i Z i TS!- — ^j-—^ '.'\ - ^ '^ . Jv>- 



PREMISES OF TAIVO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, LlxMITED — BVILDING OCCUPIED BY THE NISHIWAKI BANK. LIMITED 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



125 




TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE 



EXCHANGES 

THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE 

The Tokyo Stock Exchange, which was 
founded on May 15, 1878, came into existence 
practically under the auspices of the Imperial 
Government, and to-day still retains its 
official status, though, of course, it is not in 
any way a government-controlled institution. 
Early in the Rleiji era it was recognised that 
such an institution was a necessity. Japan 
was then just developing its resources, and 
entering upon foreign trade. Government 
loans were being issued, companies of various 
kinds were being floated, and the absence of 
a central clearing house to regulate the trade 
in securities was badly felt. Accordingly in 
October, 1874, the Government issued an 
Ordinance No. 107 providing for the estab- 
lishment of stock exchanges, and induce- 
ments were offered for the starting of such 
institutions in Tok\-o and Osaka. In the 
previous year a large number of national 
bonds had been issued and it was particularly 
desired that there should be a medium 
through which these could be smoothly cir- 
culated, under the rules and conditions which 
obtain on the London Stock Exchange. The 
project of a stock exchange for Tokyo was 



taken up by a number of prominent business 
men, and their ideas were submitted to the 
Government for approval under the law re- 
ferred to. It is interesting to recall the names 
of the men who originally promoted the 
Tokyo Stock Exchange, the first to be estab- 
lished in Japan. They were, Messrs. Riozo 
Fukagawa, Eiichi Shibusawa, Yonosuke 
Mitsui, Takenosuke Mitsui, Takashi Masuda, 
Risuke Minomura, Shinobu Komuro, Akira 
Komatsu, Genichiro Fukuchi, and Kisaku 
Shibusawa. The Government approved to 
the plan submitted by these gentlemen, 
whose names are famous in Japan's com- 
mercial history, and on June 3, 1878, the 
Tokyo Stock Exchange began operations. 
Meanwhile it will be of interest to show the 
development of official ideas regarding the 
control of stock exchanges in Japan. 

In December, 1892, regulations governing 
exchanges were introduced in the Imperial 
Diet, and were passed. It was provided that 
stock exchanges could be of two kinds — 
those formed of private members, and those 
constituting a joint-stock company. In the 
former case no deposit was called for, but 
in the case of a joint-stock company exchange 
the Government decreed that one-third of 
the capital should be lodged as security 



for the proper conduct of business. In the 
private membership exchanges both brokers 
and members were allowed to transact busi- 
ness, but a joint-stock company exchange 
must confine its transactions solely to regis- 
tered brokers, and these latter, though they 
could make sales and purchases on their 
own account, were to be held responsible to 
the Stock Exchange for all business done for 
their own, or customers' accounts. And to 
protect itself the Stock Exchange was given 
a preference right over other creditors with 
respect to deposit money. It was also pro- 
vided that the capital of a joint-stock ex- 
change should be not less than 30,000 yen. 
Private members exchanges were not subject 
to any restriction as to capital. These 
regulations were somewhat altered in IQ02 
when Imperial Ordinance No, 158 prescribed 
that the capital of a stock exchange should 
be not less than Yen 100,000, and that unless 
half of the capital, or in the minimum, Yen 
100,000, be paid up, no business could be 
done. Furthermore the personal securities of 
brokers and members must be deposited. 
Such regulations, of course, were drafted to 
check the tendency of small and irresponsible 
concerns from springing up and trading on 
])ublic confidence as regular stock exchanges. 



126 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




(Left) Mr. K. Sl'GINO, President of the Yamaichi Goshi Kaisha. (Upper Row, Left to Right) Mr. YosHio S.\shid.^, Chairman of 
Board of Directors (Tokyo Rice and Produce Exchange)— Mr. T. N.\kane, Director. (Lower Row, Left to Right) Mr. E. Shink.\i, 
Director — Mr. C. Hirose, Director. (Right) Mr. R.\izo K.\nd.\, President of the Momijiya Bank 



As a matter of fact the Tokv'o Stock Exchange 
from the date of its inception was a joint- 
stock concern, and its initial capital was 
Yen 200,000, far exceeding the legal require- 
ments. 

Apart from all government regulation the 
Tokyo Stock Exchange has its own laws, 
embraced in the Articles of Association, for 
the conduct of its business. These have been 
altered and varied from time to time, as 
experience required, and to-day it is generally 
recognised that the institution is exceedingly 
well governed, and undoubtedly it has the 
implicit confidence of the Government and of 
the investing public. Abroad the Tokj'o 
Stock Exchange is rated as on an equality 
with all the great bourses. Its capital is 
now Yen 20,000,000. None but Ucensed 
brokers can be members of the exchange, and 
their dealings are subject to rigid control. 
Before being allowed to operate on the ex- 



change they must lodge Yen 50,000 as secur- 
ity. They have also to pay the license fee 
of Yen 100, and in addition must contribute 
Yen 1,000 to the guild, or partnership of 
brokers. Any man may become a member 
under certain conditions contained in the 
Articles of Association. All transactions on 
the exchange are in the name of the broker. 
Private operations by outside speculators are 
not recognised, and the broker is held strictlj' 
responsible, financially and otherwise, for 
anj' trading done in his name on the exchange. 
In 191 7 there were about eighty licensed 
brokers operating on the Tokyo Stock 
Exchange. 

The Tokyo Stock Exchange is open from 
9 to 1 1 .30 A. M. and from I to 4 P. m. The 
margin money to be collected for time bar- 
gains is of three kinds: (l) principal margin 
money, (2) supplementary margin money, 
and (3) extra margin money. The margin 



money is bought and sold on the following 
basis: in the first category the amount to 
be paid is not more than one-half of the value 
of the shares booked; in the second category, 
one-half of the amount paid for the first. 
Of the third class not more than three times 
the amount of the first is paid, and this is 
to be collected when emergency arises or 
business is suspended, or when it is con- 
sidered that there may be serious fluctuations 
of quotations. This margin money is to be 
both for buyer's and seller's account. Time 
bargains are made for Present Month 
Delivery, Second Month Delivery, and 
Third Month Delivery. 

Some idea of the growth of the transactions 
on the Tokyo Stock Exchange will be gath- 
ered from the following: In the seven 
months of operations in 1878, the total value 
of national bonds changing hands was Yen 
26,565,400. Sales and purchases of shares 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



127 



only reached a total of Yen 9,600,000, and 
there were only 253 transactions. In the 
following year the operations in national 
bonds in the first six months exceeded in 
value the operations of the previous period by 
over Yen 30,000,000, and there were 2,400 
transactions. In the last half-year of 1879 
national bonds transactions decreased in 
value by Yen 23,000,000, but the trading in 
shares increased tenfold. These figures look 
small compared with those of to-day, but they 
indicate how quickly the Tokyo Stock Ex- 
change grew in popular favour when its func- 
tions were understood. There have been 
periods of depression and stagnation in the 
market, but generally speaking the history 
of the exchange is one of rapid development 
and ever increasing share operations. After 
the Russo-Japanese War, and when the first 
period of depression following that struggle 
had passed, a strong revival in the market 
was witnessed. In 1906 shares began to 
rise and in the following year the 50-yen 
shares of the Tokyo Stock Exchange rose to 
780 yen, a figure which has never been ex- 
ceeded. A strong tone has prevailed since 
1914, and some very heavy operations have 
taken place, over a quarter of a million shares 
sometimes changing hands in one day. In 
1 91 6 the number of shares bought and sold 
in the time bargains on the exchange totalled 
31.707.580, valued at Yen 4,066,861,382 and 
in the first half of 19 17 the number handled 
was 10,801,610, valued at Yen 1,575,276,733. 
The officers of the Tokyo Stock Exchange 
are: President, Baron Seinosuke Goh; Vice- 
President, Mr. Shimpei Tsunoda; Directors, 
Messrs. K. Eguchi, U. Yamaguchi, T. Maye- 
kawa, and R. Fujiyama. 

The Tolcyo Stock Exchange is housed in 
a handsome and substantial building of three 
stories at Nos. 4 and 6 Kabuto-cho, Nihon- 
bashi-ku. The exchange floor is a capacious 
mart, covering an area of 1,026 tsuho. In 
addition there is office space of 1,000 tsubo. 
A staff of 221 is employed for the conduct of 
the building and the control of share-dealing 
operations. The building is ventilated and 
kept supplied with purified air by mechanical 
apparatus electrically driven. 

TOKYO RICE AND PRODUCE EXCH.\NGE 
The rice industry of Japan is of such 
importance that it would be indeed surpris- 
ing did there not exist well regulated organi- 
sations for the control of the marketing and 
sale of the product. As a matter of fact 
such institutions are to be found in all the 
big centres, and they carry on a very useful 
work in fixing samples, controlling deliveries, 
and generally handling a large volume of 
trade at one central house. .Such an insti- 
tution is the Tokyo Rice and Produce Ex- 



change, which is located at No. 2 Kakigaracho 
Itchome, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo. This ex- 
change was originally established in 1876 
under the name of the Beisho Kaisho, or 
meeting place of rice merchants. It was 
organised by Mr. Ippei Yonekura, and other 
merchants prominent in the industry. The 
capital at that time was only Yen 100,000, 
but this has since been increased to Yen 
3,000,000. Furthermore the functions of the 
exchange have been widely extended, and it 
now handles the business of the sale and pur- 
chase of rice, other grain, salt, fertilisers, 
cotton and silk thread, cotton cloth and so 
on. So important has the Tokyo Rice and 
Produce Exchange become that a branch 
has had to be established at No. 20 Shinzai- 
mokucho, Nihonbashi-ku. The two build- 
ings are handsome modern structures, admir- 
ably adapted for the transaction of a large 
flow of trade, and convenient in all respects 
as meeting places for the many hundreds of 



merchants interested in the different indus- 
tries. The head office consists of a three- 
storied brick building with a basement and 
large vestibule. The first floor where the 
open market takes place covers 233 tsubo. 
The second floor is of 185 Isubo, and with 
the third floor of 45 Isubo is largely occupied 
by offices. The basement and sample room 
is 238 tsubo in area. The branch buiding 
is three-storied and the total floor space is 
75 tsubo. In the Tokyo Rice and Prodiice 
Exchange the bulk of the transactions are 
for forward deliveries. There is a staff of 
sixty-three employees, and the salary bill 
runs over Yen 60,000 per annum. Following 
are the principal officers of this important 
institution: President, Mr. Yoshio Sashida; 
Directors, Messrs. C. Hirose, E. Shinkai, and 
T. Nakane; Auditors, Messrs. N. Ikegami, 
E. Sugihara, and Y. Unyeda. Mr. Shichizo 
Date is the General Manager of the Ex- 
change. (See illustration, page 95.) 




PREMISES OF THE MOMIJIYA n.\XK 



128 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



THE MOMIJIYA BANK 
The Momijiya Bank of Tokyo is an off- 
shoot of the famous Momijiya & Co., Ltd., 
and fulfils an important and special function 
in financial circles of the capital. To describe 
the operations of this bank requires that the 
history of the Momijiya business should be 
related to some extent. The establishment 
of the Momijiya dates back to February-, 
1900. At that time the sale and purchase 
of public loan bonds was in a rudimentarj' 
stage, and even the official quotations of 
public bonds were in a state of uncertainty. 
The Momijiya was opened exclusively for 
cash transactions in\"olving the purchase or 
sale of public securities, and it began the 
publication of daily bulletins reporting the 
actual quotations of public bonds and stocks, 
as well as financial conditions generally. In 
this way, the Momijiya became noted as a 
specialist in this class of business, and there 
is no doubt its operations were viewed with 
great public favour, the institution being 
far ahead of any other concern in keeping 
the public well advised regarding the mar- 
kets. It is also equally certain that the 
Momijiya did a great deal to stabilise and 
systematise transactions in public bonds. 
Some of the transactions of the Momijiya 
have reached very large figures. One such 
was the handling of Yen 7,000,000 worth of 
public bonds in 1903. The Momijiya also 
carried out the flotation of a national loan to 
the extent of Yen 50,000,000 during the 
Russo-Japanese War; a wholesale export of 
the Railway Nationalization Loan Bonds, 
and the Government Loan Bonds Mark 
"Ko-go" in 1908-9, and similar huge under- 
takings involving millions of yen and calling 
for careful and expert handling of negotia- 
tions. The Momijiya was transformed into 
a joint-stock corporation, with a capital of 
Yen 1,000,000 in December, 1910, a -d in 
the following year the Momijiya Bank was 
inaugurated with a moderate capital of 
Yen 1,000,000. 

The Momijiya Bank conducts a general 
banking business, but it has several special 
features; underwriting and issuing loans for 
municipalities and industrial companies; 
conducting financial operations in foreign 
markets, etc., these special features being 
the natural result of its association with 
Momijiya & Co., Ltd. The bank is under 
the direct control of Mr. Raizo Kanda, but 
a clear distinction is maintained in respect 
of the capital and business management of 
the two institutions, though they operate 
together along certain lines. Both may well 
be regarded as indispensable for the benefit 
of the public at large. 

With the object of promoting intimate 
relations with the capitalists and financiers 



of Europe and America, Mr. Kanda, Presi- 
dent of the two institutions, made a tour of 
inspection in 1912, covering England, France, 
Belgium, and Germany, returning via the 
United States. The result of this visit and 
association with the leading bankers and 
capitalists abroad has been to give an im- 
petus to international transactions in bonds 
and other securities in which Japan is inter- 
ested. The Momijiya Bank occupies hand- 
some headquarters at 26 Sakamatocho, 
Xihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, and special corre- 
spondents are maintained in London, 
Paris, Amsterdam, Xew York, and San 
Francisco. The General Manager of the 
bank is Mr. Yoshimi Yokota. Following are 
the financial statements of the bank for the 
half-year ended June 30, 191 7: 



capital. On April 15, 1917, the Koike Goshi 
Kaisha was formally dissolved on Mr. Koike 
retiring from brokerage business to take up 
the active control of the bank which bears 
his name. The succeeding day the Yamaichi 
Goshi Kaisha was formed, and by arrange- 
ment which had been made at a conference 
of the principals and staflE of the former 
concern, the new organisation at once took 
over the business which had been directed by 
Mr. Koike. On the latter's retirement the 
organisation was changed somev.'hat, but all 
the principal directors and the heads of 
staffs continued with the new firm. Conse- 
quently the Yamaichi Goshi Kaisha may be 
said to be a continuation of the long estab- 
lished business, and has at its disposal all the 
experience of the staff which Mr. Koike 



DR. 


Cr. 


Yen 


Yen 


Capital 1 ,000,000 . 00 

Reserve 400,000.00 

Deposits 566,132, 17 

Money at call 1,970,000.00 

Loans 900,000 . 00 

Unpaid interests, etc 8,503 . 80 

Loan bonds 201,374.00 


Advances current account 2,097,457 • 83 

Bills discounted 1.374.364. 35 

Loans to other banks ... . 1 1 1 48 


Negotiable instruments 323,961 . 44 

Loan bonds 221,440 00 


Loans on lands and buildings. . . 100,000.00 

Funds in agencies 1,140,407.30 

Cash on hand 10,93 ' • 87 

5,268,674.27 


Bonds in trust 121,207.00 

Net profit for half-year 101,457.30 


5,268,674.27 



Profit and Loss Account 



Dr. 


CR. 


Yen 


Yen 


Reserve fund 30,000 . 00 

Balance carried forward to next 

term 71.457-30 


Net profits for half-year ending 

Tune "^o IQ17 ^i ..102 . ^0 


Balance brought forward 70,055 .00 


101,457.30 


101,457.30 



YA.MAICHI GOSHI K.\ISH.\ 
In a separate article reference is made to 
the operations of Mr. Kunizo Koike, Presi- 
dent of the Koike Bank, and to the important 
work which that gentleman has done in 
financial circles in Japan. Over twenty 
years ago Mr. Koike engaged in brokerage 
business in Tokj-o, and held a very prominent 
position in the Tokj-o Stock Exchange. He 
established the Koike Goshi Kaisha, about 
ten years ago, and made it one of the leading 
stock and share brokerage businesses in the 



gathered around him. Business is conducted 
in a steady and progressive manner. The 
firm are licensed brokers of the Tokj'O Stock 
Exchange, and deal in domestic and foreign 
securities, and undertake the underwriting 
of government and municipal bonds and 
debentures, the flotation of share stock, and 
so forth. The capital of the Yamaichi 
Goshi Kaisha is Yen 1,000,000 fully paid up, 
and it is interesting to note that the original 
founder of the business still retains a large 
interest in it, and is one of its partners. The 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



129 




INTERIOR VIEW OK THE COUNTING HOUSE OF YAMAICHI GOSHI KAISHA — THE HEAD OFFICE, KABUTO-CHO, NIHONBASHI-KU, TOKYO 



head office of the Yamaichi Goshi Kaisha is 
at No. 3 Kabuto-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, 
in the building formerly occupied by the 
Sumitomo Bank. A staff of about sixty is 
employed to transact the large volume of 
business which passes through the hands of 
the firm. The Managing Director is Mr. 
Kisei Sugino. Partners and Directors are 
Messrs. H. Arita, N. Hasegawa, S. Miyo, 
K. Kusunoki, and Partners and Auditors, 
Messrs. S. Asakawa and D. Hiraoka. There 
are fifteen other partners, among whom are 
Mr. K. Koike, who holds stock to the value 
of Yen 387,000, and Mr. J. Watanabe. The 
cable address of Yamaichi & Company is 
"Montoneco," Tokyo. 

FOREIGN BANKS 

HONGKONG & SHANGHAI BANKING 

CORPORATION 

A GENERAL history of this well known 
institution though more than warranted from 
the point of interest represents altogether too 
lengthy a document to be contained in a work 
of this character. A glance at the balance 
sheet of the bank will serve to show the 



present enviable position it holds; indeed, 
absolutely second to none in the Eastern 
Hemisphere, in addition to which the follow- 
ing details are important. The bank was 
established at Hongkong in 1865 and at 
Yokohama in 1867. The original capital of 
$2,500,000 was increased in 1872 to $5,000,- 
000, further additions brought it up to the ten 
million mark in 1 891, and in 1907 it was 
raised again to $15,000,000, where it stands 
to-day. Of even greater significance is the 
fact that so successful were the bank's opera- 
tions up to the end of 1916 that the accumu- 
lated reserves aggregated $33,000,000, or 
more than double the capital. The sum of 
$15,000,000 has been set aside to form a 
sterling reserve (at Ex 2/- = £1,500,000) 
which is invested in British War Loan 
Bonds. 

A further indication of the phenomenal rise 
of the institution as well as the extraordinary 
degree of public confidence enjoyed, is 
illustrated by the expansion of the deposit 
account which shows an increase during the 
last thirty-six years from $24,198,572, in 1880, 
to $303,067,800, at the end of 1916. 



In addition to its commercial operations the 
bank has rendered valuable assistance in the 
promotion of Japanese, Chinese, and Siamese 
Government Loans, its flotations either alone 
or in connection with other institutions 
amounting to about $200,000,000. The 
savings bank department for the small 
depositor was initiated some years ago and is 
much appreciated, indeed regarded as a boon. 

The Yokohama premises of the bank are 
located in No. 2 Water Street (Midzu Machi- 
dori) on property covering about 2,000 tsiibo 
which runs right through from the street to 
the water front. The staff employed consists 
of ten British besides sixteen Portuguese and 
eight Japanese assistants, also a Chinese 
department of sixteen. Other branches of 
the bank in Japan are located at Kobe and 
Nagasaki, representatives in Tokyo, Osaka, 
and Shimonoseki being, respectively, the 
Mitsu Bishi Goshi Kaisha, the Thirty- 
fourth Bank, and Messrs. Jardine, Matheson 
&Co. 

The Yokohama branch is under the man- 
agement of Mr. R. T. Wright who was 
appointed in 1911. Mr. Wright has been 



K-5^s 




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HONGKONG & SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION: THE BANKING CHAMBER, YOKOHAMA — THE BANKS PREMISES 

ENTRANCE TO THE BANK AT YOKOHAMA 



AT KOBE- 




THE CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA, AND CHINA: THE BANk's BUILDING AT YOKOHAMA AND ITS KOBE BUILDING 



132 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



associated with the bank in the East since 1886 
of which period eight years represents service 
in Japan. The Sub-Manager at Yokohama 
is Mr. J. K. Hutton. The Kob^ branch of the 
Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation 
was opened as far back as July, 1867, or 
coincidentally with the opening of the port to 
foreign trade. A large business has always 
been done there, and in course of time the 
branch far outgrew the original quarters. 
The present magnificent new premises, which 
unquestionably are a feature of Kobe archi- 
tecture, were formally opened in March, 1903. 
The foundation stone had been laid two and a 
half years earlier on September 25, 1900, by 
the late Sir Thomas Jackson, Bart. 

The Acting Agent at Kobe is Mr. J. 
McArthur. The British staff consists of 
seven. There are eighteen local clerks, a 
Chinese stafi of seventeen, and a number 
of office boys, coolies, and other employees. 
The ground is 527 tsubo, and the building 
itself covers 24452 tsubo. 

CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA, 
AND CHINA 

This very well known British institution 
whose activities extend throughout the Far 
East, has tw-o important branches in Japan, 



at Yokohama and Kob6, respectively, where 
it enjoys a large volume of the banking and 
financial business transacted in the handling 
of foreign and local trade. The Chartered 
Bank is one of the remaining five that were in 
existence at the time it secured its Royal 
Charter in 1853, the others being the Bank of 
Australasia, the Bank of British North 
America, the Colonial Bank, and the British 
Linen Bank. The charter has been renewed 
on various occasions, the last date being in 
1909, when it was extended for another thirty 
years. In the prospectus upon which the 
Chartered Bank was originally formed it was 
stated that it was to be "established chiefly in 
order to extend the legitimate facilities of 
banking to the fast and rapidly expanding 
trade between the Australian colonies, British 
East India, China, and other parts of the 
Eastern Archipelago — a field at present 
wholly unoccupied by any similar institution. 
The objects of the company will, however, also 
embrace in connection therewith the extension 
of banking accommodation to the direct trade 
of British India, China, and Australia with 
this country (the United Kingdom) at present 
so inadequately provided for." In all respects 
but one these objects have been carried out, 
the exception being that the bank has not so 



far opened any office in Australia, though, 
indeed, the project has been mooted on more 
occasions than one. The bank has faithfully 
kept in view the purposes which originally 
attracted the capital to bring it into existence, 
and it has extended its influence to a much 
greater degree than was originally intended, 
business being carried on in addition to India 
and China, in the Straits Settlements, Siam, 
the Dutch East Indies, the United States of 
America, and Japan. Although chartered in 
1853 the bank did not commence business till 
1857, offices being opened at Bombay, Cal- 
cutta, and Shanghai. Thenceforward the 
influence of the bank extended rapidly 
throughout the Far East, until to-day its 
name is a household word. The paid-up cap- 
ital, which had been raised to £800,000 in 1864, 
remained at this figure till 1907, when the 
steady and continued expansion of business 
called for an increase. Accordingly the paid- 
up amount was raised to £1,200,000, consist- 
ing of 60,000 shares of £20 each, fully paid. 
Another evidence of the prosperity of the 
bank is the state of the reserve fund which 
amounted in 19 1 7 to £1,900,000 or 50 per cent 
more than the paid-up capital, and moreover 
this was built up entirely from profits, with 
one exception. In 1907 the increase of capital 




L.ENERAL VIEW OF BUSINESS STREET IN TOKYO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



133 



was arranged to allow of a premium of £400,- 
000 and this was thrown into the reserve fund. 
The Yokohama branch of the Chartered 
Bank of India, Australia, and China was 
opened as far back as 1878, when the port was 
still in the process of merging from a fishing 
village to a commercial entrepot of world 
importance. The Kob6 branch was opened 
in 1895. The high record established and 
maintained for over sixty years throughout 



the Far East, and the early start made in 
Yokohama forty years ago, have combined to 
give the bank the highest prestige in Japan as 
a financial institution. The bank has fine 
premises in both Yokohama and Kobe, the 
Yokohama premises being as handsome and 
imposing as those of any similar institution in 
the Far East, and its towering dome is one of 
the landmarks of the port. Mr. J. Alston 
has been manager in Yokohama since 191 3. 



He came to the Far East in 1890 and served 
the interests of the Chartered Bank in Java, 
Singapore, Hongkong, Saigon, Madras, and 
Hankow, before being transferred to the Kob6 
branch in 1907. Mr. Stewart, the present 
agent in Kobe, has been there for only a year 
and a half, having been stationed previously 
in India and Java. 

Following is the balance sheet to De- 
cember 31, 1916: 



Liabilities 



To capital, 60,000 shares of £20 each, paid up. . . . 1,200,000 o 

To reserve fund i ,800,000 o 

To notes in circulation 1,019,068 15 

To current and other accounts, including provision 

for bad and doubtful debts and contingencies. 14,463,317 9 

To fixed deposits 8,240,778 16 

To bills payable: — 

Drafts on demand and at 
short sight on head office and 

branches £3,216,782 i 7 

Drafts on London and for- 
eign bankers against secur- 
ity, per contra 205,879 4 



To acceptances on account of customers 

To loans payable, against security, per contra. . 

To due to agents and correspondents 

To sundry liabilities, including rebates 

To profit and loss 



3,422,661 6 3 



Total. 



930,138 12 

953,333 6 

12,116 10 

921,961 7 

427,465 10 


9 

8 

3 
I 
2 


£33.390.841 14 


1 1 



Assets 

£ s. 

By cash in hand and at bankers 5,640,891 19 

By buUion on hand and in transit 278,815 o 

By government and other securities 3, 184,307 4 

By security lodged against note issue and govern- 
ment deposits 864,000 o 

By bills of exchange, including treasury bills 

£1,269,000 12,069,092 12 

By bills discounted and loans 9,601,277 5 

By liability of customers for acceptances, per 

contra 930,138 12 

By due by agents and correspondents 132,329 18 

By sundry assets including exchange adjustments . . 1 39,725 i 
By bank premises and furniture at the head office 

and branches 550,263 19 

Toial £33,390,841 14 



d. 



8 
10 



Profit kym Loss Account — For the year ending December 31, 1916 



Dr. £ s. d. 

To interim dividend at June 30, 1916 84,000 o o 

To balance proposed to be dealt w'th as follows: — 
Dividend, at the rate of 14 per cent 
per annum, for the half-year to 
date £ 84,000 o o 

Bonus of I2s. per share 36,000 o o 

Reserve fund 100,000 o o 

Officers' superannuation fund 20,000 o o 

Bank premises 30,000 o o 

Carried forward to profit and loss 

new account 157,465 10 2 

427,465 10 2 

Total £511,465 10 2 



Cr. 



s. d 



By balance at December 31, 1915 399,205 12 4 

Less dividend for half-year to 

December 31, 191 5 £ 84,000 o o 

Appropriation on account of fur- 
ther depreciation on securities. . . 160,000 00 

Bank premises 25,000 o o 

269,000 o o 



130,205 12 4 



By gross profits for the year, after 
providing for bad and doubtful 
debts, excess profits tax and 

bonus to the staff £828,674 17 8 

Less: — 

Expenses of Management and gen- 
eral charges at head office and 

branches 447,414 19 10 

381,259 17 10 

Total £511,465 10 2 



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INTERNATIONAL BANKING CORPORATION: KOBE BRANCH INTERIOR OF HEAD OFFICE FOR JAPAN AT YOKOHAMA — BUILDING OCCUPIED 

BY HEAD OFFICE FOR JAPAN, YOKOHAMA — INTERIOR OF KOBE BRANCH 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



135 



THE INTERNATIONAL BANKING 
CORPORATION 

The International Banking Corporation, 

of which Mr. J. D. Longmire is Manager, was 
opened in Yokohama in 1902, for the purpose 
of assisting American commerce in Japan and 
the Far East. From its earliest days it has 
shown that such an institution was urgently- 
required, and it has steadily developed a 
large business which has been of benefit to 
American interests as well as those of Japa- 
nese and other nationalities. 

The International Banking Corporation 
has a capital of G. $3,230,000, with re- 



serves of G. 54,598,576. It has established 
branches at the following cities: 

New York (head office), Bombay, Cal- 
cutta, Canton, Cebu, Colon (Isthmus Pana- 
ma), Hankow, Hongkong, Kob^, Manila, 
Medellin (Rep. of Colombia), Santiago 
de los Caballeros (Dominican Rep.), 
London, Panama, Peking, Puerta Plata 
(Dominican Rep.), San Francisco, Santo 
Domingo, San Pedro de Macoris (Domini- 
can Rep.), Shanghai, Singapore, Tientsin, 
Batavia. 

It is also closely allied with the National 
City Bank of New York and through this 



is in a position to assist trade with the many 
points at which they are represented. 

INSURANCE 

THE TOKYO MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, LIMITED 

The doyen of the marine insurance com- 
panies of Japan is the Tokyo Marine Insurance 
Company, Limited, founded August i, 1879, 
at a time when insurance was in its infancy in 
Japan, and nobody could have conceived that 
such great corporations would ever exist. 
Some idea of the manner in which this 




PROMINENT TOKYO AND YOKOHAMA INSURANXE MEN 

(Upper Row, Left to Right) Mr. H.ajime Kawasaki, President, Nippon Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. — Mr. Sunao Kono, General 
Manager, Kyosai Life Insurance Co., Ltd., Tokyo — Mr. Zengoro Yasuda, President, Imperial Marine Transportation and Fire Insurance 
Co., Ltd. (In Oval) Mr. T. Isaka, Maiiaging Director, Yokohama Fire, Marine, Transit & Fidelity Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Middle Row) Mr. H. Shimidzi', Managing Director, Aikoku Life Insurance Co., Ltd. — Mr. M. Ono, President, Yokohama 
Fire, Marine, Transit & Fidelity Insurance Co., Ltd. — Mr. A. Fukuhara, President, Imperial Life Insurance Co., Ltd., President of 
the Association of Life Insurance Companies and Special Member of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce — Mi. A. R. Harris, Manager 
for Japan, Sun Insurance Office of London, Chairman of the Foreign Offices Fire Insurance Association and Vice-President of the Joint 
Fire Insurance Association — Mr. Masao Kurachi, Managing Director, Kyodo Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Lower Row) Mr. Seizaburo Nishiwaki, President, Nishiwaki Bank, Ltd., and of the Taiyo Life Insurance Co., Ltd. — Mr. 
C. E. Maligny, General Manager for Japan, New Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd., Vice-President of Foreign Offices Fire Insurance 
Association — Dr. Haruo Mourasse, Vice-President, Imperial Marine Transportation and Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. — Mr. T. Yano, 
President, First Mutual Life Insurance Co., Tokyo 



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TOKYO PREMISES OF THE IMPERIAL MARINE TRANSPORTATION AND FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED 



138 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



institution has grown may be gathered from 
the fact that its initial capital was only 
Yen 600,000 and to-day it is Yen 15,000,000. 
At its inception the Tokyo Marine Insurance 
Co., Ltd., did a small business in the coastal 
shipping trade of Japan, but with the expan- 
sion of Japan's commercial interests, and the 
tremendous development of the mercantile 
marine, and the growth of exports, the company 
is to-day covering risks all over the world, and 
taking its place with the greatest corporations 
of its kind. 

Branches and agencies exist all over 
Japan, and there is scarcely a business 
centre of any importance in the world where 
the company is not represented. The Gen- 
eral Agents for Europe are Messrs. Willis, 
Faber & Co., Ltd., si.Comhill, London; and 
for the United States and Canada, Messrs. 
Appleton & Cox, 3 South William Street, 
New York. General marine insurance is 
transacted, and developments in the business 
dimng recent years include fire, transporta- 
tion, and motor car insurance. 

Follow-ing are the principal officers of the 
Tokyo Marine Insurance Co., Ltd.: Chairman 
of Directors, Mr. M. Suyenobu (Director of 
the Meiji Life and Meiji Fire Insurance Cos.) ; 
Directors, Messrs. T. Abe, S. Komuro 
(Director Mitsui Bussan Kaisha); Baron 
R. Kondo (President Nippon Yusen Kaisha) , 
K. Mimura (Director Meiji Fire Insurance 
Co.), S. Sasaki (Director First Bank), H. 
Shoda (of the Mitsubishi Co.), and K. Sonoda 
(Director of the Fifteenth Bank and Y'oko- 
hama Specie Bank). A board of more 
influential commercial men could scarcely be 
found on any corporation in Japan. The 
Auditors are Messrs. F. Wuriu and S. Ogawa. 
The Managing Directors are Mr, K. Kagami 
and Mr. H. Hirao. 

The financial standing of the Tokyo Marine 
Insurance Co., Ltd., may be gathered from 
the following facts: The paid-up capital is 
Yen 3,750,000, and the reser^'e funds total Yen 
1 7 ,000,000. For the year ending December 3 1 , 
1916, the net premiums totalled Yen 11,419,- 
784. After provision for additions to reserves 
and suspense accounts a divisible surplus of 
Yen 2,421,228 was distributed as follows: 
Dividend at Yen 4 per share. Yen 1,200,000; 
added to Legal Reserve Fund, Yen 500,000; 
carried forward, Y''en 721,228. The profit 
and loss account for the year appears in the 
table at the top of this page. 

The company has assets totalling Yen 42,- 
069,081. Recently a magnificent new building 
(a photograph of which appears on page 
136 of this volume) has been completed for 
the Tok->'o Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., in 
Tokyo, on the most commanding site of the 
business and commercial centre of the capital. 



DR. 


Cr. 


Yen 


Yen 


To balance from last account. . 204,901 . 63 

Underwriting fund from last 
account 15,500,223 . 79 

Net premia (less returns, rein- 
surance, commission, etc 11,419,784.34 

Interest, etc 2,216,327.01 


Net payments account 19 16 

and previous years 5. 561. 198. 35 

Charges, head office, branches 

and agencies 369,269.26 

Directors' and auditors' fees.. 17,625.00 
Underwriting fund at the end of 

the year 20,971,915.51 

Balance 2,421,228.65 


Total Yen 29,341,236.77 




Tola! Yen 29,341,236.77 



THE IMPERIAL .MARINE TRANSPORTA- 
TION AND FIRE INSURANCE 
CO.MPANY, LIMITED 

This company, which is one of the oldest 
established of the marine insurance institu- 
tions in Japan, was founded in 1893, and is 
another of the remarkable enterprises of the 
wealthy Y'asuda family. To-day the com- 
pany's sphere of influence is very wide, and 
its business is conducted on the most modern 
lines applicable to Japan, and based on a 
sound experience of local conditions. Although 
originally formed for marine insurance the 
Imperial has always marched with the 
times, and when railway transportation in 
Japan became properly developed the company 
added that department of insurance. This 
was in November, 1899. The business of 
insurance against fire risks was started in 
August, 1902. Mr. Zengoro Yasuda is Presi-. 
dent of the company. Dr. Haruo Mourasse, 
the distinguished authority on insurance in 
Japan, is Vice-President, and in that capacity 
he takes a very large share in the control of the 
company, making every efi'ort to select the 
most sound risks, and devising an extension of 
the bvisiness. Dr. Mourasse's efforts, and the 
prestige attaching to his name, have made 
the Imperial one of the greatest institutions 
of its kind in Japan. Its credit is particularly 



liigh in insurance circles. The Managing 
Director is Mr. Rintaro Komon, an experi- 
enced and highly respected figure in the 
insurance world. Branches of the Imperial 
Company are established at Osaka and Kobe, 
and agents are to be found in all the ports of 
Japan as w'ell as abroad. It is no exaggeration 
to say that for promptness and exactness in 
adjusting claims and paying indemnities the 
Imperial ranks among the first of its kind in 
Japan. The last balance sheet appears at 
foot of this page. 

In addition to the officers mentioned above 
the following are Directors: Baron Morimasa 
Takei, Messrs. Shinkichi Miyajima, Zenno- 
suke Yasuda, Zenzaburo Yasuda and Yeiichi 
Chichiiwa. The Auditors are Messrs. Kahei 
Otani, Seizo Nakamura, and Masaoki Hikida. 

THE SUN INSURANCE OFFICE 
OF LONDON 

The Sun Insurance Office of London holds 
the unique distinction of being the oldest fire 
insurance company in the world, ha\ang been 
founded in 1710. At that distant date the 
principles of fire insurance were little known, 
and such business as was done was confined to 
a few mutual societies who insured buildings 
only. Marine insurance had been in opera- 
tion for many years previously, but it was not 



Assets 


Liabilities 


Yen 


Yen 


Shares unpaid 2,250,000.00 

Cash 207 . 75 

Postal savings account 12,987.09 

Bank deposits 635,824.51 

Loans 237,500.00 

Investments 2,790,780.96 

Real estate 153,902.61 


Capital 3,000,000.00 

Legal reserve fund 305,000 . 00 

Special reserve fund 1,420,000.00 

Emergency reserve 200,000.00 

Responsibility reserve fund .... 660, 1 27 . 33 

Payment reserve 218,000.00 

Account due by the company. . 11,704.07 

Reinsurance account 14,251 .04 

Sundrv creditors 12,810. 16 


Furniture . . 6,712.93 


Outstanding premiums 87,7'^3.49 


Branch account 45,687 . 1 1 


Unpaid dividends 75 -OO 

Profit 528,877.31 


Agents 70,369.34 

Provisionally paid claims 20,647 .02 

Outstanding account reinsured 58,492.10 


Total Yen 6,370,844.91 


Total Yen 6,370,844.91 





140 



PRESENT-DAY 



IMPRESSIONS 



O F 



J A PAN 



imtil the Great Kire of London in 1666, ami 
tlie consequent enormous damage to proixTty 
tliat resulted, tliat mercliants began to realise 
the need for protection against such loss. 
It was recognised that properties on land were 
subject to equal chances of entire destruction 
as w-ere ships and cargoes at sea, and the first 
principle of fire insurance was impressed upon 
the business mind, that is, the wisdom and 
necessity for indemnifying the individual loser 
by fire out of a fund provided by contributions 
from the rest of his associates in the insurance 
organisation to which he subscribed. During 
the first twenty to thirty years following the 
Great Fire of London, numerous attempts 
were made to establish fire offices on a mutual 
plan, but most of them ended in failure. The 
Sun Fire Office was the first to insure movables 
as well as buildings, and it was also first to 
extend its operations to other parts of Eng- 
land. The scope of its activities being wider 
than those of any of the preceding companies 
it soon became the leading fire office and one 
of the wealthiest institutions in England. 
The Sun was thus the pioneer of the fire insur- 
ance business, and the conditions under which 
fire insurance could be undertaken, and which 
this institution found necessary in its practice 
have, with only slight modifications, become 
the basis of the present-day fire-insurance 
contract. 

Among the first of the companies to extend 
its operations to countries outside of the 
United Kingdom, the Sun Insurance Office of 
London now has branches and agencies in 
practically every comer of the world. As 
regards Japan, the company has been operat- 
ing in the Empire for over fifty years, and its 
activities in this field now cover not only the 
islands of Japan proper, but extend to the 
very outposts of the Japanese Empire such as 
Formosa, Korea, the Loochoos and even to 
that inhospitable island of Karafuto, more 
commonly known as Japanese Saghalien. 
The Japanese business of the Sun Insurance 
Office was formerly conducted through 
agencies, but in May, 191 1, a head office for 
Japan was established at Yokohama by Mr. 
A. R. Harris, who came over from Shanghai 
to take charge of the company's affairs. 
Branch offices are maintained in Tokyo and 
Osaka Mr. Harris is Chairman of the foreign 
offices Fire Instu-ance Association, and Vice- 
Chairman of theijoint Fire Insurance Associa- 
tion of Japan. 

The present position of the Sun Insurance 
Office is shown in the Directors' report and 
statement of accounts for the year ending 
December 31, 1916, from which the following 
facts and figures are taken : The capital of the 
Company is £2,400,000 divided into 240,000 
shares of £10 each, on which £2 per share has 
been paid, thus giving a paid-up capital of 



£480,000. During 19 1 6 fire premia, less re-in- 
surance, totalled £1,532,349; losses paid dur- 
ing the same period aggregated £739,884, being 
at the rate of 48.28 per cent of the premiums 
received; expenses of management (including 
commission to agents and working charges of 
all kinds) totalled £577,384; interest reaHsed 
£68,187. After reserving as unearned 40 per 
cent of the premiums to cover liabilities under 
current policies, a credit balance of £253,526 
was transferred to profit and loss account. 
There was standing at credit of profit and 
loss account at the beginning of the year 
£335,271, which was increased by the oper- 
ations of 1916 to £652,174. The pension fund 
was augmented by £20,000; £5,000 was 
placed to the war contingenc}' fund, whilst 
sundry investments were written down £70,- 
000, thus leaving at credit of profit and loss 
the sum of £557,174. Two dividends of 7/- 
per share each were paid in January and July 
of 1917, thus absorbing £130,200, the sum of 
£426,974 being unappropriated. At the end 
of the year the total funds of the Sun Office 
stood as shown below. 

The Sun's assets as set forth in the balance 
sheet attached to the 1916 report totalled 
£4,057,632 at the end of the year, its invest- 
ments being as shown below. 

NEW ZEALAND INSURANCE COMPANY^ 
LIMITED 

EsT.\BLisHED in 1 859 the Xew Zealand 
Insurance Company, Limited, has extended 
its operations all over the world, and it is 



to-day an institution of which the Dominion 
and the Empire may justly be proud, occupy- 
ing as it does a position of wealth and impor- 
tance never before reached by any company 
founded in a remote part of Britain's Colonial 
Empire. The New Zealand Insurance 
Company, Ltd., has not only extended its 
operations in a manner not frequently wit- 
nessed in the case of much older companies 
which originated in the United Kingdom 
itself, but it also has earned the reputation in 
insurance circles of being most progressive 
and adaptable, and insurance practice gen- 
erally owes not a little to ideas put into force 
by this vigourous Colonial concern. In the 
Argentine, for instance, this company was 
the first to transact insurance under the 
new workers' compensation laws of that 
country, and the tariff framed and put into 
force was made the basis of a joint tariff 
when other companies took up the busi- 
ness. The company's representatives in all 
parts of the world are generally to be found 
prominently associated with whatever in- 
surance organisations may exist, stabilising 
and regulating the business for the general 
good of insurance companies and the in- 
sured. 

The New Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd., has 
been transacting business in Japan for over 
thirty years. It was represented by Messrs. 
Sale & Frazar, Ltd., as general agents up to 
May, 1908, when the first branch office was 
opened at Yokohama. The head office for 
Japan was transferred to Tokyo on July i, 
19 14, the address being No. I Yuraku-cho, 



Capital, paid up £ 480,000 o 

Fire fund 2,112,939 13 



Accident fund 

Employers' liability fund 

Burglary and general fund 

Dividend reserve 

War contingency fund 

Investment suspense fund 

Pension fund 

Balance at credit of profit and loss account after payment of dividends ... 

Total 



o 
o 

7.914 18 5 

138,723 17 6 

25.979 16 10 

150,000 o o 

25,000 o 

75,000 o 

76,559 2 
426,974 19 



^^3. 519.092 7 8 



British Government Securities £ 

Municipal Securities, United Kingdom 

Colonial Government Securities 

Colonial Provincial Securities 

Colonial Municipal Securities 

Foreign Government Securities 

Foreign Provincial Securities 

Foreign Municipal Securities 

Railway and other debentures — Home, Colonial, and Foreign 1 

Railway and other preference and guaranteed stocks and shares 

Railway and other ordinary stocks and shares 

House property, including premises occupied by the Office .... 

Salvage Corps Premises 

Deposits with Colonial banks 



313.748 


14 


2 


9,000 








31.803 


13 


6 


13,668 


8 





73.566 


13 


10 


229,216 


12 


8 


5^.223 





8 


113,722 


14 


8 


,063,869 


17 


5 


175,023 


5 


3 


141.552 


19 


2 


949.655 


5 


7 


22,038 


16 


9 


3.500 










SUN INSURANCE OFFICE OF LONDON: THE MANAGER AND HIS ASSISTANTS, TOKYO OFFICE 

THE HEAD OFFICE AND STAFF, YOKOHAMA 



142 



PRESENT-DAY 



IMPRESSIONS 



O F 



JAPAN 



l->- 



^ 





!8 



ft-^" 



-<3 



THE STAFF AND EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE HEAD OFFICE OF THE NEW ZE.U.AND INSURANCE CO., LIMITED, TOKYO 



Itchome, Kojimachi-ku. From this branch, 
which is under the direction of the Manager 
for Japan, Mr. C. E. Maligny, the whole of 
Japan proper, including Hokkaido and Kara- 
futo, as well as Formosa, Chosen, and Man- 
churia, are controlled, the company being 
represented in these territories by ten British 
and American firms, and 145 Japanese banks, 
corporations, and firms. Although the New 
Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd., transacts fire, 
marine, and accident insurance, and also acts 
as trustee, executor, attorney, and agent, its 
business in Japan is restricted to fire and 
marine insurance, of which it enjoys a large 
share. Under the Japanese insurance law a 
substantial deposit is required by the Impe- 
rial Government from foreign insurance com- 
panies. This represents in the case of the 
New Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd., Yen 290,- 
000, which is 50 per cent of the premium 
account for 191 6. Some idea of the financial 
strength of the New Zealand Insurance Co., 
Ltd., may be gathered from the fact that 
though its paid-up capital is £450,000, out of 
a subscribed capital of £1,500,000, its reserves 



amount to over £720,000. It had a premium 
income for the year 1916 of £924,790, and 
the available surplus at the end of the period 
was £1 16,379. The total assets of the com- 
pany are £1,594,387. It has paid losses to 
date totalling £10,540,329. 

The principal agents of the New Zealand 
Insurance Co., Ltd., in Japan are as follows: 
Yokohama, Messrs. Sale & Frazar, Ltd., and 
Mr F. Schoene, 167 Yamashita-cho; Kobe, 
Messrs. Shewan, Tomes & Co. and J. R. Black; 
Moji, Messrs. Horace Nutter & Co.; Hako- 
date, Messrs. E. J. King & Co.; Seoul, Messrs. 
L. Rondon & Co.; Dairen, Fujiwara Shokwai; 
Chemulpo, the Eighteenth Bank; Nagasaki, 
Mr. F. Fuse; Nagoya, Unso Kai Shoten; 
TolcN-o, Kai Shoten; Fukuoka, Meidi-ya 
Kaisha, and Osaka, Tokiwa Shokwai. The 
staff of the Japan branch comprises Messrs. 
C. E. Maligny, Manager; R. Graham, 
Accountant; R. Leopold and N. B. Forrest, 
Assistants; S. Normura, Chief Japanese Clerk; 
S. Ishiguro, Assistant Chief Japanese Clerk; 
K. Kataoka, Chief Clerk, Osaka sub-branch ; 
O. W. Luke, Chief Clerk, Yokohama office. 



and C. W. Cheng, Compradore, Yokohama 
office. In addition forty-fi^•e Japanese clerks 
are employed. 

THE YOKOHAMA FIRE, MARINE, TRANSIT 
AND FIDELITY INSUR-^XCE COM- 
PANY, LIMITED 

L'p to the close of the last century, all 
the silk merchants of Yokohama as well as the 
silk manufacturers in the remoter parts of 
the country had to rely upon chance as to the 
safety of millions of yens' worth of their 
expensive stocks and outputs, piled up in 
warehouses or godowns. They were without 
any protection whatever in the way of 
insurance over their fortunes, as the few fire 
offices then existing in the Empire were 
neither prepared nor willing to accord them 
this much-needed protection. It was mainly 
to supply this great desideratum to the silk 
trade of the country that the company 
under review was first established in 1897 
by millionaire dealers in silk and prominent 
captains of the trade and industrj' of Yoke- 



=:=TL 







YOKOHAMA PREMISES OF THE YOKOHAMA FIRE, MARINE, TRANSIT AND FIDELITY INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED 



144 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



hama, followed by others of the important 
silk centres, with an authorised capital of 
5,000,000 yen, one-quarter of which has been 
paid up. 

The first directorate consisted of the late 
Mr. T. Tomita, ex-President of the Bank of 
Japan, President; Mr. K. Tsuchiko, Vice- 
President and Managing Director, Mr. M. 
Ono, Mr. I. Wakao, Mr. Y. Mogi, and Mr. 
S. Shibusawa; while the late Mr. T. Anzai, 
Mr. M. Kaneko,and the late Mr. J. Kakiage 
were vested with the first auditorship. 

Ever since its inception, the most character- 
istic feature of the company has been its very 
cautious and almost conservative way of 
underwriting and to this very policy is due its 
incessant progress and steady development in 
the face of divers difficulties lying in the way 
of a Japanese fire office, such as the general 
fiimsy construction of nine-tenths of its risks, 
highly combustible nature of the building 
materials commonly used, inefRcient and 
primitive methods and equipments for fire- 
fighting, with no waterworks or utterly inade- 
quate ones, if any, in most cities and towns. 

Some companies have been very seriously 
and in a few instances almost fatally affected 
by the great conflagrations of Tokyo, Osaka, 
Hakodate, and Aomori, and more recently by 
those that devastated the larger parts of 
Yonezawa and Fukui, but the contributions 
of this company to these holocausts have 
been very moderate and rather slight com- 
pared to its incomes and resources, showing 
that the conflagration hazard has been care- 
fully observed and prudently guarded against. 

Finding itself on a firm footing and with a 
good reputation, the Yokohama Fire, Marine, 
Transit, & Fidelity Insurance Co. began to 
write the marine business in 1908^ and coming 
out of its trial period of the first few years and 
taking full advantage of the most favourable 
conditions obtaining in the Japanese marine 
market since the breaking-out of the present 
great war, it is now making its way in this new 
field by leaps and bounds, each new year 
seeing its incomes from this source more than 
doubled compared with the preceding year. 

While the company has never been slack in 
its endeavour to increase its reserve funds and 
to set itself on a firmer and firmer basis every 
year, it has been paying pretty good and stead- 
ily increasing dividends to its shareholders, 
the rate for the last fiscal year, ended May 3 1 , 
1917, being 13 per cent ordinary, and 7 per 
cent special, though the year has been the 
worst year in a long time for the fire offices 
doing business in the country, owing to the 
disastrous fires in the Yokohama, Kobe, 
Osaka, and Hangkow warehouses and the 
terrible conflagrations in Yonezawa and 
Fukui. In fact, the average loss ratio of this 
company has been very good, being only 42 



per cent of the premium incomes for its first 
nineteen years, and the enormous warehouse 
and conflagration losses during the last fiscal 
year making it an average of 49.7 per cent for 
the whole twenty years of its operation. Its 
expense ratio is slightly over 28 per cent for 
the same period, including taxes and duties. 

Its loss-paying record is excellent not only 
under ordinarj^ conditions but also in settling 
claims arising through conflagrations. 

Besides its authorised capital of 5,000,000 
yen, the company now has some 3,000,000 
yen of reserves, all to meet its liabilities. 

As is implied by its title, the company also 
w-rites transport and fidelity business, though 
minor in its importance compared to the fire 
and marine business, yet very successful. 
Incidentally, this is the only company in 
Japan that is issuing fidelity bonds. 

The present management still consists 
mostly of notables of Yokohama, with Mr. 
M. Ono, M. P., as President, Mr. T. Isaka as 
Managing Director, and Mr. C. Ohama, 
Chairman of the Municipal Council of Yoko- 
hama, Mr. I. Wakao, M. P., Mr. T. Hara, 
Mr. G. Shibusawa, and Mr. S. Mogi, as 
Directors; while Mr. T. Ishikawa and Mr. 
B. Watanabe are Auditors and Mr. U. 
Nishikido, General Manager. 

An examination of the financial state- 
ments of the company for the year ending 
May 31, 191 7, shows the following facts: 



and stable in the control of such an important 
enterprise. The company has had a very 
prosperous career and in 1916 its total revenue 
was Yen 2,347,439.30 The staff employed 
numbers 203. Branches of the company exist 
at Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Yokohama, Kob6, 
Nagoya, Sendai, Fukuoka, Kanazawa, Dai- 
hoku, and Keijo. There are also agencies 
scattered throughout Japan proper and the 
dependencies of the Empire, and also Man- 
churia, China, Hongkong, and India. The 
head office of the Kyodo Company is at Nos. 
4 and 5 Honkawaya-cho, Xihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo 

THE CHIN.\ iMUTU.'i.L LIFE INSUR.^NCE 
COMPANY, LIMITED, TOKYO 

The China Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany was founded early in 1898, and was 
incorporated under the Hongkong Companies 
Ordinances. In 1908 the company was regis- 
tered in Great Britain, under the Companies 
(Consolidation) Act, and under the Assurance 
Companies Acts, and annually makes the 
returns required under those Acts The com- 
pany is also registered in India, the Straits 
Settlements, the Philippines, and Japan. 

The head office of the company is in 
Shanghai, China, the building being a very 
beautiful piece of architecture, probably 
unsurpassed anj'where by any edifice of the 
same size. The outstanding features of the 



Revenue Account 



Yen 

Revenue account brought for- 
ward 191,467.56 

Premium reserves 1,860,000.00 

Reserve for unpaid losses 65,000.00 

Premiums received during year . 2,726,914. 59 
Claims recovered or indemnified . 1,170,971 .08 

Interest, dividends, etc 432,411 .46 

Income from investments 47,909 . 60 

Total Yen 6,494,674. 29 



Yen 

Losses paid 1,791,231 .42 

Premiumsfor reinsurances 1,283,594.05 

Commission, taxes, and ex- 
penses 461,831 .60 

Depreciation 7,006 . 49 

Premium reserve fund 2,1 10,000 . 00 

Unpaid losses 273,200.00 

Surplus 567,810.73 

Total Yen 6,494,674 . 29 



THE KYODO FIRE INSURANCE 

CO.MPANY, LIMITED 

This company was founded on June 30, 
1906, with a capital of Yen 5,000,000.00, and 
is to-day in a very strong position, handling a 
large volume of insurance received over a wide 
range of territory. The Managing Directors 
are Messrs. S. Morimoto and M. Kurachi, and 
the Directors and Auditors are Messrs. T. Ta- 
nabe, T. Murai, C. Watanabe, M. Matsukata, 
N. Hiroumi, U. Suzuki, G. Yamaguchi, 
K. Ukita, K. Sugiyama, and K. Banno. 
These gentlemen are very well known in 
insurance and commercial circles generally, 
and their names stand for all that is sound 



building are the vestibule done in marble, 
the roof being inlaid with Salviati gold 
mosaic; the principal stairway of marble; 
and the dome of the main office, lined inter- 
nally with sixteen stained glass panels repre- 
senting the Virtues. 

While the head office of the company is in 
Shanghai, China, the company is a British 
company, and all the directors and officials 
are British. The aim of the management and 
of each official has been, and is, to give to 
both Asiatic and European residents in Asia 
the benefits of life insurance in a company 
whose aflfairs are conducted according to the 
best traditions of the great British companies 



/,-. 



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,:32l_ 



^-'^cs^^-U^Si^^i;^:^^^^! 



^^m^^^^^^M 



KYODO FIRE INSURANCE COMP. 



ANY, limited: scenes in the company's offices— the TOKYO PREMISES 



f^b- 



1 






w,\ 



1} 




^#ii 



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:-V'J 









■'* '• <lj^g=- =i/'*'" '-i 



Xr 



>^-"' ^x 3^;.:;s^^^;^ ^ 






THE CHINA MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED: HEAD OFFICE (NO. ID CANTON ROAD, SHANGHAI) VIEW 

OF THE STAIRCASE FROM THE VESTIBULE — GLIMPSE OF THE MAIN OFFICE FROM THE 
VESTIBULE — VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE HEAD OFFICE 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



147 



in England and Scotland, with the conven- 
iences oflfered by the location of the head office 
in the East. Founded originally with the 
primary object of insuring residents in China, 
the company quickly grew, so that it now has 
policy-holders of every race both in Asia 
and in Europe, agencies in every part of the 
Far East, and has arranged facilities for the 
collection of premiums and the payment of 
claims in any part of the world. The policy 
adopted by the company in regard to the lives 
to be assured has also been followed when 
dealing with investments. The company's 
investments have been carefully made and 
judiciously spread over the world. In conse- 
quence of this geographical distribution of 
investments, this company has not suffered 
to nearly the same extent as many of its 
competitors from depreciation of securities. 
The Japan Agency, which is under the 
management of Mr. Charles Neill, was estab- 
lished in 191 1. Since the promulgation of 
the New Insurance Laws in December, 1912, 



the company has been licensed by the 
Imperial Japanese Government to transact 
the following plans of insurance in the Em- 
pire of Japan: Whole Life Assurances, En- 
dowment Assurances, Children's Endow- 
ments, Educational Endowments, Annuities. 

That the system of management of the 
company has been fully appreciated by the 
Japanese is evidenced by the promptitude 
with which approval has been granted to 
transact the plans of assurance referred to, 
and the remarkable success which has at- 
tended the company's operations in Japan. 

The chief office of the company in Japan 
is in Tokyo, at No. 3 Uchisaiwaicho, Itch- 
ome, Kojimachi-ku (opposite the Hypothec 
Bank), where a staff of twenty-five clerks 
is employed. Branch ofSces are estab- 
lished at Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osa- 
ka, Kobe, Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, Sasebo, 
Nagasaki, Tokushima, Tottori, Saga, Kum- 
amoto, Kagoshima, Utsunomiya, Sendai, 
Hokkaido, etc. 



NIPPON FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
LIMITED 

Established in 1892, the Nippon Fire 
Insurance Company, Limited, ranks amongst 
the oldest concerns of its kind in Japan. The 
head office of the company is at 12 Ginza 
Itchome, Tokyo, with branches and agencies 
throughout Japan and the Far East. The 
fact that the Kawasaki family, that runs the 
Kawasaki Bank, a leading private bank in 
Japan, are the largest shareholders in the 
Nippon Fire Insurance Co., Ltd., speaks 
volumes for the stability and financial stand- 
ing of the organisation. 

The company engages in all classes of fire, 
marine, accident, and burglary insurance, the 
last three named having been added to the 
company's activities at a comparatively 
recent date. As pioneer movements of a 
fire company and also as undertakings that 
satisfy the growing demand of the Japanese 
economic world, these latest enterprises are 
developing in a satisfactory manner. In the 




HEAD OFFICE OF THE NIPPON FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED, TOKYO 



148 



1' R E S E N T - D A V IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



report for the year ended March 31, 191", tht' 
volume of fire insurance showed an increase in 
value of Yen 137,317,000 over that of the 
previous year, and the premium receipts 
increased by Yen 123,660, the lower rate of 
increase in the latter being attributable to the 
downward tendency of rates ruling in Japan 
for some time past. The year was fortunateh' 
free from any serious conflagrations, and the 
company paid claims of Yen 589,523, being an 
increase of Yen 158,500 over the previous year 
In the Accident Insurance Department highly 
satisfactory results were recorded, thanks to 
the active development of industry recently, 
and the enforcement of the Factory Law on 
March 31, 1917. The Marine Insurance 
Department of the Nippon Company had been 
in existence only nine months, but, favoured 
by the marked activity' in the shipping trade, 
the volume of business totalled Yen 11,815,- 
784,yieldingapremiumincomeof Yen 1 13,640, 
as against an outgoing of Yen 28,115.00. It is 
fully expected that this phase of the com- 
pany's business will show a marked increase. 
The financial statements show the follow- 
ing balance for the year ending March 31, 
1917: 




.AIKOKU LIFE INSIR.^NXE COMP.\XY's BUILDING, TOKYO 



Assets 


Ll.^BILITIES 


Yen 


Yen 


Capital unpaid 2,250,000.00 

Cash in hand 689 . 49 

Deposits with banks 1,863,941 . 15 

Postal cheque and Giro account 7,222.18 

Bonds and stocks 1,258,453.00 

Real estate '?Q2,s68.83 


Capital subscribed 3,000,000.00 

Legal reserve fund 310,000.00 

Reserve fund (including premi- 
um reserve) i ,903,500 . 00 

Reserve for outstanding loss. . . 42,367.94 
Employees' pension fund 36,500 . 00 


Office furniture 4 944 96 


Dividend unclaimed 1,668.93 


Agencies' balances 71,097.82 

Sundry securities 472 . 60 

Bills receivable 57,688 . 04 

Accounts due to the company. . 83,242. 18 


Employees' guarantee fund 37,096 . 85 

Balance of re-insurance account 235,200.72 

Bills payable 30,629 . 44 

Profit 393.356 . 38 


Tola! Yen 5,990,320.26 


Total Yen 5,990,320.26 



The capital of the company is Yen 3,000,- 
000, of which Yen 750,000 is paid up, and the 
reserves amount to Yen 2,422,724.32 

The Board of Directors is as follows: 
Chairman, Mr. Hajime Kawasaki; Messrs. 
Jozaburo limura, Hachihemon Kawasaki, 
Raita Fujiyama, Seishichi Shikata, and Sin- 
ichiro Sakuma. The Auditors are: Messrs. 
Yoshihisa Usui, Tanejiro Kanazawa, Sakugoro 
Kobayashi, and Hiroshi Ando. 

THE AIKOKU LIFE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, LIMITED 

This rich and strong insurance enterprise, 
which ranks very high in Japan, was estab- 
lished in Tokyo in July, 1896, by a group of 
prominent business men included among 
whom were the present President, Mr. ^L 



Suzuki, Messrs. M. Kumakawa, T. Fujita, 
and G. Kishida of Tokyo; K. Hattori and 
H. Taniguchi of Kyoto; M. Takayasu, 
M. Nakano, and R. Kobayashi of Osaka, and 
K. Kato of the Aichi Prefecture, and many 
others equally well known in Japanese 
commercial and financial circles. The organ- 
isation was that of a joint-stock company 
with a capital of Yen 300,000.00, divided into 
6,000 shares of Yen 50.00 per share. Business 
was opened in February, 1897, the head office 
being situated at Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, 
branch offices being established at Osaka, 
Kyoto, and Nagoya. The first Board of 
Directors comprised the following gentlemen : 
President, Mr. B. Totsuka; Managing 
Director, Mr. I\I. Suzuki (now President); 
and Directors, Messrs. K. Hattori, K. Osumi, 



M. Nakano, M. Kumakawa, T. Fujita, 
R. Kobayashi, G. Kishida, T. Miura, and 
K. Sudo. Messrs. K. Kato, M. Takayasu, 
S. Tamamidzu, and Y. Kusaka were the 
Auditors. The Aikoku Company entered 
upon the following classes of insurance: 
Ordinary life, limited payment life policies, 
endowment policies, short-time installments 
for endowment insurance, endowment pol- 
icies with dividend, insurance for business 
capital, insurance for education and marriage 
expenses, insurance against infectious dis- 
eases. This latter class of insurance was 
discontinued in 1908 when the government 
introduced the preventive system against 
disease. A vigourous and broad poUcy of 
management was followed from the inception 
of the company's operations, and this re- 
sulted in a rapid extension of the business. 
Branches were opened throughout Japan in 
the following order: Osaka (April, 1897); 
Kyoto (March, 1897); Nagoya (January, 
1905 ); Sendai (Tohoku), November, 1903; 
Kagoshima (February, 1904); Kanazawa 
(August, 1904); Shizuoka (March, 1905); 
Yokohama (April, 1905); Kofu (Hokushin), 
June, 1905; Okayama (April, 1905); Keijo, 
Korea (June, 1908); and Kyushu (September, 
1909) . Besides these branches the company' 
has 954 agencies throughout Japan and its 
possessions. In 1903 the Aikoku extended its 
business to Seoul, Chemulpo, and Fusan, in 
Korea, and met with great success. Now 
the directors have under consideration a 
further extension to Taiwan (Formosa), Sag- 
halien, and China. 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



149 



The first dividend of the company was 
eight per cent, in 1898. This rate was con 
tinned until 1906 when the dividend in- 
creased to ten per cent per share and was 
maintained at this figure until 1914. In 1915, 
15 yjer cent was paid, and the dividend for 
19 1 6 rose to 25 per cent. The principal 
funds of the company at the end of 19 16 stood 
as follows: Liability Reserve Fund, Yen 
9,664,675; Fixed Dividend Fund, Yen 384,- 
995; Profit Dividend Fund, Yen 21,499; 
other reserve funds, Yen 158,534. At the 
end of the same period there were in force 
117,206 policies for a total insurance of Yen 
47,234,832. The company has received dur- 
ing its twenty years of existence premiums 
totalling Yen 18,299,866, and interest, Yen 
3,041,389. The total insurance paid for 
the same period was Yen 4,592,862. The 
gross expenditure for the twenty years was 
Yen 5,555.191- 

The present Board of Directors of the 
Aikoku Life Insurance Co., Ltd., consists of. 
President, Mr. M. Suzuki; Managing Direc- 
tors, Messrs. H. Shimidzu and M. Nakano; 
Directors, Messrs. G. Asayama, N. Miya- 
moto, R. Koedzuka, and S. Tamamidzu; 
Auditors, Messrs. Y. Hyodo and S. Shi- 
mada. 

The handsome new premises in which the 
company has its headquarters at 3 Yuraku- 
cho, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo, were completed 
in December, 191 2, when the old quarters 
in Nihonbashi-ku were vacated. 

THE KYOSAI LIFE INSURANCE CO.MPANY, 
LIMITED, TOKYO 

The Kyosai Life Insurance Co., Ltd., is 
one of the enterprises of the famous Yasuda 
family, and its organisation and management 
conform in every respect to the solid and 
conservative methods which have become 
associated with the name of Yasuda. The 
company was originally established in 1880, 
when it became the pioneer of life insurance 
companies in Japan. At the time of its 
establishment the company limited its oper- 
ations to accepting only five hundred in- 
surers and it became known as the Kyosai 
(Mutual Life) 500 Insurers Society. The 
organisation was changed to a limited lia- 
bility company in 1 894, and the business was 
enlarged to accept insurance subscriptions 
from the general public. Again the organi- 
sation was changed in April, 1900, and the 
company's name became the present one. 
Thus the Kyosai has thirty-eight years of 
experience, and it is generally recognised to 
be on 'a solid foundation and among the 
leaders of insurance in the Orient. The 
polic)' of the Kyosai Company is a wide and 
sound one. All speculation is avoided, and 



an earnest effort is continually being made to 
promote the interests of the policy-holder, 
for though the company is a joint-stock 
concern, it is really conducted as a mutual 
society. For instance, the company does 
not allow more than six per cent to be paid 



58,000,000.00, and the limited reserve fund 
against this was Yen 11,720,000.00. The 
Kyosai Company accepts only two kinds of 
life insurance business, namely, the ordinary 
and the special endowment policies with 
participation in profits. 




PREMISES OF THE KYOSAI LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED 



to shareholders and from five to fifteen per 
cent of profit has been deducted every year 
and deposited to the ordinary reserve fund. 
The greater part of all profits is distributed 
among the policy-holders according to the 
amount of the insurance policy. With such 
a system in force it is not surprising to learn 
that the company's business is growing 
annually, new contracts to the value of over 
Yen 10,000,000.00 being written and more 
then Yen 2,000,000.00 of premiums being 
earned every year. The amount of insurance 
in force at the end of 1916 was over Yen 



The head office of the Kyosai Company 
is at Kobuna-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokj'O. 
Branches are maintained in Tokyo, Osaka, 
Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Nagoya, Sendai, To- 
yama, Kyoto, Kob6, Otaru, Kagoshima, 
Dairen, Seoul, and Taihoku (Formosa). The 
Board of Directors comprises the following 
gentlemen: Messrs. Zenzaburo Yasuda 
(President), Zennosuke Yasuda, Zenshiro 
Yasuda, Yoshio Yasuda (Auditor), and 
Sunao Kono (General Manager). The fol- 
lowing is a sketch of the business progress 
of the Kyosai Co., 1894- 19 16: 



11 



ISO 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Years 


New 
Contracts 


Actual Con- 
tr.-\cts at the 
End of Year 


Revenue OF 
Premium 


Reserve 

Funds 




Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


1894 


1,016,000.00 


1,400,600.00 


36,540.00 


56,090 . 00 


1895 


2,43,1.300.00 


3,792,700.00 


95,461.00 


83.330 00 


1896 


3,048,700.00 


6,471,800.00 


214,262.00 


178,015.00 


1897 


2,586,900.00 


^,709,500 . 00 


293.307 00 


311,653.00 


1898 


2,290,700.00 


10,434,200.00 


400,343 . 00 


552,923.00 


1899 


1,962,300.00 


11,254,200.00 


396,265.00 


757,911.00 


1900 


2,501,000.00 


12,044,700.00 


423,644.00 


964,330.00 


1901 


1,887,600.00 


11,634,200.00 


424,729.00 


1,157,686.00 


igo2 


2,345,000.00 


11,914,300.00 


490,926.00 


1,385,600.00 


1903 


3,343,700.00 


13,680,300.00 


573,391 00 


1,670,042.00 


1904 


2,419,600.00 


14,167,000.00 


596,616.00 


1,958.243 00 


1905 


3,372,000.00 


1 5,940,400 . 00 


659,460.00 


2,284,851.00 


1906 


6,520,000.00 


20,652,300.00 


828,432.00 


2,765,162.00 


1907 


8,302,900.00 


26,456,500.00 


1,091,381 .00 


3.3''7.'''37-00 


1908 


8,078,900.00 


30,828,000.00 


1,343,022.00 


4,169,944.00 


1909 


6,704,500.00 


33,300,100.00 


1,495,870.00 


5,063,331 .00 


1910 


7,149,400.00 


36,479,400.00 


1,631,257.00 


6,077,298.00 


1911 


8,312,900.00 


41,102,200.00 


1,803,698.00 


7. 1 77.553 00 


1912 


10,985,300.00 


47,868,600.00 


2,071,888.00 


8,435,551 00 


1913 


10,929,300.00 


53,651,200.00 


2,243,982.00 


9,766,645.00 


1914 


9,686,100.00 


57,357,400.00 


2,278,239.00 


10,965,208.00 


1915 


8,317,400.00 


57,086,400.00 


2,278,375 00 


12,152,983.00 


1916 


8,726,500 , 00 


58,422,500.00 


2,391,146.00 


13,643,180.00 



THE FIRST MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, TOKYO, JAPAN 

This company is the first mutual life assur- 
ance concern ever established in Japan. It 
was projected by Mr. Tsuneta Yano, Ex- 
President I. A. J., F. A. S. A. and M. Cor. 
I. A. P., who is now its president. Mr. Yano 
was a professional physician and first con- 
nected himself with the life insurance business 
in 1889, as a competent physician of The 
Nippon Life Assurance Co., Ltd. At that 
time, almost aU life insurance companies of 
Japan were organised and conducted with 
the sole idea of making profits for the stock- 
holders, and as such a principle was con- 
trary to his own, Mr. Yano published a 
pamphlet in 1893, earnestly advocating the 
establishment of a life insurance company of 
a non-mercenary nature. 

To investigate the life insurance business 
abroad, Mr. Yano made a tour through 
Europe and America in 1895, returning home 
in 1897. In the year following, he entered 
the government serv-ice, and in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Commerce, and the 
Investigation Committee of Legislation, he 
devoted himself to the task of drafting the 
Assurance Law, containing various regula- 
tions for superv-ising insurance business and 
also private contracts governing mutual life 
insurance companies. 

In 1899, when the project of law had passed 
the Imperial Diet and had become law, a 
special section was first created in the depart- 
ment for its execution, and Mr. Yano was 



appointed the first Chief. At the close of 
1 901, Mr. Yano resigned his government 
position on his own account and took the lead 
in the movement for establishing in Japan an 
ideal mutual life insurance company', which 
inaugurated its business in October, 1902, and 
he is now its President. 



The business plan was drawn up princi- 
pally in accordance with Mr. Yano's idea. 
The chief features are briefly as follows: 
(a) The company does not entertain any 
life insurance contract below 1, 000 yen. 
The object is to curtail canvassing 
expenses, which are apt to grow too 
much, if smaller contracts are to be 
entertained, as was the case with some 
other companies when this company 
was established, entertaining such 
small contracts as 50 yen or 100 yen. 
(6) The company does not propose to have 
agencies or branches established, for 
the same reason as stated above, 
(c) As it is the original nature of a mutual 
life insurance institution, the company 
gives the policy-holders or members 
the right to participate in the manage- 
ment and entitles them to due share of 
its profits. It may be obser\-ed also 
that untU the First Mutual Company 
was established, few of the other com- 
panies had declared their dividends 
sufficiently to their poHcy-holders. 
There are now no less than thirty-seven life 
insurance companies, of which six are of 
mutual character. Even in the case of limited 
companies, they have now raised their stand- 
ard of the minimum contract to 300 or 500 
yen and there is none now that does not 
declare certain di\-idends to its contractors. 
The company is, however, the only concern 
that has neither agencies nor branches estab- 
lished anywhere. 




TOKYO premises OF FIRST MUTU.\L LIFE INSURANCE COMP.^NY 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



151 



As it will be very clearly seen from the fore- 
going statement, the company is an idea! 
mutual life insurance establishment, striving 
to do its utmost to give its members the light- 
est possible pecuniary burdens. The rate, 
both of expenditure and of surrenders of 
contract, is smaller than that of any other 
company. On the other hand, the new con- 
tracts do not increase as much as other 
companies. From a mercenary point of view, 
therefore, the company must be considered a 
very poor institution. This is because the 
company exerts itself to the utmost to become 
the best company, but not the largest one. 
All possible efforts have been made to curtail 
the expenses to a limit of ten per cent of the 
total revenue. 

The premium of the company is based upon 
the national mortality table and the assumed 
interest of 3.5 per cent. The premium reserve 
is of the net premium method and the premium 
for unexpired risk or simple unexpired premium 
is laid by gross in proportion to unexpired 
time. The dividend is paid out to each member 
every year on the basis of the total amount of 
premiums he has already paid up, while many 
companies declare their dividends according 
to the Tontin system, and such payment of 
dividend commences only when the polic\'- 
holder has paid in his fifth premium. The 



company undertakes to pay the dividend to 
the members continually for four years even 
after their death, so each member receives 
his dividend exactly as many times as he pays 
in his premium. The company has been pay- 
ing the dividend at the rate of three per cent 
per annum and consequently one's premium 
decreases year after year in arithmetical 
progression, ot the sum insured increases year 
by year in considerable amount according as 
the policy-holder applies the dividend to 
reduce his premium or to purchase an addi- 
tional insurance. 

The business record for the fourteenth 
fiscal year, from September I to August 31, 
191 6, and the financial condition at the end of 
the same fiscal year will be seen from the 
figures in the table below. 

Of these various items, the negotiable 
instruments and immovable property, if 
valued at the current prices, would no doubt 
amount to i ,400,000 yen more than the figures 
given in the Balance Sheet, and moreover the 
liability reserve, if calculated in accordance 
with the Zillmer's method, as in the case of 
many other companies, would make the 
liabilities decrease to the extent of some 500,- 
000 yen. The above stated surplus is chiefly 
paid off to the members of the company in the 
form of dividends. 



Insurance Issued and 
Revived 


Deaths 


Lai'sed 


Insurance in Force 


Number of Policies . 3,503 
Amount Yen 5,221,400 


224 
Yen 354.343 


1,179 

Yen 1,726,622 


22,455 
Yen 35,276,041 



Premiums Received 


Interest of Various Kinds 
Received 


Business Expense 


Yen 1,469.715 


Yen 436,729 


Yen 185,775 



Assets 


Liabilities 


Yen 


Yen 


Unpaid fund 75 000.00 


Fund . . 100,000.00 


Cash 6,627.25 

Post office book transfer savings 

account 14,621.23 

Bank deposits 1,677,984.12 

Loans 497,410.39 

Securities 3,275,827.10 

Real estate A8o,';7q.'?J. 


Reser\-e fund 100,764.74 


Liability reserve 4,877,228.72 

Reserve for dividend surplus 

from insurance 376,163.63 

Current reserve . . . 32,407.26 


Amount brought over from pre- 
ceding term of fund for divi- 
dend 0.76 


Outstanding account 20,693.83 

Building account 66,514.30 


Total Yen 6,115,057.56 


Caution 15,205.55 




Surplus 505,57544 




Total Yen 6,1 15,057.56 



TEIKOKU SEIMEI HOKEN KAISHA (tHE 
IMPERIAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, limited) 

This company was established on March i 
1888, under the auspices of the present 
President, Mr. A. Fukuhara, with the coopera- 
tion of Messrs. J. Koaze, I. Matsumoto, K. 
Ito, and T. Kakara. It is indeed the oldest 
institution of its kind in Japan, and dates back 
to the time when insurance was almost un- 
known in the Empire. The original capital 
was Yen 300,000. Headquarters were estab- 
lished at Horidome-cho, Nichome, Nihonbashi- 
ku, Tokyo. When the Imperial came into 
existence the general conception of insurance 
among the Japanese was of the most primitive 
nature and not only did the promoters of the 
new enterprise find great difficulty in securing 
shareholders in the company for such a com- 
paratively small amount of capital, but when 
once they had started business they found the 
task of securing policy-holders to be almost 
insurmountable. Canvassing was a very 
tough proposition in those days. However, 
with the passage of time and the education of 
the people to the benefits of insurance the 
initial difficulties disappeared, and since then 
the company has steadily increased its busi- 
ness. Early in its career the old offices were 
found to be too small for the volume of busi- 
ness transacted and the company removed to 
Himono-cho, Nihonbashi-ku. 

At the outset Mr. Koaze occupied the office 
of President of the company, but three years 
later Mr. A. Fukuhara took his place, and 
under his personal and painstaking efforts the 
business was rapidly developed, many branch 
offices being opened, not only in Japan but in 
Korea and Manchuria. By the end of 1893 
the total of insurance had reached to over Yen 
10,000,000. In November, 1897, after the 
close of the Chino- Japanese War, the economic 
condition of Japan showed unusual activity, 
and business was so good that the Imperial 
increased its capital- to Yen 1,000,000. The 
buoyant condition of affairs showed itself in 
the greater demand for insurance and the 
company's policies amounted in total to Yen 
20,953,200 by the end of 1898. It was after 
Mr. Fukuhara's return, in June, 1900, from an 
extensive tour of Europe and America, during 
which he made a comprehensive investigation 
into insurance matters in three countries, that 
important reforms took place in the Imperial's 
system of doing business. The participation 
in profits idea was introduced, and was an 
entirely new thing in Japanese insurance 
circles. Other improvements were also 
effected and proved highly acceptable to the 
poUcy-holders and the general pubUc, so that 
a strong demand arose for the Imperial's 
policies. The business had by now expanded 
so vigourously that the offices had to be 




»g^^^^^ty^:^i^^S^>«r^|:^^ 



'^ 



PLANT OF THE TAKASAGO INDUSTRY COMPANY, LIMITED, TOKYO — OFFICES AND WORKS OF THE NIPPON YUSI KABISHIKI 
KAISHA, YOKOHAMA PREMISES OF THE TAKASAGO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



153 



removed to the present large building at No. 
16 Oofuku-eho, Nihonbashi-ku, on October i, 
1902. During the Russo-Japanese War of 
1904-5 the Imperial, in common with all other 
companies, received an inevitable setback 
through the death of so many policy-holders, 
but after the restoration of peace a reaction 
set in. Trade was good and prosperity general 
throughout the country. The Imperial made 
special efforts to strengthen its position and 
succeeded, its business expanding by leaps 
and bounds, as may be judged from the fact 
that there was a sudden increase in the 
amount insured, reaching a total of Yen 
53,997,100. Since 1909 the company's busi- 
ness has been steadily developed along the 
best lines, its financial stability becoming 
more and more marked each year. Branches 
were opened on a wide scale to take care of the 
exterior development of the business. The 
branches are in Tokyo, Osaka, Sendai, 
Fukuoka, Sapporo, Kanazawa, Nagoya, 
Hiroshima, Seoul, Taipeh and other impor- 
tant cities, together with 26 sub-branches and 
over 1, 1 00 agencies throughout Japan and her 
dependencies. The company has also ex- 
tended its influence to China. 

According to the balance sheet of December 
31, 19 1 6, the total contracted insurance was 
Yen 113,991,650, with the reserve fund 
amounting to Yen 21,297,292. Since the 
inauguration of the business Yen 15,904,817 
has been paid to beneficiaries under policies. 
Such unrivalled prosperity as has attended 
the operations of the Imperial Insurance 
Company must very largely be attributed to 
the rare character and ability of the President, 
Mr. Fukuhara, who has laboured for over 
thirty years to promote the welfare of the 
organisation, no less than to the sound 
system on which the company operates. 
This system aims at conferring the largest 
possible benefits on the policy-holders, and 
they, in their turn, have shown that they 
heartily appreciate the company in which 
they have placed such confidence. 

THE TAKASAGO LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, LIMITED 

This is one of the three companies under 
the Presidency of Mr. K. Hara, who is also 
the head of the Takasago Industry Co., Ltd., 
and of the Nippon Yusi Kabushiki Kaisha. 
When the Takasago Insurance Co., Ltd., was 
formed it was decided to give it a policy widely 
different from those of most life insurance 
companies, and the principles of a joint-stock 
organisation and those of mutual life com- 
panies were cleverly blended. Whatever big 
profit there might be, the dividend to the 
shareholders is limited to six per cent of the 
capital, and the rest is credited to the policy- 
holders, while on the other hand, in the event 



of losses lieing sustained they would be borne 
by the shareholders, and would not fall on 
the insured. With a view to maintaining the 
company's financial stability, and to insure a 
steady business policy, over half of the paid- 
up capital is deposited with the Imperial 
Government, and the Directors have also 
under consideration a scheme to deposit with 
the Treasury, the responsibility fund, which 
is to be set aside for the benefit of the policy- 
holders. 

The Takasago Life Insurance Co., Ltd., 
handles insurance of two kinds, namely, 
whole life insurance, and endowment maturity 
insurance with participation in the profits. 
Under the latter class of policy, an endowment 
for twenty years, taken out at the age of 30, 
would mature for a gross sum of Yen 1,501.53, 
profits representing Yen 301 .53 and bonus on 
maturity Yen 200. The premium for such a 
policy would be Yen 52.90. Similar profits 
and bonus accrue to the insured under the 
whole life policies when the insured is alive at 
certain ages. The capital of the Takasago 
Life Insurance Co., Ltd., is Yen 500,000. The 
head office is at No. i Sojurocho, Kyobashi-ku, 
Tokyo, and there are branches at Osaka, 
Fukuoka, Hokkaido, Fukushima, Nagoya, 
Kyoto, Kob^, Hiroshima, and Kanazawa. 
This company is particularly fortunate in its 
Board of Directors, which includes some of 
the best known men in business and financial 
circles in Japan. Mr. Hara is President and 
active Manager, assisted by Mr. K. Ikeda. 
The Directors are Viscount J. Ito, and Messrs. 
S. Sato, K. Kita, D. Sayegusa, and N.Tatsu- 
zawa; Auditors, Count M. Okudaira and 
Messrs. Y. Toshida and T. Kimura. In 
addition there is an advisory council com- 
prising Viscount M. Kurushima, Baron T. 
Ozawa, Dr. T. Okamura, Dr. K. Keto, and 
Messrs. H. Kawase and K. Yegawa. 

TAKASAGO KOGYO KABUSHIKI KAISHA 
The rapid industrial development of Japan 
has given rise to many subsidiary commercial 
enterprises, many of which are no doubt 
destined to reach great importance, especially 
as their activities are being availed of for 
production of materials for which there is not 
only a permanent local market, but a strong 
demand in foreign countries owing to the war. 
Among such enterprises is the Takasago 
Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Takasago 
Industry Co., Ltd.), which in a very short 
space of time has developed an extensive and 
valuable business in the manufacture of chem- 
ical products. The company was formed on 
July 1, 19 16, its founders being such well 
known commercial men as Messrs. K. Hara, 
N. Hasegawa, and others. The nominal 
capital is Yen i ,000,000.00, of which Yen 360,- 
000.00 has now been paid up. Prior to its 



organisation as a limited liability company 
the concern had been in operation as a partner- 
ship under the style of the Dainihon Denka- 
kogyosho, with Mr. Hara at its head and 
Mr. Hasegawa managing its operations. 
Before long it became the Takasago Kogyo- 
sho, and finally was reorganised as a kabushiki 
kaisha. The Takasago Company is princi- 
pally engaged in the manufacture of potas- 
sium chloride, the capacity at the time of 
writing being over 500 tons per annum, though 
this output is continually being increased. 
Other chemicals, drugs, and dyestuffs are 
being turned out in rapidly growing quantities. 
The head office and works of the Takasago 
Industry Company, Ltd., are at Osaki-machi, 
Ebara-gun, Tokyo-fu, and a branch is 
established at Azuma-machi, Minamikat- 
sushika-gun, Tokyo-fu. The offices and works 
of the company cover an area of 4,242 tsubo. 
About ninety hands are employed. The 
principal local consumers of the products of 
the different works are the match manufactur- 
ing companies, and an export trade is being 
done with England, America, Russia, China 
and other countries. This trade will be 
enlarged as the company's operations extend 
and the capacity of the plants is increased to 
embrace the manufacture of gelatine, and 
other chemical products. The officers of the 
Takasago Industry Co., Ltd., are: President, 
Mr. K. Hara; Managing Director, Mr. N. 
Hasegawa; Directors, Messrs. K. Ohashi, 
D. Saegusa, and S. Yamaguchi. 

THE JINJU LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
LIMITED 

The origin of this company dates back to 
September 28, 1894, when a limited partner- 
ship was formed by Count N. Matsudaira, 
Viscount Y. Toda, Messrs. T. Nishimura, 
R. Minomura, S. Imamura, I. Tojo, K. Fukiji, 
Baron S. Tsuji and others. Business was 
opened on October 5,imder the presidency of 
Baron S. Tsuji. After some years of opera- 
tion the company was taken over by Mr. D. 
Shimogou, a wealthy merchant, and in 
December of 19 15 it was reorganised as a 
joint-stock company with a capital of Yen 
1,000,000. By a sound and conservative 
policy the business has shown a steady 
improvement, and the credit and reputation 
of the Jinju Life Insurance Co., Ltd., have 
spread throughout the country. At the con- 
clusion of 1916 the insurance in force was over 
Yen 40,000,000, and the various reserve funds 
stood at some Yen 7,500,000. The minimum 
amount of a policy issued by the company is 
Yen 300, and the maximum Yen 30,000. 
The premium in any class of insurance is 
the lowest that can possibly be charged. In 
1909 the company inaugurated the system of 
participation in profits for policy-holders to 



154 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



the amount of Yen 500, provided they have 
maintained their insurance fora period of five 
years. The bonus for profits is allotted every 
five years. In many directions this company 
has shown itself progressive, adopting new 
and sound ideas to give the policy-holders 
the fullest benefits. 

The principal officials of the Jinju Life 
Insurance Co., Ltd., are: President, Mr. 
Denbei Shimogou; Directors, Messrs. H. 
Yoshizawa, H. Okawa, Toratoro Shimogou; 
Auditors, Messrs. M. Hirose and Y. Kadono; 
Medical Adviser, Professor Shu Miyake; 
Councillors, Viscount N. Matsudaira and 
Mr. E. Tanaka, and Manager, Mr. T.Tamaki 
The head office of the company is at No. 
3, l-chome, Uchisaiwaicho, Kojimachi-ku, 
Tokyo. There are branches and agencies 
throughout the Empire of Japan. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF 
COINAGE IN JAPAN 

By DR. VOSHIMASA KOGA, F. C. S., 

Chief Assayer at the Imperial Japanese 

Mint, Osaka 

IN the most ancient times, ornamental 
stone beads, silk, linen, and grain appear 
to have served the purpose of money in Ja 
pan. Later, Chinese cash or coins were used 
as currency. In the reign of Temmu Tenno 
(673 A. D.) silver coins are said to have been 
current. The first authentic imperial coins, 
or cash, were, however, cast about 708. 
These are highly prized and called by numis- 
matists the Twelve Ancient Cash. They are 
the following: 

1. Wa-do-kai-chin 708 a. d. 

2. Man-nen-tsu-ho 760 

3. Jin-ko-kai-ho 765 

4. Ryu-heici-ho 796 

5. Fu-ji-shin-ho 818 

6. Jo-wa-sho-ho S35 

7. Chone-tai-ho 848 " 

8. Nyo-yeki-shin-ho 859 " 

9. Jo-kwan-ri-ho 870 

10. Kwan-pyo-tai-ho 890 

11. En-gi-tsu-ho 907 " 

12. Ken-gen-tai-ho 958 

A gap of six centuries separates the period 
at which the imperial coinage ceased and the 
period when national coinage was resumed. 
In the early part of this long interval grain, 
linen, and silk formed the bulk of the currency. 
Gradually, however, Chinese cash was 
imported and became the chief standard of 
value. Gold and silver in the form of small 
ingots or grains were also in use. 




MR. H. IKEBUKLRO, DIRECTOR OK THE 
I.MPERI.^L MINT, TOKYO 

The coins of Taiko (about 1588) were of 
gold and silver and became the nuclei 
aroimd which the Tokugawa system of 
coinage was elaborated. In this latter 
system as it was first instituted in 1601, gold 
alloyed with silver in the form of thin oblong 
plates, and also of thicker rectangular plates, 
was struck with mint dies and made the 
currency by tale, while silver alloyed with 
copper was cast into small ingots of varying 
weights and stamped with mint marks. 
These were current by weight, instead of by 
tale as in the case of gold. It was, in fact, a 
peculiar case of bimetallism, if it may be so 
called. 

In cotirse of time it came to pass that the 
extravagance of the court or the exigencies of 
the state more than once placed the finances 
of the government on the brink of bankruptcy, 
and each time the temptation to replenish the 
coflfers of the state by the debasement of 
coinage was too great to be resisted by the 
officials. In such a system of bimetallism the 
ratio of value assigned to the precious metals 
was not apparent to the iminitiated, and it 
was comparatively easy for the officials of a 
despotic government to multiply the number 
of coins at the expense of their intrinsic value, 
without danger of exposure. Accordingly, 
we find coinage ordered on no less than eight 
occasions in the course of 270 years of Toku- 
gawa power. Each time standard coins 
dwindled in weight and fineness. The silver 
currency, which passed by weight, shared a 
similar fate, having the proportion of base 
metal increased, until finally the old stand- 
ard of Keicho silver, which was 800 in i ,000, 



found itself debased in Ansei silver to but 
130 in 1,000. The coining of silver into 
pieces of definite weight began in 1765, and 
thenceforward a number of silver coins were 
issued, each issue witnessing a gradual 
diminution in weight. 

The system of coinage in the last days of 
tlie Tokugawa government comprised the 
following coins: 



Gold 



Form 



V.\I.UE 



Koban Oblong i ryo 

Oban Oblong 10 and 25 ryo 

Nibu-kin Rectangular K ryo 

Ichibu-kin Rectangular )4 ryo 



Nishu-kin 


Rectangular 


M ryo 




Silver 


Form 


V.\LUE 


Ichibu-kin 
Nishu-kin 
Ishu-kin 


Rectangular 
Rectangular 
Rectangular 


'i ryo 

H ryo 

' I'fi ryo 



In this system silver in ingots, or shots, was 
valued at I ryo per 60 momme. 

There is another set of gold coins, interest- 
ing in their having a general resemblance to 
the coins of Western nations. These are the 
so-called Koshyu-kin, round struck pieces, 
forming by themselves a series quite distinct 
from the standard coins of Tokugawa. They 
were current in the Province of Koshyu, or 
Kai, in the early period of the Tokugawa 
government, and were not the state coinage 
of the latter. Some of them were of an older 
date than the rise of Tokugawa. 

We now turn for a moment to the later 
history of cash, which was the money par 
excellence of the people. The Tokugawa 
government put a stop to the use of Chinese 
or other cash, and in 1636 ordered the casting 
on a large scale of a new cash called Kwan-ei- 
tsu-ho This cash was manufactured in 
various places and at diflferent times down 
to about 1826. Iron cash of the same type 
as of copper was also cast and circulated in 
the declining days of Tokugawa. An oblong 
brass cash called Ten-po-sen, as well as 
round cash called Bunkj'u-sen, were also 
current at the latter period. 

As already described, the currency of the 
country at the time of the Restoration of the 
Imperial Government was in a state of chaos, 
and measures were taken without delay to 
establish a perfect system of imperial coinage. 
A single gold standard was adopted in the first 
coinage system, promulgated in June, 1 871. 
In this system i-J^ gram of fine gold was 
made the unit of value called yen. 

The coins were of foiu"teen denominations, 
namely: Standard gold coins, 900 fine: 20-yen, 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



^00 



lo-yen, 5-yen, 2-yen, l-yen; silver coins, 800 
fine: 50-sen, 20-sen, lo-sen, 5-sen; silver coin, 
900 fine: l-yen for trade use; copper coins: 
2-sen, J'^-sen, l-rin. 

In the course of a few years the Govern- 
ment found it quite difficult to maintain the 
single gold standard, when the law was so 
modified as to have the appearance of a 
double standard, although as a matter of fact, 
silver became eventually the only standard. 
This state of things was continued until after 
the war with China, when the receipt of the 
war indemnity in gold made it possible for 
Count (now Marquis) Matsukata, then 
Minister of Finance, to successfully adopt the 
single gold standard in the new Coinage Law 
of March, 1897. By this change, the old 
gold coins were valued at double their face 
value, and a new series of gold coins nominally 
the same as the old, but weighing only one- 
half, was issued as the standard coins. No 
change was made in silver coins except that 
the I -yen silver coin was demonetised. By 
this alteration, the old mint ratio of gold to 
silver was doubled, so that when in 1905 the 
market price of silver rose so far as to overreach 
the mint ratio, the Government was induced to 
reduce the weights of silver coins. This was 
effected by the amendments of the Coinage 
Law in April, 1906, in the case of 50 and 20 
sen, and in March, 1907, in the case of the 
lo-sen coin. 

A nickel coinage of 5 sen had been intro- 
duced into the coinage system in 1888. In 
1897, bronze was substituted for copper coin- 
age. Further, in 1916, a perforated nickel 
coinage was adopted by the Law of February 




ENTRANCE TO THE IMPERIAL PAL.\CE, SHOWING THE MOAT 



20th, which also reduced the weights of 
bronze coins. 

The weights, fineness, and diameters of the 
coins as at present issued are shown below. 

COINAGE AND REFINING 
Any person may take his gold to the 
Imperial Mint for coinage, provided the 
weight of the bullion is over 100 niomme 
(12,956 ozs. troy). The coinage is free for 
any amount. Usually on the third day after 



Metal 


Denomination 


Weight 

GRAM 


Fineness 
per mil 


Diameter 

MM. 


Gold 

Silver 

Nickel 

Bronze 


20-yen 

lo-yen 

5-yen 

50-sen 
20-sen 
10-sen 

5-sen 

(perforated) 

I -sen 

5-rin 


16.6666 

8-3333 
4.1666 

10.125 
4-05 
2.25 

4-275 

3 ■ 75 
2 . 10 


900 
900 
900 

800 
800 

720 

Nickel, 250 
Copper, 750 

Copper, 950 
Tin, 40 
Zinc, 10 


28.8 
21 .2 
17.0 

27-3 
20.3 
17-6 

20.6 

23.0 

18.8 



the deposit at the mint, the depositor receives 
from the mint a memorandum on the out- 
turn of his gold, which is calculated according 
to the mint assay on the basis of one yen per 
0.2 momme or 0.75 gram of fine gold. The 
depositor signs the deposit receipt and returns 
it to the mint, when he will receive in turn a 
coin certificate for the entire amount, which 
is payable at once at the Osaka branch of 
the Nippon Ginko (Bank of Japan). 

Silver is coined into subsidiary coins only 
on government account. 

When the bulUon has to be parted and 
refined, it is subject to parting and refining 
charges for the silver content only, at the 
rate of from 0.20 yen to 0.74 yen per 100 
momme of fine silver contained, the rate 
varying according to the proportion of base 
metal in the bullion. No bullion contain- 
ing more than 50 per cent of base metal 
is received for parting. At the end of 
fifteen or twenty days, according to the 
amount, the silver parted is returned to the de- 
positor, who disposes of this ingot as he 
may choose. The gold content in refinable 
bullion is paid for in coin certificate as in the 
case of gold deposit. 




HOLSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



X. The City of Tokyo 

Origin, History, and Development — The New Tokyo — Municipal Administration— Tokyo 

Finance— Future of Tokyo— Commercial Notices 



TOKYO, the capital of the Empire, is 
not remarkable for antiquit}- as that 
word is understood in Japan; for, 
down to mediaeval times, Yedo, as the city was 
originally called, had not arisen above the 
level of a seaside hamlet, the ground whereon 
the city now stands being then a wilderness 
washed by the sea or occupied largely by 
marshes and lagoons. That the site in early 
times was frequented by primitive tribes is 
clear from the sheU mounds and evidences of 
ancient sepulchre that have been imearthed in 
various wards of the city, but to what race 
or races these early inhabitants belonged it 
is now impossible to determine. All that is 
known of the origin of the settlement is that in 
the fifteenth centurj' a tiny fishing village 
named Yedo, meaning estuary gate, was found 
standing on the shore near the mouth of the 
Sumida River. The headman of the hamlet 
was one Shigetsugu, a descendant of one of the 
eight great famiUes of the Heik^ clan, whose 
father was a henchman of the great Yoritomo 
at Kamakura, who then dominated the entire 
plain of Musashi. With the rise of the Hojo 
regency the military power began to shift from 
Kamakura to Odawara, and .then Yedo was 
left to its own resources. Thereupon Ota 
Dokwan, a vassal of the Uyesugi family, 
seized the advantage to establish a fortress 
there, the forerunner of the shogun's palace, 
and of the Imperial Palace of to-day. 



ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND DEVELOPMENT 
Doubtless so expert a tactician and mas- 
ter at arms as Ota Dokwan selected the site 
for its strategic advantages, since it lay be- 
tween the embouchures of three rivers drain- 
ing the hinterland and having their sources in 
mountains which constitute natural battle- 
ments. A centiuy and a half later the eagle 
eye of Hideyoshi easily perceived this and en- 
trusted the place to the care of leyasu, head 
of the Tokugawa clan, who, when he became 
shogun in 1603, made Yedo the administrative 
capital of the Empire. The new government 
inaugiirated important improvement sin every 
direction, rapid development followed, and 
soon a great and flourishing city began to 
rise, absorbing the site of the former hamlet. 
The extensive swamps and marshes were 
drained by canals w'hich still do valuable 
service in the city's system of drainage and 
communications; and large sections of the 
sea front were reclaimed, imtil the sea, which 
originally had its boundary at the present 
Hibiya Park, had receded to the limits now- 
known as Tsukiki, half a mile away. No 
change, however, was more remarkable than 
that which was wrought in the palace of the 
shogun and its en\'irons. Few sites would 
have seemed less favourable for the erection 
of a fortress than Yedo, for no stone suitable 
for the construction of battlements was within 
many miles, while the subsoil presented great 



difficulties for foundations. Y'et in a verj' few 
years, using forced labour and enlisting the 
competitive aid of feudatories, the shogun 
succeeded in constructing a castle surrounded 
by a double line of moats, the inner measuring 
4,800 yards and the outer 8,700, and both 
ha\'ing scarps and coimterscarps composed of 
huge blocks of chiselled granite transported 
oversea from quarries some sixty miles 
distant. The scarps were crowned with lofty 
banks of greensward, over which drooped 
graceful pine trees, mirrored in the waters of 
the moat beneath. The water for these 
moats, as well as for the city itself, was carried 
by an aqueduct, a triumph of engineering 
skill, from the upper reaches of a river thirty 
miles away. The mansion of the shogun him- 
self stood in a fair park within the inner moat, 
revealing, as the place still does, one of the 
most beautiful landscape gardens in the 
world ; while all around the western boundary 
of the castle precincts the shogun had his 
feudal lords build their yashiki, or town \illas, 
where they had to reside with their families 
one out of every two years, and always leave 
their wives there, as a guarantee of their 
loyalty to the shogun. This regulation 
bringing all the great barons to the shogun's 
capital was in itself sufficient to change 
greatly the appearance of the city; for they 
soon began to vie with one another in the 
erection of stately mansions and the keeping 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



157 




VISCOUNT INAJIKO TAJIRI, MAYOR OF TOKYO 

of large retinues of servants, living in imposing 
state. In Yedo now centred all the admin- 
istrative and financial interests of the nation, 
and the prosperity of the city was assured. 
The floodtide of immigration to the shogun's 
capital became so great that it had to be 
strictly prohibited, and thousands were 
repatriated at the expense of the goveniment 
to prevent congestion of population. In the 
centre of the city, surrounding the palace of 
the shogun, there was nothing but the beauti- 
ful landscape gardens of the barons; while all 
around them were the miserable hovels of the 
common people, with gorgeous Buddhist 
temples and mortuary shrines rising here and 
there to relieve the dead monotony of the 
insignificant and contemptible wooden huts 
of the lowly, whose unrequited toil had raised 
the endless walls of the shogun's fortress. 
Frequent conflagrations decimated the city, 
licking up the flimsy shanties of the poor as so 
much tinder; but the capital was always 
rebuilt on a more improved scale. Thus 
matters continued until the downfall of the 
shogunate, when the feudal barons were free 
to return to their estates, to which their 
retainers began to follow them, the two million 
inhabitants of Yedo dwindling almost to one- 
half that number. The beautiful mansions 
were demolished and the fair gardens turned 
to desolation, making blots to break the 
continuity of the once populous city. 

THE NEW TOKYO 
With the decision of the Emperor to make 
Yedo his new capital and the removal thither 
of the imperial residence came about a com- 
plete reversal of fortune to the city. The 
departing population began to return and 
newer and more wholesome prosperity to 



prevail everywhere. Before the fall of the 
shogunate and the abolition of feudalism it 
had long been recognised that Yedo was a 
better site than Kyoto for the capital of the 
Empire, as being more centrally situated and 
less open to attack. The new government, 
therefore, had no hesitation in deciding to 
remove the capital from Kyoto; and when the 
>-oung Em[)eror made his first visit to Yedo, 
in 1 868, it had already been ordered that the 
name should be changed from Yedo to Tokyo, 
or Eastern Capital, in contrast with Kyoto, 
the old Western Capital. The following year 
His Majesty removed permanently to the new 
capital, and from that time rapid changes and 
improvements went on in all directions. 
Mansions, schools, official buildings, and 
great banks and shops began to rise all over 
the capital. A new municipal administration 
was established in 1872 and city boundaries 
were delimited, wards laid ofl, and a postal 
system inaugurated. Soon the dark streets 
of the capital began to be lighted with gas, 
and railways to run north and south, connect- 
ing with distant places. It was not long until 
all the ajjpointments and conveniences of 
Occidental cities appeared in the new capital 
of Japan. 

In the year 1917 Tokyo celebrated its 
jubilee as the capital of the Empire. One can 
not look back over those fifty years without 
being impressed by the remarkable changes 
that have taken place. There has been 
phenomenal advancement politically, com- 
mercially, socially, educationally and in 
almost every other way. A system of street 
widening has been carried out that could 
hardly have been possible outside of Japan, 
some of the main thoroughfares having been 
widened thirty feet for a distance of several 



miles, which has greatly facilitated communi- 
cation and improved the appearance of the 
metropolis. Dredging and riparian works ot 
various kinds have been carried out on rivers 
and canals, and large sections of the sea front 
reclaimed; while the street railways have been 
taken over by the municipality, and the 
general administration of the city placed on a 
thoroughly modern basis. The two greatest 
needs, namely, a modern system of sewage 
and a good harbour, though under contempla- 
tion, have not yet been fully realised. Indeed, 
Tokyo for the most part has still the appear- 
ance of a city in transition from old to new. 
Its one hundred square miles of area are now 
occupied by some two and a half millions of 
people, filling the busy streets with scenes that 
present the old life and the new in vivid 
juxtaposition. On one street the eye falls on 
lines of houses in ancient style, lowly, sombre, 
and unattractive, with annexes of unshapely 
fireproof rooms for the safeguarding of valu- 
ables; while in the next street one sees hand- 
some, lofty edifices of brick or stone, as 
imposing as are to be found anywhere. The 
patter and rattle of wooden clogs is drowned 
by the sweep of the electric tram or the rush of 
the overhead train, while the eye gazes at rows 
of old-fashioned, open-fronted shops with 
their unalluring array of strange goods, only 
to turn a corner and come upon great plate 
glass windows resplendent with foreign wares 
and exquisite examples of native art. In the 
distance looms the factory chimney, belching 
forth its black mass to stain the crystalline 
purity of the atmosphere that bathed old 
Yedo, — if at that time the city was less dusty 
than to-day. Without any proper system ot 
watering the streets, when the wind is high 
the dust amounts to a veritalile sandstorm 




TOKYO MUNICIPAL OFFICE 



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III 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



159 




MOAT iW THE IMPERIAL PALACE, SHO\VIN(, THE SUPREME CdlKI HITLDINCS IN THE DISTANCE 



while the inhabitants, in desperation, with 
wooden ladles dip up putrid slime from the 
surface sewers and try to allay the dust, thus 
covering the streets with filth that soon in 
turn becomes dust to be again breathed before 
it can be allayed. 

The following figures will show the growtli 
of Tokyo during the last thirty years: 



Year 



Population 



1887. 
1897. 
1907. 
1917. 



. 1,200,000 

1,365,06s 

.2,063,828 

.2,500,126 



If, however, the population of the suburbs, 
not included in the city limits, be taken into 
consideration, the number of inhabitants 
would be well over 3,000,000. 

MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 
During the three hundred years of its 
history the city has passed through various 
stages of development, each of which may 
fortunately be regarded as an improvement 
on the last; but it was not until within the 
last one hundred years that the municipality 
began to show any general disposition toward 
autonomy. In the days of the shogunate the 




headquarters of the TOKYO METROPOLITAN POLICE 



city was partly under the authority of the 
bakufu, as the adminstration of the shogun 
was called, and partly under what was known 
as the machikaisho, a body representing the 
property holders of each ward. This system 
was replaced by the yeizenkaisho, a sort of 
Board of Works, in 1873, which had the 
general supcr\'ision of the city's interests. 
After the city assumed the name of Tokyo in 
1868 and became the Imperial capital, a 
municipal government was appointed, obtain- 
ing the governor's sanction for the election of 
city councillors and other officials. At this 
time the administration was divided into two 
branches: one for the discussing and planning 
of city improvements, and the other for 
executing such plans, as well as attending to 
the various departments involved in city 
government. Herein lay the germ of the 
modern municipal administration that later 
came into existence. Subsequently, when 
the city was placed under the management of 
the prefectural authorities, the development 
of autonomy received a decided check, but 
happily there soon took place a complete 
reorganisation of cities, towns, and villages 
throughout the Empire, when Tokyo again 
experienced further reforms insuring a greater 
degree of self-government. The citizens of 
Tokyo, however, were not yet satisfied with 
the degree of local autonomy conceded, and 
began to agitate for complete independence of 
municipal government, finally gaining the day, 
when a mayor was appointed and city alder- 
men and officials elected as in Western 
countries. The first mayor was the late 
jMr. Hideo Matsuda, who was succeeded by 
the Hon. Yukio Ozaki, followed by Baron 
Sakatani, Dr. Okuda, and the present mayor. 
With modernisation of city government the 
modernisation of the city itself went on more 
rapidly and efficiently. A new City Assembly 
came into office, consisting of seventy-five 
members, who represented the will of the 
citizens, presided over by the mayor, and in 
addition there is the Municipal Council, 
which consists of the mayor, the deputy 
mayors, and members elected from the City 
Assembly. Each city ward has its own 
council as well, which decides all the business 
pertaining to the ward. The mayor has the 
general supervision and control of the whole 
city administration, and all subordinate 
powers do duty under him. The three 
deputy mayors have each several departments 
to supervise, as follows: (i) General affairs, 
education, finance, and street improvements; 
(2) Sanitation, water works, commerce, 
industry, and statistics; (3) Public highways, 
bridges, rivers, harbours, and construction and 
repairs. Other and independent departments 
are the Electric Bureau for the management 
of lighting and rapid transit, improvement of 



i6o 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



water supply, tree planting, asylums, hospi- 
tals, charities, and libraries; while various 
additional committees take into consideration 
such problems as appointment of inspectors of 
hygiene and sanitation, investigation of 
harbour and other improvements, education, 
commerce and industrial interests. 

TOKYO FINANCE 
In recent years the finances of the city of 
Tokj'O have shown remarkable expansion, 
especially since the war with Russia, thus 
keeping pace with the rapid development of 
the city; and although the outlay has more 
than doubled, especially since the acquire- 
ment of the city tramway system, the revenue 
has also greatly increased, and by curtail- 



ment of expenses it is usually possible to meet 
the requirements. The fiscal statement last 
published shows a revenue of 34,607,143 yen, 
with an expenditure of 33,901,833 yen, which 
is quite a change from some years ago, as 
mav be seen from the following figures: 



Ye.\k 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1899 


6,254,246 


3.355.340 


1906 


7.998,224 


4,428,034 


1912 


91,671,016 


83.'7«.,34« 


1 9 1 6 


34,607, 14s 


33.901,833 



Though the finances of Tokyo show so great 
an expansion, owing to the municipalisation 
of the tramways and the extensive improve- 
ments undertaken, the burden of taxation has 



not correspondingly increased, due chiefly to 
rapid increase in the wealth of the city, 
especially in property-value and population. 
Taxation has been further relieved by resort- 
ing to loans. In addition to the domestic 
loan of 1 88 1 amounting to 10,000,000 yen 
for street improvements and the putting in 
of a modern water system, there is the foreign 
loan of 1907 amounting to 14,580,000 yen 
at five per cent, raised for riparian and street 
work; and a further foreign loan of 91 ,750,000 
yen at five per cent for the purchase of the 
city tramways. Thus the present foreign 
indebtedness of the city is something over 
100,000,000 yen, and a domestic loan of 
10,000,000 was added in 1917. The bonds 
for city improvements are to be redeemed 



1 
































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'•'•^ 




theatre. AS.\KUS.\, TOKYO — MIDWAY TO ASAKUSA TEMPLE, TOKYO 



J 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



i6i 



within the next ten years by annual payments 
of 729,000 yen; while the tramway bonds will 
be all redeemed within thirty-six years by 
annual redemptions to the value of 5,405,000 
yen. For other much needed improvements, 
such as the extension of the water system 
and the tramway lines, the putting in of a 
modern sew'age system, improvement of 
streets, dredging of rivers and reclaiming of 
lands, the erection of school buildings and 
numerous other essentials of modem progress, 
the city authorities are forming a reserve 
fund, to which will be added each year's 
surplus revenue. The citizens of Tokyo 
have, nevertheless, to bear a weight of taxa- 
tion at least two and one-half times greater 
than it was ten years ago, as may be seen 
from the following table, which includes city 
tax only and not prefectural tax, equal to 
about as much more: 



of the whole city; (2) a Modern Sewage 
System in accordance with the laws of sani- 
tation; (3) a General Improvement of city 
streets, putting down proper jjavements and 
sidewalks, with facilities for allaying dust; 
(4) Harbour Construction; (5) Electric Tram 
Extensions and Lighting Services, and lastly, 
(6) Improvement in Facilities for Relief and 
Moral Reform of the Defective. 

The present water system of Tokyo, based 
on an old one constructed three hundred 
years ago, which brings water from the Tama 
River over a course of some thirty miles 
through an old canal, is quite inadequate to 
the needs of modem Tokyo. The total 
length of distribution piping in the city is 
about five hundred miles, supplying about 
1,500,000 people. The amount spent in 
construction of the system so far is about 
10,000,000 yen; bvit to carry out the extcn- 



Year 


Additional 
Taxes 


Special 
Taxes 


Taxes for 
Streets 


Total 




Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


1898 

1905 
1910 

1915 


760,000 

856,000 

2,1 13,000 

1 ,605,000 


116,000 
588,000 
520,000 


347.000 
345.000 
671,000 
691,000 


1,108,000 
1,318,000 
3.373,000 
2,817,000 



The figures in the following table will 
indicate the items in revenue and expenditure 
for Tokyo in 1916: 



sions contemplated a further outlay of 
20,000,000 yen will be required, as nearly 
two hundred miles of streets have still to 



Item 



City general account 

Employment agencies 

Workliouses 

Labour industries 

Reclaimed land 

Street improvements 

Sewage system improvements 

Sewage and riparian improvement fun' 

Waterworks 

Public works loan 

School buildings 

Special fund 

Fire relief fund 

Electric railways 

Electric Ughting 

Electric works property 

Total 



Revenue 



Yen 



5.619.703 

8,150 

209,259 

38,360 

347,331 

1,151,819 

1,007,067 

1,500,358 

4,688,617 

1,206,753 

827,339 

16,725 

64,760 

11,511,001 

2,545,851 
3.863,950 



34,607,043 



Expenditure 



Yen 



5,619,703 

8,000 

209,259 

31,860 

Ii8„338 

1,151,819 

1 ,007,067 

1,500,358 

4,688,617 

748,784 
827,339 

4.927 
64,760 

11.357.463 
2,699,389 
3.863,950 



33.901,833 



FUTURE OF TOKYO 
The development of Japan's capital into 
a completely modern city depends largely 
on how effectively the six great enterprises 
which the authorities have in view can be 
carried to completion. These consist of 
(1) a Water System adequate to the needs 



be laid with submains. The work is to be 
completed within the next seven years. 

Perhaps Tokyo's most crying need is a 
modem sewage system. At present most of 
the city is drained by surface sewers, though 
underground mains have been laid in certain 
important sections of the city. The new sys- 



tem is estimated to cost about 40,000,000 yen 
and will take ten years to complete, the 
expense to be met by loans, government 
subsidy, and taxes. 

Though much has been done on the way of 
street improvement the majority of the 
city's streets are still narrow and without 
sidewalks. There are some six hundred 
miles of streets, ranging from fifty feet to a 
few yards, the average width being about nine 
yards. Some three hundred miles of these 
streets have been singled out for widening, 
but the process goes on very slowly. The 
work is hampered by lack of funds and the 
high price of land. Most of the streets so far 
broadened have been for the purpose of 
affording facilities for electric tram exten- 
sions. In the course of the last twenty years 
Tokyo streets have been embellished with 
miles and miles of cherry trees, and now such 
streets are not only shady in the hot months 
of summer but bathed in an atmosphere of 
pink and white bloom in April. A marked 
feature is that all the houses visible to 
the eye are the small dwellings of merchants 
and the office buildings that dominate them, 
the more beautiful residences being all 
packed away behind walls where no one but 
the owners can ever get a glimpse of them. 
Nowhere are to be found public parks sur- 
rounded by the mansions of the great; no- 
where are to be seen the residences of gentle- 
men forming any integral portion of the city. 
The higher classes of Japan segregate them- 
selves from the common people as much as 
possible. 

Nothing, perhaps, haS' produced a greater 
change socially and in many other ways in 
Tokyo, than the electric tram system, taken 
over by the city from the private companies 
in 191 1. The car lines, traversing as they 
do the main thoroughfares of the capital, 
necessitated the pulling down of many old 
l>uildings, the erection of new ones, as well as 
the straightening and widening of the 
streets; while the enormous increase in traffic 
and population, brought about by improved 
facilities of locomotion and cheap fares, has 
resulted in a great extension of labour, trade, 
and social intercourse. In the old days the 
inhabitants of one section of the vastly 
spread-out city knew little or nothing of the 
people of other parts of the city. Travel, 
being expensive, was not much practiced. 
Now for the small fare of five sen the poor 
can be carried to any part of the city, and the 
labourer's residence is independent of his 
place of work; and the consequence is a 
rapid extension of the city toward the 
suburbs, the present rate being over 114 per 
cent annually. The present mileage of 
tramway is about 160, and in the near 
future some 200 miles in all will have been 



1 62 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OI' JAPAN 




(Left) Mr. S. Takata, President of the Well Known House of Takata & Co. — (Upper, Centre) Baron K. Okura, President of the 
Important Firm of Okura & Co., Ltd., Tokyo — (Lower, Centre) Mr. K. MuRAi, Director of the Meiji Trading Co., Ltd., and President 
of the Murai Bank, Ltd. — (Right) Mr. BuEi Nakano, Late President of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce, an Enterprising and 
Progressive Business Man 



laid down. The number of passengers car- 
ried per day is about 674,000, the average 
daily income from passengers is about 
24,000 yen, and the average rides per unit of 
the city population annually are no. In 
further extension of ways and lighting the 
sum of 18,000,000 yen is to be expended. 

Elaborate plans are under way for the 
construction of a harbour for Tokyo, but for 
lack of funds these have so far been post- 
poned. The scheme involves an outlay of 
36,700,000 yen; and in 1914 the Harbour 
Works Committee passed a resolution to 
spend the sum of 6,580,000 yen as an initial 
outlay spread over four years, the limit of 
outlay to be 20,000,000 yen in all. There 
is to be an inner and an outer harbour with 
cormecting canal, the inner to have an area 
of over 4,000,000 square feet and a depth of 
from 15 to 25 feet. 

In the matter of charity and poor relief 
Tokyo is not very well off, there being but 
one almshouse, a city infirmary, a municipal 



labour exchange, and no hospital for the 
insane. In Japan, as a rule, the poor and 
the insane have to be cared for by their 
friends, and sometimes dangerous lunatics 
are left to commit appalling outrages. In 
connection with the almshouse there is a 
reformatory for incorrigibles, and the city 
also has a home for orphan children, which 
has about 2,000 inmates. The reformatory 
receives some 150 children annually. The 
city further maintains a sanitorium at Awa 
for sick homeless children, which takes care 
of over 120 little ones in a year. The Tokyo 
Charity Hospital affords treatment to some 
14,000 patients annually. At the Municipal 
Labour Exchange those out of work or lodg- 
ings can be taken care of over night and be 
provided with something to do. It shelters 
about 100 lodgers a night and receives about 
13,000 applicants for work every year. The 
city has no lunatic asylum, but entrusts its 
insane to private institutions if they are 
dangerous enough to need restraining, the 



average number in care of the city being 
about 500 out of a total of over 800 in the 
municipality. 

Tokyo has a great many places of historic 
and scenic interest, but it would require a 
volume to recount all that could be said about 
them. Its palaces, mansions, embassies, 
schools, government buildings, and theatres 
can be no more than mentioned. The great 
banks, commercial and manufacturing com- 
panies of the capital will be found duly 
noticed elsewhere in this volume. Tokyo 
clubs, hotels, and restaurants are a feature 
of some interest, too. There are three foreign 
hotels at present; and there is to be a new 
Imperial Hotel which will be the finest in 
the Far East. The shrines, temples, parks, 
and bridges form another unique feature of 
Tok>'o. The city has some sixty canals 
crossed by hundreds of bridges; and the 
famous Nihonbashi, or Bridge of Japan, is in 
the heart of the metropolis, all points in the 
Empire being measured from there. The 



^t^ 





fe^l 



iallll" 



SHANGHAI BRANXH OPP.CE OF THE MITSU BISHI COMPA^•Y- MITSU BISHI 2ISt BmLmN;G - KOBE BRA>XH O^^^^^ BISH. 

COMPANY — MITSU BISHI BANK BUILDING AND GENERAL AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT, TOK\0 (SEE DESCRIPTUE ARTICLEb IN 

SHIPPING SECTIONS, XI AND XLXl) 



164 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



three great lungs of the city are Shiba Park 
where stand the tombs of the Tokugawa 
shoguns, Uyeno Park which was formerly a 
temple enclosure, and Hibiya Park which is 
the only one laid out after Western fashion. 
There are eighteen other parks of smaller 
extent, and the authorities frequently pro- 
mote the extension of open spaces in the city. 
As the Imperial Capital, Tokj'o is the gayest 
spot in all Nippon, with every form of enter- 
tainment and -pleasure that the human mind 
can desire or devise. Geisha and other 
pleasure houses abound; and the night is 
turned into day with feasts and jeles of every 
description. The night side of the capital 
is a theme in itself, though more of interest 
than edification. As the Japanese do not 
entertain in their homes, the city restaurants 
do a thriving business, and professional 
entertainers usually are in great demand. 
There is a huge wrestling theatre in the centre 
of the city, built of stone and ribbed steel, 
capable of accommodating thousands of 
spectators to see the semi-annual exhibitions 
and contests of the great national game. In 
Tokyo, ever>- month has its round of feasts 
and festivals, — religious, floral, or having 
patriotic associations. 

THE MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA 
As a great commercial and financial house, 
the Mitsui Bussan Kabushiki Kaisha, or 
Mitsui & Co., Ltd., the English equivalent 
of the Japanese name, can certainly take rank 
with the largest and most influential enter- 
prises in any part of the world, and in point 
of age it antedates most of the best known of 
old family merchant houses. The founda- 
tions of the enormous business now controlled 
by this company were laid over two centuries 
ago by Takatoshi Mitsui, who founded the 
Mitsui Exchange House at Osaka, Kyoto, 
and Yedo (now Tokj'o), and really estab- 
lished the first banking system of Japan. 
The Mitsui Bank is to-day one of the leading 
financial institutions of the Empire, with a 
capital of Yen 20,000,000 and deposits of well 
over Yen 124,000,000. 

In a general review of Mitsui cS: Co., Ltd., 
it is not possible to go into every detail of 
the operations of the old established house, 
unless the writer is to take much more space 
than is at his disposal. The Mitsui Bank, 
great institution though it is, is only one phase 
of the company's enterprises. There is also 
the Mitsui Kozan Kaisha, with a capital of 
Yen 20,000,000, engaged in mining on a huge 
scale, and there is the better known Mitsui 
Bussan Kaisha, or trading department. This 
latter is run as a distinctly separate under- 
taking from the Bank and the Mining Com- 
pany, though of course, the guidance of all 
three is in the hands of the Mitsui family. 



which has maintained control of the entire 
business through the two centuries that have 
elapsed since the foundation of the old 
Mitsui Exchange House, or Bank. 

The Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, or trading 
company, is in itself a huge and widely 
ramified merchant undertaking, the business 
comprising practically every line of trade 
conducted either in Japan or between Japan 
and foreign countries. This separate branch 
of the Mitsui interests was formally organised 
in 1876, the firm putting its power and 
resources into the new concern to make it 
one of the most powerful and influential 
commercial organisations in the Empire. 
Thaf- the effort has been extraordinarily 
successful, nobod}' who knows the commerce 



and industry of Japan can deny. What this 
success really signifies may be seen from 
the statement that close upon 25 per cent of 
the entire foreign trade of Japan is handled 
through the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, and 
although the company has its own fleet of 
over twenty modem steamers, it is still one 
of the biggest buyers of freight space in the 
world, the list of chartered vessels, alone 
running into scores. 

The company is the leader in the raw silk 
trade of Japan, shipping nearly 100,000 
bales in the course of the year. In the coal 
trade, also, the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha is pre- 
eminent The company controls half a dozen 
of the best collieries in Japan, and in 1916 
handled 8,500,000 tons of bunker and cargo 




NIHONBASHI STREET, TOKYO. OFFICES OF THE MITSUI GINKO, THE MITSUI GOMEI K.USUA. 
AND THE MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA ARE SEEN ON THE LEFT. THE PALATIAL 
MITSUKOSHI STORE RISES ON THE RIGHT 



PRESENT-DAY I M I' R IC S S 1 O N S OF JAPAN 



165 




PRESIDENT AND DIRECTORS OF THE TOKY<l STOCK EXCHANGE 

(Upper Row, Left to Right) Mr. Shimpei Tsunoda, Vice-President — Baron Seinosuke Goh, President — Mr. Raita Fujiyama, 
Director, and President of Tokyo Chamber of Commerce. 

(Lower Row, Left to Right) Mr. Unosuke Yamaguchi, Director — Mr. Tahee Mayekavva, Director, and President of the Bank of 
Tokyo — Mr. Komanosuke Eguchi, Director. 



coal, or approximately 40 per cent of the 
entire output of the country. It is to be 
expected that such a huge and well organised 
concern would have been the pioneer of 
many branches of Japan's foreign trade. 
This is so, for the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha was 
the first to export the highest class of Japanese 
rice, in which thej- do an international busi- 
ness. They were the first exporters of Man- 
churian beans to Europe, and also introduced 
Hokkaido lumbers to America and the Con- 
tinent. The company also claims to have 
been the first house to bring American and 
Indian cotton into the Japanese market, and 
they are now recognised as the largest buyers 
of this staple. 

The import business is conducted on the 
same huge scale as the export of Japanese 
natural and manufactured products. In the 
list of imports one finds steamers, ordnance, 
locomotives, steel bridges, rails, electric and 



other machinery, metals of all kinds, wheat, 
flour, foreign rice, and in fact every line of 
merchandise that is required in Japan. The 
many subsidiary enterprises conducted by the 
company include the operation of a cotton 
mill at Shanghai, in conjunction with influ- 
ential Chinese capitalists, various vegetable 
oil factories and so on. Throughout Japan 
proper and Chosen and vSouth Manchuria, 
the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha is very strongly 
represented, the branch houses in each impor- 
tant commercial centre practically controlling 
commerce and industry' in their respective 
territories. Abroad, the Mitsui Bussan 
Kaisha maintains its own offices in such cities 
as London, New York, Lyons, Petrograd, 
Vancouver, Singapore, Bombay, Calcutta, 
Shanghai, Sydney, and San Francisco. The 
head office is in Tokyo. 

The Directorate of the Mitsui Bussan 
Kaisha comprises Messrs. Genyemon Mitsui, 



President; Y'onosuke Mitsui, Managing Di- 
rector; Dr. Takuma Dan, Messrs. Senkichiro 
Kayakawa, Kikusaburo Fukui, Masajiro 
Fujise, and Sutejiro Odagaki. The Auditors 
are Messrs. Takakiyo Mitsui, Sankichi 
Komuro, and Tomoyoshi Mashima. 

MITSUKOSHI 
Mitsukoshi, the greatest amd most 
famous Department Store in the Far East, 
where everybody goes for everything and 
gets it, was started as an enterprise of the 
noted Mitsui family, whose commercial his- 
tory goes back some three hundred j-ears. A 
family whose business integrity and efficiency 
has commanded the respect and confidence of 
a nation for so long is naturally successful 
in its enterprises, and none of its ventures 
has been more so than this vast emporium of 
retail trade known as the Mitsukoshi. Xo 
one visiting Tok>-o thinks the city has been 



12 



[66 



PRESENT-DAY I M 1> R 1<; S S I O M S OK J A P A M 




NIHONBASHI BRIDGE, OF INTEREST AS THE CENTRE OF TOKYO AND THE POINT FROM WHICH ALL DISTANCES IN JAPAN ARE MEASURED 



fully explored without spending half a day 
at the Mitsukoshi, where everything needed 
in the ordinary course of life can be pur- 
chased. Constructed of beautiful white 
brick, the Mitsukoshi has an imposing 
exterior in Renaissance style, with two great 
bronze lions guarding the main entrance, 
modelled after those at the base of Nelson's 
pillar, London; while the interior, finished 
and furnished in the most palatial manner, 
for convenience and general accommodation 
combines the best features of such great stores 
as Selfridge's in London and Wanamaker's in 
Philadelphia, together with some unique 
Japanese adaptations that make for native 
efficiency and comfort. On entering the 
emporium Japanese footgear is removed and 
slippers put on, while foreign boots are cov- 
ered with overshoes supplied at the door 
and easily slipped on; for the floors of this 
commercial palace are covered with soft, 
clean native matting, which must never be 
soiled. Indeed, one of the most remarkable 
features of a visit there is to see hundreds of 
gay ladies and gentlemen moving noiselessly 
about the spacious departments engaged in 



the most interesting of all occupations, that 
of purchasing the best for the most reasonable 
price and getting just what is wanted. The 
grand court leading from the main entrance 
at once gives an impression of expansiveness 
and refinement, with its lofty pillars, deco- 
rated balconies, and great central dome in 
richly colored glass, the general tone being 
cream and white, while in the distance the 
eye rests, charmed, on the magnificent flights 
of marble steps leading up to the various 
floors. All about are waiting floor-walkers 
and clerks to afford every courtesy in giving 
information, the guest being at once person- 
ally conducted to any department desired. 
The appointments of the Mitsukoshi Depart- 
ment Store are among the latest that science 
and invention have produced, including fire- 
proof structure, a mail chute and lifts for the 
convenience of customers, pneumatic cash 
and parcel tubes, modem ventilation, auto- 
matic sprinklers, smoking room, tea room and 
up-to-date restaurant. The main floor of 
the building is chiefly occupied with travel- 
lers' requisites, such as toilet articles, per- 
fumes, gentlemen's furnishings, boots and 



shoes, trunks and bags and provisions of all 
kinds, domestic and foreign. Here also is an 
office for the purchase of wedding presents, 
for which there is always an immense demand 
on Mitsukoshi; and if one fails to make a 
choice, a commercial money order can be 
purchased and sent to the bride so that she 
may make her own choice. The second floor 
is given over to dress materials of everj' 
texture and pattern. Here the exquisite 
silk and other fabrics from Japanese looms 
may be seen to better advantage than possi- 
bly anywhere else in the world; and from the 
time the store opens until closing time the 
elite of Tokyo, in their matchless native 
gowns or ^!mo?;o, maybe seen moving silently 
about like fair>' beings, to the intense interest 
of the foreigner. There is perhaps no better 
place in Japan to see the wealth and beauty 
of the land. The third floor is devoted to 
things foreign, especially tailoring, jewelry 
and so on, while the fourth floor has a fine 
selection of foreign and native furniture, all 
made in Japan, and as select and artistic as 
can be seen in New York, London, or Paris. 
On this floor also is situated the children's 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



167 




VIEW OF NIHONBASHI-DOKI, FROM THE TOP OF THE MITSUKOSHI DEPARTMENT STORE 



department with every kind of toy imagi- 
nable. After doing three floors of this 
immense space one feels inclined toward 
refreshments, and a fine room for this pur- 
pose is near at hand, with every viand that 
the appetite can crave. The fifth floor is 
taken up with objects of fine art, where one 
can examine and purchase such national 
masterpieces in sculpture, painting, lacquer, 
porcelain, pottery and metal work as can 
seldom be found elsewhere. Here art exhi- 
bitions are frequently held and lectures given 
by authorities on their various subjects. 
Above all is the famous Mitsukoshi roof gar- 



den, in beautiful native landscape style, 
where from June to September tea is served 
and a band plays daily to 'the delight of the 
happy, talking crowds that frequent it. 
From the roof garden one may have a match- 
less view of the great city, in the centre of 
which the Mitsukoshi store stands. To 
witness the numbers of gay Japanese ladies 
at the Mitsukoshi restaurant or in the roof 
garden, and hear the band rendering its 
classical or native airs, is to realise that in 
Japan shopping is not the solemn, anxious 
thing that it appears to be in some countries. 
All goods purchased are delivered promptly 



anywhere the customer desires. Thus the 
great store, founded in 1673 by the greatest 
of Japan's merchant princes, has gone on 
prospering, enjoying the patronage of princes 
and nobles and even of the Imperial Family, 
as well as people of all ranks and countries, 
until to-day, with its thousands of employees 
and its vast array of the best that Japan and 
all other countries can produce, it has become 
the greatest single public supplier in East 
Asia, with branches in various parts of the 
Empire and its colonies. It is difficult to 
calculate the influence of one such great 
institution as this. 






TRANS-PACIFIC LINERS MOORED AT THE YOKOHAMA DOCKS 

XL Shipping 

(Yokohama and Tokyo Section*) 

History of Japanese Shipping— The Modern Era— The Position before the War- 
Leaders OF the Industry— Capital Invested— Government Subsidies — 
The Shipbuilding Industry— Harbours- 
Commercial Notices 



IF sea power is a necessary corollary of 
national greatness, then in no other 
respect has Japan made such tremendous 
strides toward national grandeur as in her 
attainment of sea power. It is indeed ques- 
tionable whether any nation in history has 
ever developed such marine strength so 
rapidly as Japan has done, and this is true 
both of her war fleets and her merchant 
marine. Her navy ranks in fighting strength 
amongst the first five of the world, and her 
merchant fleet must be the third strongest. 
On this latter point, however, no conclusive 
statistics are available during the war. We 
can only approximate Japan's position from 
figures given by world authorities up to the 
end of 191 5, and from general facts disclosed 
since then regarding the shipbuilding pro- 
grammes of the various nations. When these 
facts are related, and reasonable conclusions 
are derived from them, it will be recognised 
that Japan's position among the maritime 
powers, considering the brief time that has 
elapsed since she set out to have a merchant 
fleet, is quite as wonderful as any other 
*See page 717. 



feature of her evolution from Oriental isola- 
tion and obscurity, to her present status 
as a modem nation. 

HISTORY OF JAPANESE SHIPPING 
It is hardly necessary to state reasons why 
Japan should naturally be a great maritime 
power once she elected to march with Other 
nations along the path of progress. We 
have only to realise that the people are 
islanders, and to take cognisance of certain 
other historical and ethnological and geogra- 
phical facts, to understand that every element 
of maritime greatness was at least latent in 
the case of Japan. 

The origin of the Japanese people has not 
yet been clearly defined, but that they were 
a seafaring race as far back as the time 
when they became a distinct people, apart 
from the mass of human beings, there is no 
reason to doubt. Whether, as some scien- 
tists suggest, they came from the islands of 
the Southern Pacific, or whether they mi- 
grated from nearer lands, the spirit of adven- 
ture was in them, and they must have 



possessed as sound a knowledge of the art of 
navigation of those times as any other 
Oriental race possessed. We may, at least, 
imagine the great armada of rude junks, or 
sampans, in which they set out to conquer 
the islands, then inhabited by the Ainu or 
more savage tribes, and at once our imagi- 
nation suggests a hardy Viking spirit, that 
must in the fuUness of time disclose itself in 
a fondness for the sea, and the capacity to 
do and dare on the trackless ocean. 

Two thousand years ago the Japanese were 
sea-rovers. That indisputable fact is trace- 
able in Oriental history. They were quite 
as capable navigators as the Chinese, and 
they fared forth as far as the Chinese ever 
did either in search of trade, or as bold sea 
robbers. The Japanese na\'igators of those 
times penetrated as far south as the Malay 
Archipelago, and it is more than probable 
that they also voyaged to India. Later the 
nation carried on organised sea war, and in 
the early history of Japan there are records 
of more than one expedition to Korea, and 
other parts of the mainland, to make war, 



PRESENT-DAY IMI'RI<:sSIONS OF JAPAN 



169 



or to sustain Japan's national interests in 
other ways. In the sixteenth century, the 
Dutch and Portuguese found the Japanese 
to be a sea-faring people, their coasts being 
thronged with junks, and some degree of 
trade being maintained between the islands 
and the mainland. The arrival of the Euro- 
pean ships aroused great interest amongst 
the Japanese, who were not slow to recognise 
the superiority of the three-masted, high- 
decked and castled galleons of the Dutch and 
Portuguese. The Japanese were also im- 
pressed with the skill of the foreigners in the 
management of their ships. There is in the 
Tokyo Imperial Museum an old painting by 
a Japanese artist depicting a scene which can 
only be representative of the arrival of a 
Portuguese or Dutch ship, and the landing 



of goods for trade. The artist has with fair 
accuracy portrayed the general appearance 
of the vessel, and her rigging, but has allowed 
free rein to his imagination of the agility of 
the crew. Sailors are shown among the 
ropes and up the shrouds in all manner of 
extraordinary acrobatic feats. One man is 
hanging by his toes, another is proceeding 
hand over hand from the mizzen to the main, 
and a third, rivalling any modern rope 
walker, is airily waltzing along a stay at a 
dizzy height. 

The first lessons received by the Japanese 
in shipbuilding according to European ideas 
were given by the Dutch, some of whom 
settled at Nagasaki, in the service of the 
Japanese authorities of the time, and taught 
the art of ship construction. There are even 



now one or two Japanese yards which were 
originally established at that time, and 
received state aid or influential patronage 
in order that they might build modern ships. 
But this foreign influence upon Japan was 
only passing. Reaction against European 
civilisation set in, and Japan lapsed once 
more into seclusion, all intercourse with 
foreigners being forbidden, and the benefits 
of the brief period of acquaintance with 
Western civilisation being nullified by official 
insistence upon an entire reversion to native 
ideas. Thenceforward, until the arrival of 
Commodore Perry's fleet in 1854, the Japa- 
nese, except those of the northern, or other 
far distant fishing villages, never saw a 
modern ship. Whaling vessels sometimes 
touched at Hakodate, but their reception 




SHIPPINO M.\GNATES 

(Upper Row) Mr. Ryoso Asano, Director, Toyo Kisen Kaisha — Mr. K. Hori, President, Osaka Shosen Kabushiki Kaisha — Mr. J. 

Ya.maoka, President of Osaka Chamber of Commerce and President of Osaka Iron Works. 

(Middle Row) Mr. J. Itami, Co-Managing Director, Nippon Yusen Kaisha — Mr. Soichiro Asano, President, Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 

Asano Shipbuilding Yard, Ltd., and Asano Portland Cement Co., Ltd. — Baron R. Kondo, Japan's Foremost Shipping Magnate, 

President, Nippon Yusen Kaisha and the Nisshin Kisen Kaisha — Mr. K. Matsukata, President, Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd. — • 

Mr. Y. Ito, Managing Director, Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 

(Lower Row) Mr. K. Nakashima, Director, Toyo Kisen Kaisha — Dr. T. SuDA, Vice-President, Nippon Yusen Kaisha — Mr. Y. 

Kawasaki, Vice-President, Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd. 



lyo 



PRESENT-DAY I .M P R H S S 1 C) N S O F J A P A N 



was so unfavourable as to compel the United 
States to despatch Perry to try to negotiate 
for better treatment on the pari of the 
Japanese. 

THE MODERN ERA 

After the opening of the treaty ports to 

foreign trade in the late fifties, the Japanese 

soon began to aspire to the possession of 

modem sailing vessels and steamships. 



schools were opened, and students were sent 
abroad to learn engineering and navigation. 
Still for the first twenty years of Japan's 
modern history as a maritime nation, it was 
a rare thing to find Japanese in command of 
even the smallest vessels, most of the ship- 
masters being British, Scandina%-ian, or 
American. 

The growth of the Japanese mercantile 
marine kept pace with the development of 




A SCREEN UPON WHICH ARE DEPICTED THE EIRST IMPRESSIONS OF A JAP.\NESE PAINTER 

OF THE ARRIV.\L OF A FOREIGN TRADING VESSEL IN THE SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURY. IN THE IMPERI.\L MUSEUM, TOKYO 



companies were rapidly drifting toward bank- 
ruptcy. An amalgamation of most of these 
coastal shipping concerns was effected in 1884 
when the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, one of the 
three largest Japanese shipping companies 
to-day, came into existence. It was also 
about this time that the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha w-as formed to open up foreign serv- 
ices, the inducement offered by the Imperial 
Government being the granting of subsidies 
under conditions that insured the enterprise 
being entirely Japanese. 

To trace every step in the development of 
the splendid merchant service which Japan 
has is not possible within the scope of this 
article, nor is it necessary to deal with the 
various legislative enactments by which the 
Government has directed the shipping policy 
of the countrj'. It is sufficient to say that the 
Government has always maintained the 
closest control over and direction of the ship- 
ping industrj', and has pursued a simple 
policy of creating a merchant marine entirely 
Japanese in every detail. Navigation schools 
are maintained, both ashore and afloat, and 
there are engineering colleges and similar 
institutions in w'hich the highest technical 
training is afforded. Perhaps more in Japan 
than in any other maritime country is this 
matter of training for the sea a state business. 
By means of subsidies and special considera- 
tions of other kinds a big oversea traffic was 
built up before the w-ar. One of the first 
legislative steps taken for the protection of 
Japanese shipping firms was, of course, the 
shutting out of foreign vessels from all coastal 
irafhc, as is the case in the United States and 
some other countries. 



The era of enlightenment began with the 
reign of the late Emperor Meiji in 1868, and 
one of the first things decided upon was that 
Japan must possess a merchant marine. 
Already there were in existence a number of 
firms, or private owners of ships, the vessels 
being acquired from foreigners and being 
manned by them. Some of the Japanese 
merchants who had a keen eye to the future 
developments of the shipping trade, entered 
upon rather extensive purchases for those 
times. The more ambitious of them tried 
the experiment of officering their ships with 
Japanese, but the results were frequently 
disastrous, and it was soon recognised that 
there was a vast difference between owning 
a ship and successfully running it. It was 
then that the Japanese Government took up 
the problem of fitting its own people for the 
ownership and management of modem ships. 
Foreign shipmasters were engaged for the 
dual purpose of commanding Japanese-owned 
steamers, and for training young Japanese 
to become officers. Government nautical 



the foreign trade of the country. With 
their natural quickness to assimilate new- 
ideas the Japanese were apt pupils of their 
foreign teachers. The Government and the 
merchants sensed the great possibilities 
before the shipping industry, and there was 
also a strong urge of pride toward the building 
up of a merchant marine that should be solely 
and wholly Japanese in all respects. Up to 
about 1880 Japan's merchant service con- 
sisted almost entirely of small vessels, more 
or less antequated, and practically little or 
no overseas trade w-as done in Japanese 
bottoms. The shipping industry flourished 
in coastal waters, particvdarly in the Inland 
Sea, and from 1875 on many new companies 
came ifito existence, to compete for the water- 
borne traffic from port to port. The com- 
petition became so keen, and freights were 
cut so low, that presently the Government 
had to demand the cessation of the rate war. 
Ships were under-manned, so badly out of 
repair and so recklessly run that serious 
accidents were common, and the various 



THE POSITION BEFORE THE WAR 

This brief and hurried survey of the grow-th 
of Japan's merchant marine has brought us 
down to the period just before the outbreak of 
the European War. Some idea of the develop- 
ment of Japan's shipping interests is obtain- 
able from the following table, showing the 
leading maritime nations in 1900 and 1915: 



I. 
2. 
3- 
4- 
5- 
6. 

/• 
8. 

9- 
10. 



Nation 




Great Britain 
United States 
Germany. . 
Norway. , . 
France. . . . 

Japan 

Italy 

Holland... 
Austria. . . 
Sweden . . . 



14,261,254 

2,750.271 

2,650,033 

1,640,812 

1,350,562 

574.557 

983.655 

530,277 

416,084 

637,272 



Tonnage 
1915 



! 1, 274,068 
5,892,639 
4,706,027 
2,529,188 
2,285,728 
1,826,068 
1.736,545 
1.522,547 
1,018,210 
1,122,833 






49 
114 

78 
54 
69 

2l8 

77 

187 

145 
76 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



171 




ISittmmmtt^m 



■iNiMillWIfMMI 



In this list Japan stood sixth, and showed 
the greatest percentage of increase in the 
fifteen years. What her position is to-day 
can only be roughly estimated. She has been 
Ijuilding and buying ships as fast as she could 
throughout the war, and her losses by sub- 
marine warfare have been very slight, so that 
she must be in a much better position in the 
scale of ship-owning nations than she was two 
years ago. At the end of September, 19 17, 
the Department of Communications, which 
is responsible for the control of shipping, 
reported that there were 308 tramp steamers 
aggregating 805,405 tons. To that figure 
must be added all the tonnage of such great 
passenger and mail lines as the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, as well as 
the tonnage engaged in the coastal and 
general passenger and freight trade, the 
Department's figures applying solely to those 
vessels which shipping men know as"tramps," 
or ships with a kind of roving commission, 
/. e., not plying regularly on any particular 
ocean service. If Germany's merchant ma- 
rine be eliminated from calculations, Japan 
must to-day stand third amongst the mari- 
time powers, and her tonnage would be little 
short of 2,500,000. 

LEADERS OF THE INDUSTRY ' 
The three leading shipping firms of Japan 
are the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, the Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha, and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha. 
The two former are the oldest of the well 
organised companies, and each has a history of 
close upon forty years. The Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha has always stood in the position of a 
semi-national concern, shares being held by 
the imperial family, and the company through 
its directors being in some respects govern- 
ment controlled, while of course, as the recip- 
ient of large subsidies its services have been 
regulated to some extent by the imperial 
authorities. This company has developed 
fast mail and passenger services w-ith all parts 
of the world. Its vessels are as large and as 
well equipped as those of any similar company 
in any part of the globe, and its fleet of 100 
steamers aggregates 480,000 tons, which total 
represents a fairly high individual ship ton- 
nage. The most modem of the fleet are the 
Fushimi Mam and the Siiwa Maru, each of 
which has a cargo capacity of 10,000 tons in 
addition to elaborately furnished passenger 
accommodation. Throughout the war the 
N. Y. K. has maintained a service with 
England. The capital of the company is Yen 
100,000,000, and its annual profits of late 
years have exceeded Yen 20,000,000. 



KELIC OF XVi EARLY FOREIGN VISIT TO 
JAPAN. A DUTCH CHART SHOWING JAPAN, OF 
THE EARLY SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. IN THE 
IMPERIAL MUSEUM. — A CHART OF THE WORLD, 
A RELIC OF THE FIRST DUTCH VISIT TO JAPAN 



172 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



The Osaka Shoscn Kaisha, to which 
reference is made in another chapter, is 
largely a cargo-carrying concern, though on 
certain of its ser\'iccs it provides passenger 
accommodation of the very best class. It was 
established in 1884 to operate from Osaka, 
the commercial metropolis of Japan. This 
company, popularly known as the "O. S. K.," 
has a fleet of 154 steamers of a total of 416,000 
tons. Its capital is Yen 50,000,000, and the 
profits during the war have exceeded 40 per 
cent per annum. The most progressive and 
strikingly successful of the great trio of 
Japanese lines is the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, or 
the Oriental Steamship Company, which has 
a capital of Yen 32,000,000, and owns the 
largest and fastest ships of the Japanese 
merchant service. This company is the 
creation of Mr. Soijiro Asano, one of the most 
remarkable of Japan's brilliant captains of 
industrj', whose activities in many great 
enterprises are described in other sections of 
this work. The Toyo Kisen Kaisha does not 
possess a large fleet, but its vessels are, taken 
as a whole, the largest and best in Japan, ten 
of them alone aggregating 89,81 1 tons. This 
line has concentrated on a fast Trans- Pacific 
service, and upon the trade with the West 
Coast of South America, via San Francisco, 
which is destined to grow to large propor- 
tions. The net profit of the T. K. K. for the 
six months to June 30, 191 7, was Yen 7,474,- 
241. 

Next in rank of ownership of vessels of over 
1,000 tons each come the Mitsui Bussan 
Kaisha with eleven ships of a total of 35,083 
tons; the Sino- Japan S. S. Co. with twelve 
ships of 29,663 tons, and the Yamashita 
Kisen Kaisha with ten ships aggregating 
24^161 tons. Comparatively recent figures 
gave a total of 446 steamers in the Japanese 
mercantile marine, each of over 1 ,000 tons, the 
grand total being 1,425,689 tons for vessels of 
this class. This fact alone will indicate that 
Japan's merchant fleet is not built up merely 
of coastal and fishing vessels of small size. ' 
Perhaps the following table, which discloses 
an official estimate on July 31, 1917, will best 
display the real strength of the Japanese 
merchant service, so far as steamers are 
concerned : 



of people employed in ships, not including 
those engaged in the shore operations of ship- 
ping companies: 



Year 


Japanese 


Foreigners 


Total 


1881 


1,901 


325 


2,226 


1897 


7,<'44 


938 


7,982 


1905 


20,750 


352 


21,102 


1912 


26,140 


.^51 


26,492 


1914 


30,083 


351 


30,434 


1915 


.V./fif^ 


350 


32,116 


1917 


,1^.97f' 


351 


34.329 



CAPITAL INVESTED 
It is almost impossible to ascertain, in the 
absence of late official figures, precisely what 
amount of capital is invested in the shipping 
industry of Japan. With the three leading 
companies possessing a combined capital of 
Yen 182,000,000, it may be imagined what a 
huge sum has been launched in the business 
prior to, and since the outbreak of war. A 
reliable nevv'spaper estimate gave the number 
of new shipping companies started since the 
war, as thirteen, with a total capital of Yen 
57,200,000. Therf are also to be reckoned 
the many concerns which were vigourously 
and profitably operating before the war, apart 
from the N. Y. K., O. S. K., and the T. K. K. 
Taking all things into consideration it would 
probably not be an exaggeration to say that 
over Yen 500,000,000 is invested in ships, and 
this sum is quite apart from the huge amount 
of capital involved in the shipbuilding in- 
dustry, which for the moment is being con- 
sidered apart from the business of operating 
ships. 

GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES 
The Japanese Government has for nearly 
forty years pitfsued a steady policy of encour- 
agement of the shipping industry. Subsidies 
were granted in the very early days, when 
all the capital invested had to be provided 
by other industries, and the business was, 
for the Japanese, a precarious one. Unques- 
tionably the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, as a 
specific instance, could not have built up a 
big business before the war, without state aid, 
in the face of keen foreign competition. Since 





Under 
1,000 

Tons 


Between 
1,000 

AND 2,000 

Tons 


Between 
2,000 

AND 3,000 
Tons 


3,000 

TO 
4,000 

Tons 


4,000 

TO 
5,000 

Tons 


Over 
5,000 

Tons 


No. OF Steamers . . . 


1,674 


133 


128 


84 


32 


71 



Another interesting little table which will 
show the growth of the shipping industry' of 
Japan is the following, relative to the number 



shipping became so profitable, there has been 
some talk of doing away with the subsidies, 
but, strangely enough, the Government 



has not shown any inclination to be relieved of 
a considerable tax on the Treasury, the 
explanation being that it desires to maintain a 
rigid control over certain of the older estab- 
lished companies at least. As a matter of 
fact one or two of the companies have endeav- 
oured to get free of this control by declining 
the subsidies, but the Government has 
insisted on paying them. The principal 
subsidies granted as follows: 

European Service. A semi-monthly 
service of eleven ships, each of more than 
5,500 tons, and a minimum of 14 knots speed; 
26 round trips in the year; subsidy to the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha for 1917, Yen 1,689,- 
850; for 1918, Yen 1,569,672. 

PuGET Sound Service. A bi-monthly 
service with six ships each of more than 5,500 
tons, 14 knots speed, 26 round trips yearly; 
subsidy to the Osaka Shosen Kaisha for 191 7, 
Yen 2,669,925; for 1918, Yen 2,509,187. 

San Francisco Service. A monthly 
service of three steamers, each of 12,500 tons 
and 18 knots, 14 round trips in the year. The 
amount of the subsidy paid to the Toyo Kisen 
Kaisha is not officially disclosed owing to the 
fact that these ships compete with more than 
one foreign line. 

Pacific-South American Service. A 
bi-monthly service with three ships each of 
more than 6,000 tons; 13 knots speed; six 
round trips in the year; subsidy to the Toyo 
Kisen Kaisha, Yen 284,863 for 1917, and Yen 
269,350 for 1918. 

AusTR.\LiAN Service. Three ships of more 
than 5,000 tons, 15 knots speed, 12 round 
trips in the year; subsidy to the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha for 191 7, Yen 169,470; for 
1918, Yen 188,497. 

It is needless to say that with such liberal 
subsidies paid in these times when freights 
are higher than they have ever been, and 
passenger rates are in keeping, the Japanese 
ship-owners are making fortunes. Approxi- 
mately sixty cargo vessels are under charter 
to foreign firms or governments, and it is 
estimated that for 19 1 7 charter fees totalling 
Yen 60,000,000 were received by the fortu- 
nate owners. Huge fortunes have been 
made since the war broke out. 

THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY 
In keeping with the growth of the shipping 
industry, shipbuilding has made equallj- 
remarkable strides. It is not so many years 
ago that there was not a dozen ships in the 
Japanese merchant fleet which were built 
in the country, and even those considered as 
being of Japanese construction, were put 
together in local yards under foreign super- 
vision from foreign material which was 
shipped to Japan all ready for assembling. 
To-day at least 60 per cent of the Japanese 




^.N^VvW-^J^ Vn^>^'-^X: ^ -^: yH^^^'J^^^^J^^^^.^^^' 



YOKOHAMA DOCK CO., LTD.: THREE VIEWS OF THE LAUNCHING OF THE "SHINTEN MARU" 



SEE PAGE 1821 



174 



P R E S E N T - I) A V IMPRESSIONS 



O F J A P A N 



ships arc the product of local yards. As a 
matter of fact, since the war, the Japanese 
ship-owners have been selling off the old 
foreign-built ships at good prices, and rein- 
vesting the money in modem types of cargo 
and passenger vessels built in the local yards. 
Thirty years ago the shi])yards of Japan could 
have been counted on the fingers of one hand. 



and even then only the Kawa.saki and tlie 
Mitsubishi yards were constructing small 
steamers, their attention and that of the other 
yards being devoted to assembling vessels, 
designed and built abroad. To-day, how- 
ever, the situation is completely changed, and 
the Japanese yards are not only building all 
the ships locally required, but are constructing 




for such old shipbuilding countries as Britain, 
.America, Italy, and France. 

The oldest yard in the countrj' is the Fuji- 
.Xagata Shipyard of Osaka, which was estab- 
lished two centuries or more ago, and proba- 
bly received some influence of the Dutch 
invasion of the country. The oldest modem 
yards are those of the Osaka Ironworks, which 
were established on a small scale in 1880, or 
thereabouts, by Mr. E. H. Hunter, an 
Englishman. The Mitsubishi yards at 
Nagasaki have also been working nearly forty 
years, and the Kawasaki Dockyard at Kobe, 
a little less. If we except the Government 
Navy Dockyards, there are something like 
twenty yards in Japan capable of turning out 
ships from 1,000 up to 20,000 tons. The big 
liners of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha and the 
Toyo Kisen Kaisha (the latter's two vessels 
Tenyo Maru and Shinyo Maru being each of 
22,000 tons) have all been built in Japan. 

The following statement will give some idea 
of the shipbuilding capacity of Japanese 
yards: 

SHIPS (over 1,000 TONS) LAUNXHED IN" I917 



Shipv.\rd 


Ships 


ToNN.\CiE 


Kawasaki Dockyard 

Osaka Iron Works 


21 
17 


112,250 

6 1 ,000 


Uraga Dock 

Mitsubishi, Nagasaki 

Mitsubishi, Kobe 


7 
5 
4 


32,200 

33.J«4 
19,811 


Ishikawajima Dock. 

Asano Dock 

Ono Iron Works. . - 


4 
3 
3 


8,400 

24.759 

5,250 


Fuji-Nagata 

Harima Dock 


2 

I 


4,200 

3.750 


Matsuo Dock 


I 


3.030 



AN ANCIENT DUTCH MAP ON PARCHMENT, IN THE IMPERI.AL MUSEUM, TOKYO — RELIC OF THE 
EARLIEST VISIT OF FOREIGNERS TO JAPAN, AN ANCIENT NAVIGATOR'S CHART, PROB.\- 

BLY PORTUGUESE, FOUND IN JAPAN AND PLACED IN THE IMPERIAL MUSEUM 



In all there were constructed in 1917, 69 
vessels, each of over 1,000 tons, and in the 
aggregate 299,684 tons, not -counting the 
number of smaller vessels turned out for the 
coastal services, or for special purposes. 

The future of the industry promises much 
greater results, especially when Japan solves 
the problem of finding her own supplies of raw 
material, and does not depend so much as in 
the past upon the United States and Great 
Britain for steel plates. Many of the larger 
yards have berths for five and six vessels, each 
of 10,000 tons or over, for simultaneous con- 
struction. A return furnished by the Depart- 
ment of Communications at the end of 
December, 1917, showed that there were then 
in hand orders for 105 merchant vessels of an 
aggregate tonnage of over 500,000 for launch- 
ing in 1918. The Osaka Iron Works alone has 
prepared for 36 ships of a total of 170,000 tons. 
The Asano Yard, which did not exist in June, 
191 6, was constructed and turned out its first 
ship of 7,000 tons within twelve months. 
This company is also providing its own steel 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



175 



works at Yokohama, and no doubt will turn 
out a large number of vessels in the near 
future. 

It is estimated that Japan can build 250 
ships a year, each over 1,000 tons, there being 
113 sliijs and 24 under construction at the end 
of October, 1917. If wc may assume an 
average of 3,000 tons per ship, this means that 
Japan can build at the rate of 750,000 tons per 




ON THE (IISO ROCK-BDLND COAST 

annum, instead of the 500,000 stated above to 
be planned for 191 8. Of the quality of the 
ships turned out of the Japanese yards, only 
an expert can speak. It is asserted that the 
Japanese ships can not be compared with 
foreign-built vessels, though this statement is 
open to grave doubt, because it must not be 
forgotten that the Japanese are not self- 
taught in the art of ship construction, neither 
do they employ materials of their own make. 
The big yards like the Mitsubishi and Kawa- 
saki have had the benefit of the best foreign 
supervision, and their present technical 
experts are all highly trained and experienced 
men. The yards are admittedly equipped 
with the very best plant, and the designing is 
done by men who have, as a rule, spent years 
abroad in the study of marine architecture. 
Even if the ships at present being launched 
are not so well constructed, under the pressure 
of time and demand, there is no reason to 
believe that the Japanese can not build 
splendid vessels, and will readily build better 
still. 

The idea that the ships are not quite up to 
European or American standard of construc- 
tion most probably arises from the fact that 
the Japanese build so quickly. The Kawa- 
saki Dockyard holds the world's record for 
launching a io,ooo-ton freight steamer, one 
month and 29 days after the first keel plate 
was laid. These records are not made by 
skimping the work, but are possible under 
peculiarly favourable conditions which proba- 
bly do not obtain elsewhere in the world. 
There is no scarcitv of skilled and unskilled 



labour, and work goes on day and night with- 
out a stop in the big yards. The new Asano 
works employ 6,000 men, and such a force, 
under skilled direction, using the very latest 
plant and appliances, with a plenitude of 
material all ready at hand, should be able to 
make good time on ship construction when the 
demand for tonnage is so imperative. 

A lengthy article could be written on ship- 
building, but enough has been said, in con- 
junction with the shipping industry, to show 
what wonderful iirogress has been made in 
this department of Japan's industrial life. 



HARBOURS 

AL T HOUGH there are over one 
thousand harbours now visited by 
merchantmen, before the opening of the 
country to foreign trade the number of har- 
bours able to accommodate ships was neg- 
ligible, as they remained in their natural 
state. It was not until 1878 that any 
serious attempt was made at reclamation and 
improvement of harbours, since when many 
roadsteads capable of accommodating ships of 
considerable size have been completed. The 
following table gives the leading harbours of 
Japan with improvements carried out : 



yen to open connection with the Trans- 
Siberian railway. Osaka harbour, which was 
started by the city in 1897, has already cost 
24,200,000 yen in improvements, but owing to 
defective plans the results are not yet satis- 
factory. Kob^ harbour is also under con- 
struction and when completed will be one of 
the best in the Empire. Some fourteen other 
harbours have been nominated for improve- 
ment by the Government Harbour Commis- 
sion at a cost of 100,000,000 yen, one of the 
most important of which is Yokkaichi at an 
outlay of 7,500,000 yen; but the success of 
this venture is doubtful owing to sandy 
bottom. The harbour at Funakawa is to be 
completed at a cost of 3,000,000 yen, Shio- 
gama at 4,000,000 yen, Kagoshima a further 
2,500,000 yen, and Aomori 3,000,000 yen. 
The relative importance of the more prosper- 
ous ports of Japan may be seen from the 
table (191 5) on the followins page. 

It will thus be seen that of the 36 open ports 
in Japan, Yokohama and Koh6 are by far the 
most important commercially, as through 
these the bulk of the nation's foreign trade 
passes, and consequently in both ports har- 
bour improvements and extensions are 
constantly under way. Yokohama harbour, 
with its more than two miles of breakwater, 
enclosing a space of nearly 1,300 acres, and 



Place 


Works 


Begun 


Completed 


CosT,Yi;\ 


Nagasaki 


Dredging, walls, etc. 


July, 1897 


September, 1904 


3,100,000 


Miike 


Breakwater, etc. 


November, 1902 


November, 1907 


3,000,000 


Nagoya 


Piers, dredging, etc. 


August, 1896 


August, 1907 


2,383,000 


Yokohama .... 


Piers, walls, etc. 


September, 1889 


May, 1896 


2,353.000 


Otaru 


Breakwater, etc. 


May, 1897 


May, 1908 


2,189,000 


Kagoshima. . . 


Dredging, breakwater 


April, 1900 


March, 1909 


843,000 


Hakodate 


Breakwater, dredging 


June, 1896 


April, 1899 


820,000 


Takamatsu . . . 


Breakwater, dredging 


July, 1897 


September, 1904 


328,000 


Ujina 


Dredging, walls, etc. 


September, 1884 


April, 1890 


300,000 


Sakai 


Piers, etc. 


May, 1878 


June, 1882 


228,000 


Misumi 


Piers, etc. 


May, 1883 


June, 1892 


107,000 



The harbour works completed, however, are 
as nothing compared to those still under way, 
and now to be mentioned in due course. In 
Japan there are altogether some 530 ports 
regularly visited by steamers, most of which 
are coasting vessels. These include 36 open 
ports, 4 naval ports, and 3 fortified ports. 
The greater portion of the funds for harbour 
improvements have been drawn from local 
taxation or public works funds; but in excep- 
tional cases of national importance, like Kobe 
and Yokohama, the expenses have been met by 
the National Treasury. The harbour works 
at Miike were constructed at the expense of 
the Mitsui Company whose great coal mines 
are in the vicinity. But the harbour at 
Tsuruga was completed at a cost of 800,000 



its magnificent new quay walls and ware- 
houses, provides accommodation second to 
none in the East for ships of all sizes; and a 
canal between that port and Tokyo is under 
contemplation. The question of a new har- 
bour for Tokyo, capable of receiving large 
ships, has long been advocated, but the scheme 
has not yet been commenced, although the 
surveys have been made and plans are being 
perfected. The harbour improvements at 
Kobe, when completed, will leave that port 
with three miles of breakwater, enclosing an 
area of nearly 1,800 acres, to protect shipping 
from south and east winds; while sheds and 
landing facilities are of the best. The subject 
will be found more fully treated in the chap- 
ters devoted to these cities. 



176 



P R E S K N T - D A Y IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




Y0KOH.\MA H.\RBOUR AND DOCKS, AS SEEN FROM THE MEMORIAL TOWER 



Port 


Exports 
Yen 


Imports 
Yen 


TOT.\L 

Yen 


Yokohama 

Kobe 

Osaka 

Nagasaki 


305,953.588 

197,597.830 

93,822,636 

4,639,673 
18,604,378 

4.791.279 
82,897,613 


140,350,624 

269,216,398 

50,610,954 

7.829.518 

23,200,974 

399.318 

40,842,152 


446,304,212 

466,814,228 

144,433,590 

12,469,191 


Moji. 


41,805,352 
5,190,597 


Hakodate . . 


Other ports 


123.739,765 


Total 


708,306,997 


532,449,938 


1,240,756,935 



SHIPBUILDING 

THE MITSU BISHI COMPANY 

Amonc the greatest and most powerful 
financial and industrial corporations of Japan 
is the Mitsu Bishi Company, known in legal 
terminology as The Mitsu Bishi Goshi Kaisha, 
whose enormous wealth and influence are 
vitally felt in every department of national 
activity and progress. Though not so old as 
the Mitsui firm, the Mitsu Bishi is none the 
less a family concern, having been founded by 



the Iwasaki family in the early years of the 
Meiji era, and in the short space of fifty years 
it has come to be a worthy rival of its great 
competitor in every direction. Through the 
founder of the company, the late Mr. Yataro 
Iwasaki, and his successor, the late Baron 
Yanosuk^ Iwasaki, Japan established her first 
steamship company, which in time recovered 
the nation's shipping from foreign control and 
made the Japanese flag supreme in Oriental 
waters. After the Mitsu Bishi Steamship 
Company amalgamated with the Union 



Transport Company in 1885 to form the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, or Japan Mail Steam- 
ship Company, the Iwasaki family formed 
themselves into the Mitsu Bishi Company, 
which, however, still remains one of the 
largest shareholders in Japan's greatest ship- 
ping company, whence its influence extends 
widely into commerce and communications, 
augmenting its fortunes and promoting at the 
same time the interests of the Empire. 

The remarkable prosperity of the Mitsu 
Bishi Company is due largely to the character, 
energy, and foresight of the late Baron Yano- 
suke Iwasaki, and his nephew. Baron Hisaya 
Iwasaki, who in 1916 resigned the presidency 
of the company in favour of Baron Koyata 
Iwasaki. The present head of the house was 
educated in England and is a man of excep- 
tional brilliancy in financial circles. In 1916 
the Mitsu Bishi Company was reorganised 
with the following departments, for greater 
facilitation of its increasing enterprises: 
(1) General Affairs Department, with Mr. 
K. Aoki as General Manager; (2) Metal 




MITSU BISHI company: the 12,000-ton MITSU BISHI floating dock A1 KOBE WITH THE S. S. "EMPRESS OF CHINA IN DOCK — -GIANT 

CRANE AT NAGASAKI SHIPYARD — S. S. "MANILA MARU," BUILT BY THE COMPANY, LEAVING THE STOCKS — THE PROCESS OF 

COALING THE S. S. "MANCHCRIA" BY THE COMPANY IN RECORD TIME — THE MACHINE SHOP, NAGASAKI DOCKYARD 



178 



P R E S E N T - I) A \ IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN' 



Mining Department, Mr. Shinji Harada being 
General Manager; (3) Coal Mining Depart- 
ment, with Mr. Kusuyata Kimura as General 
Manager; (4) Trading Department, General 
Manager, Mr. Sadaye Eguchi; (5) Real Estate 
Department, Mr. Shoichi Kirishima, General 
Manager; (6) Banking Department, of which 
Mr. Manzo Kushida is General Manager; 
(7) Shipbuilding and Engineering Depart- 
ment, Mr. Taisuke Shiota being General 
Manager; (8) Iron Works Department, with 
two General Managers, Mr. Teizaburo Hori 
and Mr. Shinji Harada; (9) the Oriental 
Department, managed by Mr. Hyakutaro 
Miyagawa. The private secretary of the 
President is Mr. Goro Oyama. 

In its Banking Department, which was 
opened as far back as 1885, the Mitsu Bishi 
has been remarkably successful, and it is now- 



one of the largest private banking houses in fund of .some 10,142,000 yen, deposits of over 

the Empire, enjoying the confidence of the 1 18,930,000 and loans of aboutoi, 61 i,oooyen. 
public and wielding an increasing influence on In coal, gold, and copper mining the Mitsu 

national finance, as may be seen from its Bishi Company is one of the largest owners 

large number of foreign clients and depositors, and operators in the world, having ten metal 

the latter being often from Europe and mines and eight coal mines whose total 

America. Following a policy sufficiently annual output for some years has averaged as 

conservative to be consistent with sound follows: 

finance, the Mitsu Bishi Bank has passed 

safely through the various economic crises the Gold i,t.4.?2 lbs. 

nation has experienced. The Banking De- Silver 65,273 lbs. 

partment carries on all the transactions of a Copper 13.000 tons 

first-class banking house, including loans on Coal 3,100,000 tons 

approved securities, discounting bills, receiv- 
ing deposits and opening current accounts, Each of the metal mines has its own refining 

making collections and remittances, dealing i.'i plant, but as the capacity is limited, most of 

negotiable paper; and all on the' best terms the refining takes place at the company's 

possible. The Mitsu Bishi Bank is working great metallurgical works in Osaka, where the 

on a capital of 1,000,000 yen, has a reserve process of electrolysis has been brought to 




DIRECTORS OF THE MITSU BISHI COMP.WV 



(i) Mr. Sadaye Eguchi, General Manager, Trading Department — (2) Mr. Shinji Harada, General Manager, Metal Mining Depart- 
ment — (3) Mr. T. Shiota, General Manager, Shipbuilding and Engineering Department — (4) Baron Hls.^YA Ivvasaki, Partner — (5) 
Baron Koyata Iwasaki, President — (6) Mr. Seijiro Sho, Late General Manager, General Affairs Department — (7) Mr. K. AoKi, General 
Manager, General Aflairs Department — (8) Mr. T. Uyematsu, Newly Appointed Managing Director of Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co., 
Ltd. — (9) Mr. Kusuy.\TA Kimura, General Manager, Coal Mining Department — (10) Mr. Manzo Kushida, General Manager, Banking 
Department — (11) Mr. Shoichi Kirishima, General Manager, Estate Department 






■^ 









.; 






^ 




ASANO SHIPBUILDING COMPANY: GENKRAI. VIKW OK YARD AJ*D MACHINE SHOP — VIEW OF THE DOCKYARD — BIG FREIGHT SHIPS 

NEARING the' LAUNCHING STAGE 



i8o 



PRESENT- I) A Y I M P R ]i S S 1 O N S 



() V 



I A P A .\ 



such perfection that the electrolytic ingots 
and plates of copper turned out are renowned 
for a purity that brings them into constant 
demand throughout the world. No less 
conspicuous is the company's enterprise in 
coal mining, the quality of the output being 
such that it is in constant demand by all the 
great steamship lines as well as the Imperial 
Na\'y, to whom the company are contractors, 
while large and increasing exports are sent out 
in the company's own colliers. 

The phenomenal progress made in ship- 
building in Japan is in a great measure due to 
the enterprise and ability of the Mitsu Bishi 
Company, with its great dockyards at Naga- 
saki and Kobe, which have supplied the 
nation's shipping companies with most of 
their vessels and the Imperial Navy with 
some of its finest battleships and destroyers. 
For descriptions of these docks the reader is 
referred to the Osaka and Kobe section on 
Shi|)ping in this volume. Further extensive 
undertakings of the Mitsu Bishi Company 
are: paper-making, its mills having a capac- 
ity of some 70,000 pounds a day; warehous- 
ing, with great sheds at Kobe and Osaka and 
the best equipment in landing facilities; real 
estate, and iron and steel works. The total 
capital of the Mitsu Bishi Company is 
15,000,000 yen, and it gives employment to 
nearly 100,000 men. The company's head 
ofTce is at Marunouchi, Tokyo, where its fine 
array of buildings, with latest appointments, 
occupy several city blocks and form an 
enormous asset. The company has branches 
in the various important cities and ports of 
Japan, and is well represented in the Far 



East as well as in London and New \'<)rk, 
where its foreign trade is showing remarkable 
development. 

.\S.\NO SHIPBUILDING COMP.\NV, 
LIMITED 

One of the most remarkable men in 
Japanese industrial circles is Mr. Soichiro 
Asano. He has developed enormous interests 
of all kinds, in which millions of capital are 
invested, and it is hard to say where his 
interests begin and end. He is the president 
and moving spirit of the Toyo K!isen Kaisha, 
one of the three greatest shipping companies 
in Japan, besides being the leading man in the 
cement industry, which he controls as presi- 
dent of the Asano Cement Co., Ltd. In 
addition he is one of the founders of the Tokyo 
Ropeworks, is on the boards of half a dozen 
other commercial concerns, and is now lead- 
ing the movement for the proper development 
of the steel industry. 

It was only to be expected that a man of 
Mr. Asano's energy should realise the great 
opportunity the war has presented for ship- 
builders, and that he should strive to outdo 
the biggest concerns in the country, when 
once he decided to embark in the enterprise 
Mr. Asano formed the Asano Shipbuilding 
Co., Ltd., in the middle of 1916, and before 
his new venture had been in existence twelve 
months it had established several records. 
Application was first made for a dock and 
shipbuilding site at Yokohama. When this 
was refused Mr. Asano set out to reclaim 
land at Tsurumi, a place in Tokyo Bay, about 
six or seven miles from Yokohama. Up to 



this stage Tsurumi was nothing but a small 
hamlet, having no houses to speak of, and 
certainly no industries. To-day it is the 
centre of an enterprise that bids fair to rival 
any in the world. A record was established in 
the construction of the dockyard and building 
berths, which were completed in about five 
months from the day reclamation was started. 
The first ship was launched on the anniver- 
sary of the commencement on the site. She 
was the Hakushika Maru, a vessel of 11,000 
tons, built for the Tatsuma Steamship Com- 
pany, and to date is the largest ship turned 
out on Tokyo Ba\-. A month later the second 
ship was launched. 

This was a fair beginning for a company 
that had been in existence only a year, but 
it is an indication of the speed and energy 
which Mr. Asano has injected into his en- 
terprise, in which he originally invested Yen 
3,750,000. Before the end of the year 1917 he 
had increased the capital of the Asano Ship- 
building Co., Ltd., to Yen 15,000,000, and had 
laid down plans which stagger belief. The 
Toyo Kisen Kaisha, or Asano interest, already 
have eight building berths which can turn 
out vessels of the Tenyo Maru class (22,000 
tons). With some alteration two of these 
berths can be made to accommodate ships of 
30,000 tons. In addition, it is planned to lay 
down eight more berths, including six for 
ships of 8,000 tons and two for freighters of 
3,000 tons deadweight. Any of these ships 
can be built inside of six months, and when all 
the berths are completed the Asano Shipbuild- 
ing Company will have a capacity for turning 
out 500,000 tons of ships annually, which is 




^■''^''•'•''^^j^'^yBTnkwwaarv''''^^ \ 



OYEBASHI (bridge) NEAR THE SAKURAGICHO ELECTRIC RAILW.W ST.\TION, YOKOHAMA 




•i 




m 

m 
til 







YOKOHAMA ENGINE AMI IKON WciKK-., LIU.; \IK\\ OF THE MAIN WORKS AT CHIWAKA-CHO, YOKOHAMA — INTERIOR OF THE 
MACHINE SHOP — THE NEW SHIPBUILDING BERTH AT CHIWAKA-CHO, YOKOHAMA 



13 



IS2 



P R E S E N T - I) A V IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



almost twice as great as the capacity- of all the 
yards of Japan before the war. The company 
is said to be better stocked with steel and 
other materials than any concern in Japan, 
but Mr. Asano's plans include the erection of 
two steel plants, one in Yokohama and the 
other in Chinnampo, Korea, the scheme call- 
ing for an investment of Yen 15,000,000. The 
Yokohama plant is expected to be producing 
steel in Januarj', 1918, and the mill in Korea 
will be a producer in April or May. The 
Asano 3'ards require about 250,000 tons of 
steel annually. Over 6,000 w'orkmen are 
engaged, the yards working to full capacity 
day and night to fulfil orders w'hich have 
poured in from all parts of the world. 

Mr. M. Hara is the Managing Director of 
the Asano Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., and Mr. 
Rio Kato is the Technical Managing Director. 

YOKOHAMA ENGINE AND IRON WORKS 
LIMITED 

This company has the distinction of own- 
ing one of the oldest iron and engine works in 
Japan, and of being the successor of the first 
business of its kind, conducted under the 
European system, ever established in the 
countr}'. The history of the business goes 
back to the earliest days of the arrival of the 
foreigner, for the first small plant and repair 
shop was erected in 1861, when Mr. Whitfield, 
an Englishman, started in the trade, and 
located his shop at No. 69 in the foreign 
settlement. Later on Mr. Edward Kildoyle, 
an American, opened a similar business, close 
to the works of Mr. Whitfield and for some 
years the two engineers and iron-founders 
were in competition. Between them the two 
firms engaged in shipbuilding and repairing, 
and the manufacture and repair of machinery 
of all kinds, for marine and land use. Finally 
Mr. Kildoyle bought the business of his rival, 
and later on formed a joint-stock company 
under the name of the Yokohama Engine and 
Iron Works, Ltd. 

The development of Yokohama led to a 
considerable expansion of the company's 
business, and the works extended over newly 
acqvured ground. A high reputation for 
accuracy and finished workmanship and 
general reliability was gained, and the busi- 
ness became very prosperous. The company 
purchased the interests of the Peterson 
Engineering Works, which were established 
at No. 113 Yamashita-eho. This step led to 
an increase in the capital, the rebuilding of the 
works, and the introduction of many improve- 
ments. At this time the Yokohama Engine and 
Iron Works, Ltd., owned 2,000 tsubo of ground 
and on this area was erected the machine con- 
struction shops, moulding shop, iron foundry, 
wrought-iron works, boiler-making plant, 
finishing and erecting shops, etc., the whole 



plant being modem and complete in every 
sense. 

In December, 1916, Dr. Tsuneta Shin 
(Doctor of Technology) purchased the com- 
pany's interest in the entire plant and works, 
and changed the name to the Yokohama 
Iron Works. The rapid development of 
industry in all directions, and particularly 
the expansion of the shipping industry, dic- 
tated an early expansion of the operations of 
the concern, and in April, 191 7, Dr. Shin 
formed a partnership with Mr. Nobuya 
Uchida, President of the Uchida Steamship 
Company, of Kob^. The capital was raised 
to Yen 1,000,000, the partnership being 
transformed straightway into a joint-stock 
concern, and many improvements being 
eflfected in the general conduct of the busi- 
ness. One immediate efTect of this important 
change was that the new company was able 
to enter upon shipbuilding on a much larger 
scale than before. A shipbuilding site was 
purchased at Chiwakamachi, Kanagawa, 
comprising 12,000 tsubo of land. Three 
building berths were laid down, and the 
necessary machine shops, etc., were erected. 
At the time of writing the first steamer is 
under construction, and when the plant is 
complete the company- will be able to build 
three ships, each of 10,000 tons, simulta- 
neously. In the near future docks will be 
constructed, so that the company will be in 
a position to carry on work through all 
stages of shipbuilding and repairing, on an 
extensive scale. As it is, the Yokohama 
Engine and Iron Works, Ltd., is undertaking 
engineering work of practically every descrip- 
tion. Apart from the building and repair 
of ships, the works are turning out engines 
and boilers for land and marine purposes, 
mining machinery, spinning machines, tur- 
bines and other plant for water power, elec- 
trical machinery, locomotive and other rail- 
w'ay machinery and material, metal work 
generallj^ and tools, as well as doing a large 
business in the repair and overhaul of machin- 
ery of all kinds. There is a large stafT of the 
most skilled technical specialists, and the 
company also has the advantage of a numer- 
ous and well trained body of mechanics and 
workmen. The principal officials of the 
Yokohama Engine and Iron Works, Ltd., are: 
Mr. Nobuya Uchida, President; Dr. Tsuneta 
Shin, Mr. Seitaro Uchida and Mr. Teiji 
Yagi, Managing Directors; Messrs. Sanjiro 
Yamamoto and Yoji Kasuya, Auditors. The 
head office of the company is at No. 161 
Yamashita-cho, Yokohama. 

YOKOHAMA DOCK COMPANY, LI.MITED 
Evidence of the importance of this com- 
pany is found in the fact that it has the 
support of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, and 



has lately been awarded a contract for the 
construction of twenty vessels, amounting 
in value to 84,000,000 yen. The Yokohama 
Dock Company, Ltd., has been in existence 
for some years, and has developed a large 
industry which is of great value to Yokohama. 
Its yards and plant are situated close to the 
town, and comprise modern slips and all 
necessary equipment. The greatest progress 
has been made in the last two or three years, 
and though at the time of writing there 
are only tw'o berths, one for 1,500-ton and 
the other for 2,500-ton vessels, the capital 
has lately been increased to Yen 10,000,000 
to enable the company to carry out an exten- 
sive programme which will put it right in 
the forefront of the shipbuilding concerns of 
Japan. The plans now in course of com- 
pletion include an entirely new dockyard 
within the breakwater at Yokohama. Per- 
mission has been granted for this new yard, 
and the site has been secured. It covers an 
area of 6,676 tsubo. Part of the work will 
include reclamation of the foreshore at 
Kanagawa, and when this is carried out five 
shipbuilding berths will be laid down. One 
of these will be large enough to accommodate 
a vessel up to 30,000 tons, and the others will 
be for steamers, such as those ordered by the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, each about 6,000 tons. 
The capital for this purpose has been raised 
partly by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha which 
took up 30,000 of the new issue of 50,000 
shares, and partly by the general public. 

The Yokohama Dock Company, Limited, 
not only builds ships, but does an extensive 
business in the repairing and overhaul of 
vessels. The illustrations of the company, 
shown in this volume, were taken on the 
occasion of the launching of the Shinten 
Maru, which was constructed for Tatsuma 
S. S. Co. Though the day was spoiled by 
the hea\^ rain that fell, the ceremony never- 
theless was attended by thousands of per- 
sons, all interested in the success of the local 
company. The launching was a perfect 
success, and the officials of the company 
were heartily congratulated. Mr. S. Ya- 
mada, the Managing Director of the Yoko- 
hama Dock Company, Limited, is a man of 
considerable experience in modem ship- 
building, and there is little doubt his com- 
pany will develop into a mammoth under- 
taking. The head office and yards of the 
company are at Irifune-cho, Yokohama. 

ISHIKAWAJIMA SHIPBUILDING AND 

ENGINEERING COMPANY, 

LIMITED 

This company, known under its Japanese 
title as the Tokyo Ishikawajima Zosenjo, 
was founded in 1876 by the late Mr. Tomiji 
Hirano, at a time when it was not expected 




ff:, 



NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA: INTERIOR VIEWS OF S. S. "SVWA MARU"; THE UINING SALOON — THE SOCIAL HALL - 
THE LOINGE — THE SMOKING ROOM — THE CHILDREN'S PLAY ROOM 



J 



P R i: S K N T - D A Y I At I' R E ft S I O N S OF JAP A N 



183 



that the engineering and ironworking trades 
would ever reach the huge dimensions to 
which they have now attained. After carry- 
ing on for thirteen years as a private concern, 
these old established works were turned over 
to the present company, which was incor- 
porated in 1889 with a capital of Yen 175,000. 
To-day the capital of the company is Yen 
5,000,000. From their inception the dock- 
yards and machine shops at Ishikawajima 
were mainly devoted to repair work, but with 
the development of the iron and steel indus- 
tries, and the growth of shipping in Japan, the 
plant was gradually enlarged and the com- 
pany took on heavier and more important 
work, including the building of ships and the 
manufacture of boilers, cranes, girders, 
bridges, pumps, etc., besides undertaking 
contracts for structural steel work, the instal- 
lation of hydraulic machines, and general 
engineering. As an example of the develop- 



ment and present-day capacity of the Ishika- 
wajima Company it may be mentioned that 
in the last half of 1917 six vessels, of a total 
of 13,600 tons, constructed for such important 
Japanese shijiping companies as the Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha, the Kishimoto S. S. Co. and 
others, were launched from the yards. The 
company is the licensee of Woodeson's 
patent watertube boilers and of Clarke, 
Chapman & Co.'s patent pumps. In addi- 
tion to the main dockyard and big machine 
shops at Ishikawajima, the company owns a 
branch works at Wakamatsu, Kyushu. The 
area of land covered by the main yard and 
shops is 22,500 tsubo, or about 18.38 acres. 
The shops and other buildings cover 6,800 
Isubo. They comprise machine shops, 
smithy, foundry, plate and girder works, 
boiler shops, pattern shop, copper smithy, 
saw mill, etc. There are four shipbuilding 
berths and one dry dock. The yards are 



fitted with the latest plant and machinery, 
giving the company every advantage in 
turning out work expeditiously and at a 
minimum cost. Electrical power is used. 
Altogether 3,600 hands are engaged at the 
works and the annual wages bill runs to over 
Yen 720,000. The value of the output 
of the comjiany is about Yen 5,000,000 per 
annum. As with most other shipbuilding 
and engineering concerns in the Far East, 
the steel and iron required are obtained from 
the United States and Great Britain. The 
Ishikawajima Company has no dearth of 
orders from the local market and from 
China. 

The principal officers of this important 
company are: President, Ur. Kaichi Wata- 
nabe, M. E. (Eng.); Managing Director, 
Mr. Tokuro Uchida, M. E.; and Directors, 
Messrs. Teikichi Shimizu, M. E., Kadzuo Sato, 
Shigeru Tanaka, and Tokujiro Yokoyama. 



X ■'!!•- ser ;-S';-**v;;»JS96«E!iSK»2iS.-,T^3^^ 




CARGO JUNKS ON THE SUMIDA RIVER, TOKYO 



1 84 



P R !•: S E N T - D A V IMPRESSIONS O I-" J A PAN 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE URAGA 



THE URAGA DOCK COMPANY 
To no industry has the European ^A'ar 
given greater impetus than to shipbuilding; 
and among the Japanese yards that have 
come in for a large share of this prosperity is 
the Uraga Dock Company. Established in 
1894 under the auspices of the famous Japa- 
nese naval officer and statesman, Viscount 
Enomoto, backed up by such capitalists as 
Messrs. I. Arai and G. Watanabe, the concern 
did not experience much activity until the 
completion of its plant in 1S97. Five 
years later the company pm-chased the prop- 
erty of the Ishikawa Shipbuilding Company 
in the neighbourhood, which greatly extended 
its capacity. The progress of the Uraga 
Dock Company, however, was slow until 
taken in hand by its present president, Mr. 
T. Machida, with the skilled assistance of 
Mr. Tomizo I to, the present manager. Ac- 
cepting office in 191 1, Mr. Machida at once 
set about overcoming the various difficulties 
in the way of further activity, when the situ- 
ation soon improved. The scarcity of bot- 
toms caused by the war in Europe reacted 
enormously in favour of the Uraga Dock 
Companj', as many orders were received for 
the construction of new steamers, and the 
business of the company began to forge 
ahead with remarkable rapidity. An exten- 
sion of works and enlargement of capacity 
for construction at once became necessary, 
and at present the company is one of the most 
successfvd and prosperous shipbuilding con- 
cerns in the Empire. 

In 1916 the Uraga Dock Company built 
five vessels of 3,500 tons each, and two of 
6,500 tons each ; and the yards now have 
under waj- the construction of ten vessels, 
of which five are to be of over 10,000 tons 
each, and one of over 8,000 tons; and there 



appears everj' prospect of further orders. 
The two magnificent drv- docks and five 
building slips of the company provide every 
facility for the latmching and repairing of 
vessels of considerable size, the largest 
graving dock being able to accommodate 
ships of 8,000 tons and 500 feet in length, 
while the smaller dock receives vessels up to 
450 feet in length. There is every provision 
for the repairing of over 200 ships a year, 
and the average for some time has been over 
100 ships a year. Two of the construction 
slips have a capacity for vessels of over 
10,000 tons, and three slips can launch hulls 
of over 6,500 tons. The company at present 
has a building capacity of about ten steamers 
annually. 

To go fully into the details of the Uraga 
Dock Company's fine equipment for turning 
out ships of the best class would fill more 
space than is at the disposal of this notice, 
but it may be mentioned that the main plant 
covers some eight acres of ground and the 
branch plant considerably more. Number i 
graving dock is 70 feet wide at the top and 
60 at the bottom, with a length over all of 
500 feet and on blocks of 485 feet. Number 2 
dock has a width at the top of 66 feet and 
54 below, the total length above being 459 
feet; and on the blocks, 413 feet. Both 
docks are built of brick and stone, and have 
a depth of 27 feet of water at high tide in 
Number i dock, and over 15 feet in Number 2 
dock. The time required for displacement 
of water in Number i dock is 3 hours; for 
Number 2 dock, 2 hours. As to slips. 
Number i has a total length of 700 feet, and a 
width of over 50; while. Number 2 slip has a 
length of 500 feet and a width of over 40. 
The slips in the branch works have a length 
of 500 feet in both cases, and a width of 40 



feet. The various shops for fitting and 
repairing, as well as the iron works and 
machine shops, are provided with the most 
up-to-date equipment; and the company is 
alwaj's prepared to accept and efficient^ and 
expeditiously execute orders for either con- 
struction or repairs. 

The outlook of the Uraga Dock Company 
being so bright and the demands upon its 
capacity so constantly increasing, the man- 
agement has decided on an expansion of 
capital, issuing 84,000 new shares represent- 
ing a value of 4,200,000 yen, which brings 
the total capital of the companj- up to 
5,000,000 yen. Thus provided with more 
ample financial resources, the company will 
easily redeem its old obligations and be able 
to enlarge its plant sufficiently to build 
larger ships and with greater expedition. 

SHIPPING 

THE NIPPON YUSEN KAISH.\ 
The Nippon Yusen Kaisha, or Japan Mail 
Steamship Company, is one of the great 
enterprises of which the Japanese are justly 
proud, because it represents all that is best 
and grandest in their fine mercantile marine. 
Indeed, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha must rank 
among the greatest of the world's merchant 
shipping concerns, possessing as it does a 
fleet of over a hundred ships with a total 
gross tonnage of 470,000, which has carried 
its flag into every port of importance now 
open to foreign traffic. 

This great organisation, like most others in 
Japan, had a humble beginning. It was es- 
tabhshed in 1885 as a result of the amal- 
gamation of two concerns, namely, the Kyodo 
Unyu Kaisha (the Union Transport Co.) and 
the Mitsu-bishi Kaisha (the Three Diamonds 
Co.). The capital of the company was then 



P R K S E N T - n A V I M I' R !•; S S I O N S OF JAPAN 



185 




DOCK company's SHIPHIII.DING VAKI) 



Yen 1 1 ,000,000 and the combined fleet com- 
prised fifty-eight steamers representing a 
total of 68,700 tons, most of them being 
small craft, in no way comparable to the 
magnificent ocean steamers now included in 
the fleet of a hundred ships. The Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha at first confined itself to the 
Japanese coastal trade, but gradually extend- 
ed its operations to Korea, North China, and 
Vladivostock. Its regular first ocean service 
was inaugurated in 1893 when ships were 
despatched to and from Bombay, a move- 
ment which has since materially helped the 
growth of the cotton manufacturing industry 
in Japan. The China- Japan War in 1894- 
1896, and the Government's promulgation 
of the Navigation Encouragement Law in 
1896, gave a marked impetus to maritime 
enterprise in Japan. The N. Y. K. was 
among the first of the companies to claim the 
support of the Government under the new 
law, and at once extended its activities in 
foreign waters. Ten new steamers were 
ordered to be built abroad and in Japan, and 
for this purpose the capital of the company 
was increased to Yen 22,000,000. Three 
main lines of passenger and freight service 
were opened, namely, a European, an 
American, and an Australian line, all the 
steamers on these services running under 
mail contract with the Japanese Govern- 
ment. 

During the decade following the China- 
Japan War, the business of the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha steadily increased, keeping 
pace with the general expansion of the coun- 
try's foreign trade. After the close of the 
Russo-Japanese War in 1906, the N. Y. K. 
went in for a further wide expansion of its 
ocean services, and the management concen- 
trated its energies on giving its passengers 



and treight customers the best that could 
possibly be given in the way of accommo- 
dation, comfort, and fast passages. The 
line to Calcutta was opened in 1 9 1 1 , and the 
service thus provided has done much to 
promote Indo-Japanese trade. The out- 
break of the great war placed enormous 
difficulties in the way of all shipping com- 
panies, but notwithstanding these difficulties 
and the dangers with which traffic in certain 
waters was beset, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha 
has not only maintained its regular services 
but has reinforced its fleet with many new 
steamers, and has opened up additional 
freight lines. Thus the company's extra 
freight steamers on the European line, now 
cross the Atlantic to New York, and return 
to Japan via the Panama Canal, completing 
the round-the-world voyage. In 1915 the 
N. Y. K. doubled its capital to Yen 44,000,- 
000, and in June, 19 16, opened a regular 
four-weekly freight service between the Far 
East and New York via the Panama Canal, 
establishing a direct waterway communi- 
cation between Oriental ports and the eastern 
shores of the United .States. A few months 
later a further development took place when 
the freight service with New Zealand was 
initiated, opening up new trade relations 
between that country and Japan. To-day 
the company's operations cover almost all 
parts of the world, including South America, 
to which ships with cargo and immigrants 
are often despatched. 

During the past thirty years or so the 
N. Y. K. has on several occasions been able 
to render signal services to the Japanese 
Empire through the agency of its organi- 
sation and its magnificent fleet. During the 
two wars of 1894 and 1904, and again in 19 14 
at Tsingtao, it sacrificed its commercial 



interests to the needs of the nation, and well 
deserved the thanks tendered to it by the 
Government. In the campaign against 
Tsingtao the N. Y. K. successfully performed 
the task of transporting the major portion 
of the armies, with all their stores and equip- 
ment, to and from the front. .Since the year 
1905 the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, in addition 
to numerous steamers for its coastal services, 
has had the following vessels designed and 
built for its various foreign services: 

6 ships Kama Maru type, of 8,000 tons 
each. 

2 ships Katori Maru type, of 10,000 tons 
each. 

3 ships Fusliiini Mani type, of 12,000 tons 
each. 

14 ships Toyama Maru type, of 7,000 tons 
each. 

These ships, and others now in course of 
construction, give the company an entirely 
modern fleet of one hundred vessels of over 
470,000 gross tonnage — a remarkable stride 
since the establishment of the company. 
Such an achievement has only been possible 
under the most capable management and 
direction. In this respect the N. Y. K. is to 
be congratulated on its officers and staflf. 
It has had three able presidents. First, the 
late Baron M. Morioka, who was elected as 
President on the company's formation, and 
who held office until 1894 when he retired; 
second, the late Mr. T. Yoshikawa, who suc- 
ceeded Baron Morioka, and died in 1893 
while holding office, and thirdly, the present 
President, Baron R. Kondo, who was at once 
elected to the chair on the death of Mr. 
Yoshikawa, and was reelected in 1907 when 
his first term had expired. 




'«?"^^r--r-'^;r^^'"~c - ^. ^ «»^ ^ .^«.v. ^. ^ 







iii 








" 1 

J 




.•: _ _ 



ISEE PAGE 182] 



ISHIKAWAJIMA SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING CO., LTD.: THE M.^CHINE SHOPS AND DOCKYARD 




NISSHIN KISliN KAISHA (JAPAN-CHINA STEAMSHIP CO.): S. S. "SIANGYUANG MARU" — SCENE ON THE POOTUNG WHARF, 

SHANGHAI GODOWN AT HANKOW 



1 88 



P R E S I- N T - I) A \ 



I M P R !•; S S I () N S 



O F 



J A P A N 



THK JAPAN-CHINA STEAMSHIP 
COMPANY 

The Nisshin Kisen Kaisha, or Jajjan- 
China Steamship Company, as the name 
signifies, confines its operations to the waters 
of Japan and China, in contrast to the other 
national companies which run Hnes to Europe, 
America, and Australia. The Nisshin Kisen 
Kaislia was formed ten years ago by amal- 
gamating the Yangtsze-Kian lines of the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha and Osaka Shosen 
Kaisha, the Hunan and the Daito S. S. Com- 
panies, in order to meet the increasing demand 
for improved facilities in freight and passen- 
ger traffic between Japan, China, and the 
upper reaches of the great Yangtsze River. 
The Nisshin Kisen Kaisha has a paid-up 
capital of 8,100,000 yen, a reser\-e fund of 
2i993,ooo yen and a fleet of fifteen fine 
steamers aggregating a tonnage of 45,000, 
the business at present jdelding an annual 
dividend of twelve per cent. The head 
office of the company is at Yuraka-cho, 
Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo, with branch offices at 
Shanghai, Hankow, Chinkiang, Wuhu, Kiu- 
kiang, Changsha, Ichang, and Chunking. 
Regular agencies have been established at 
Nanking, Yochow, Siangtan, Changteh, and 
vShasi. 

The Nisshin Kisen Kaisha maintains five 
lines of steamers plj'ing in the waters of 
China. Some of the finest and most com- 
modious boats are on the Shanghai-Hankow 
line, navigating the vast reaches of the lower 
Yangtsze. The nine vessels on this line 
maintain a regular service five times a week 
with terminus at Hankow, where close con- 
nections are made with the lines branching 
off to other great centres of Chinese trade 
and industry. Descending the Whanpoo 
River from the port of embarkation, the 
vessels of this line soon join the main stream 
of the Yangtsze on the way to Hankow by 
way of Chinkiang and intermediate ports. A 
further service is maintained on the Shanghai- 
Ichang line, the Hankow-Ichang line, the 
Hankow-Siantang line, the Hankow-Chanteh 
line, and the Poyang Lake line. Under 
special arrangements with the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha and the Osaka Shosen Kaisha passen- 
gers may transfer from the steamers of the 
Nisshin Kisen Kaisha and proceed to ports 
served by these lines. 

In Shanghai three vessels of the Nisshin 
Kisen Kaisha moor at the same pier as those 
of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, while the rest of 
the fleet for Hankow may be found at the 
company's own wharf across the river at 
Pootung. As the boats of the Nisshin Kisen 
Kaisha always sail at midnight passengers 
have to go on board the previous evening. 
A launch runs every hour from the Shanghai 
pier for the convenience of those embarking at 



Pootung. Those desiring to see the most 
interesting portions of old China with con- 
venience and up-to-date comforts can not do 
better than take the boats of the Nisshin 
Kisen Kaisha from Shanghai and proceed up 
the Yangtsze, connecting with the various 
other lines at Hankow and reaching by the 
way such ancient cities as Chinkiang, with its 
densely crowded streets and picturesque 
civilisation, situated on the southern bank of 
the river about 165 miles above the port of 
departure. Here the grand canal constructed 
during the Sui dynasty joins the river, 
at one time the main waterway between 
Chinkiang, Tientsin, Soochow, and Hang- 
chow. Chinkiang is not only one of the 
principal emporiums of trade on China's 
greatest river, but possesses many ancient 
temples and other structures of more than 
ordinary historic interest. Next the com- 
pany's boats arrive at Nanking, the ancient 
capital of China, some 212 miles from Shang- 
hai. Nanking was long the seat of govern- 
ment under the Ming emperors, and the 
colossal walls they constructed, 40 to 90 feet 
high and 22 miles in circumference, still stand 
to attract the keen attention of every traveller. 
Having been the national capital for so many 
centuries Nanking has many interesting 
places and buildings, while the celebrated 
Ming tombs are not far away. Some fifty 
miles farther up the river one comes to Wuhu, 
with its pretty environs of undulating hills, 
its quaint street scenes, and its famous rice 
market. Here connections may be made 
with Luchow and other important centres. 
The boat next calls at Kiukiang, 444 miles 
above Shanghai, one of the chief tea markets 
of China, and also a famous centre of the 
porcelain market, the latter being the finest 
made in China. From here the traveller 
may take a trip to Kuling, one of the most 
attractive summer resorts in China, with 
bracing atmosphere and splendid natural 
scenery. Finally the steamer moors at the 
Hankow pier, after a trip of 600 miles from 
Shanghai, the fine city of Wuchang being 
directly opposite. Hankow is the great 
metropolis of central China whence trade 
branches out into all the famous nine pro- 
vinces, and is destined one day to become 
the Chicago of the Far East, the population 
being already nearly one million. The foreign 
settlement at Hankow is pleasantly situated 
on an expansive area a little to the south of 
the native city, running some five miles along 
the river front. 

From Hankow the traveller may take any 
of the other Nisshin Kisen Kaisha lines to the 
many important centres of trade and popula- 
tion that lie along the higher regions of the 
Yangtsze. Starting for Ichang the boat calls 
at Yochow at the entrance to Lake Tunting, 



one of the finest and most picturesque inland 
sheets of water in China, sixty miles long 
and thirty wide. The home of numerous 
mandarins and the Commissioner of Maritime 
Customs, Yochow is a pleasant place to stop 
over, having enough places of antiquarian 
interest to occupy all the time at one's dis- 
posal. Some seventy miles farther on the 
boat arrives at Shasi, another interesting 
place; and then, after a voyage of 387 miles 
from Hankow, the city of Ichang is reached, 
with its commodious w'harves and great walls 
and well-placed foreign settlement. The 
scenery around Ichang is ver\' beautiful, 
with magnificent green hills rising in every 
direction; and some five miles away is the 
noted gorge where the river narrows between 
precipitous clififs to about four hundred yards, 
and affords one of the most picturesque,boat 
trips imaginable. It is really equal to any- 
thing on the Rhine or the Hudson. Proceed- 
ing up the Siangkiang River from Lake 
Tunting the boat arrives at the fine old city of 
Changsha, said to be one of the cleanest cities 
of China, with many interesting sights and a 
population of over half a million. About 18 
miles farther the steamer reaches Siangtan, a 
great distributing centre for rice, tea, and coal. 

To reach the interesting old city of Chang, 
teh one must take the boat from Hankow- 
proceeding up the Yuen River, the place 
being a centre of vegetable oil industry. 
Soochow, the Venice of the Orient, is also a 
place of noted scenes, and famous for its 
exquisite silks and brocades. One may also 
visit Hangchow, said to be the prettiest city 
in China, and the provincial capital of Cheki- 
ang. It is a trip of not more than 113 miles 
from Shanghai and should not be omitted by 
any one who desires to see the best part of 
the country. Not very far from Hangchow 
the famous tidal bore is to be seen, considered 
one of the wonders of the world. The best 
time to witness it is at the time of the 
autumn equinox, two days after full moon. 

It will thus be seen that the steamers of the 
Nisshin Kjsen Kaisha afford every accom- 
modation for seeing the most accessible and 
interesting portions of ancient China at 
reasonable expense. The entire voyage from 
Shanghai to Hankow on the main line of the 
Yangtsze costs no more than 40 Mexican 
dollars, first class, and 25, second class, and 
other trips in proportion. All information 
will be gladly supplied and tickets arranged by 
application to any of the company's offices. 

THE TOYO KISEN KAISHA 
Though among the youngest of Japan's 
great steamship companies, having been 
founded only in 1896, the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 
or Oriental Steamship Company, has made a 
remarkable record of progress and efficiency. 





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TOVO KISEN KAISHA, LTD.; S. S. "TENYO MARU" LEAVING WHARF AT YOKOHAMA — HEAD OFFICE AT TOKYO — "S1DERL\ MARU," 20,000 
TONS — "KOREA MARU," 20,000 TONS — "SHINYO MARU," 22,000 TONS, SISTER SHIP OF "XENYO MARU" 



I90 



P R E S E N T - D A V IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



(Jn a capital of 32,500,000 yen the Toyo 
Kisen Kaisha runs two trans-Pacific lines: 
one to the United States and the other 
to South America. The North American 
line maintains a fortnightly service between 
Japanese ports, Honolulu, and San Fran- 
cisco on the one hand, and Shanghai, Manila, 
and Hongkong on the other. The eight 
magnificent boats on this service have 
earned a well-de.served reputation for com- 
fort, speed, and punctuality, forming one of 
the most popular lines between America and 
the Orient. Indeed, on any of the com- 
pany's ships passages usually have to be 
engaged long beforehand if passengers are 
to avoid inconvenience as to dates of sailing. 

The larger ships of the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 
such as the Tenyo Maru and the Shinyo 
Maru, were built in the Mitsu Bishi yards 
at Nagasaki, have a displacement of 22,000 
tons, a speed of over 21 knots an hour, and 
are among the finest boats crossing the 
Pacific, being fitted with turbine engines, 
consuming liquid fuel, and possessing all the 
up-to-date appointments of the famous 
Atlantic liners. The vessels are 570 feet 
long, 63 feet beam, and can carry 261 first 
class and 73 second class, as well as 742 
steerage passengers. Three spacious decks 
afford 4,000 feet of promenade area, while 
the cabins are of liberal dimensions, the 
dining saloon and ladies' parlour being 
beautifully decorated and of ample propor- 
tions. The lounge, library, and smoking 
rooms are also artistically finished and well 
adapted to their purposes. Indeed, every 
modem device for the comfort and safety of 
passengers has been employed in the con- 
struction of these palatial steamers, repre- 
senting, as they do, not only the highest 
expression of the shipbuilder's art in material, 
construction, and stability, but providing 
that splendour, ease, and space that travellers 
nearly always appreciate. These vessels 
have been built in conformity with Lloyd's 
exacting requirements and the equally 
stringent regulations of the Japanese Govern- 
ment. The other four vessels of the com- 
pany's American line are all over 8,800 and 
up to 20,000 tons displacement, and make 
speedy voyages with every convenience that 
the most fastidious traveller can require. 
Of all the steamers leaving the Golden Gate 
bearing the tourist westward over the vast 
Pacific, none are more palatial, safer, or 
more fleet than those of the Toyo Kisen 
Kaisha. 

The enterprise of the Oriental Steamship 
Company', however, is not limited to pro- 
viding fast and luxurious ser\dce between 
the United States and the Far East, as the 
company has also a fine line of steamers 
plying between Japan, Hongkong, and South 



America, a venture that began when the 
Toyo Kisen Kaisha was a pioneer in this 
direction, but which has been attended by 
signal success. The vessels of the South 
American line, three in number, are from 
14,000 to 18,000 tons displacement, and run 
regularly between points in Japan and Hong- 
kong, via Honolulu, Hilo, San Franci.sco, Los 
Angeles, Salinas Cruz, Panama, Callao, Iqui- 
que, and Valparaiso. This line affords the 
only direct service between the Orient and 
South America via San Francisco. The 
company has in addition a fine service of 
tank steamers, carrying oil from California 
to Japan and the Far East. 

The president of the Toyo Kisen Kaisha 
is Mr. Soichiro Asano, a gentleman of great 
personality, originality, and achievement, to 
whom the company owes much of its remark- 
able success. Though associated with sev- 
eral other important national enterprises, 
Mr. Asano seems never too busy to take a 
keen and personal interest in the passengers 
travelling by the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, often 
inviting them in parties to his magnificent 
residence in Tokyo and making their first 
visit to Japan one of warm welcome. Two 
of his able assistants are Mr. R. Asano, a 
graduate of Harvard University, and Mr. 
Nakashima, at the head office of the company 
in Yokohama. The Toyo Kisen Kaisha has 
reaped a great harvest during the war and 
is now promoting hotel enterprises, having 
purchased and reconstructed the Oriental 
Hotel at Kobe, for the comfort and accom- 
modation of travellers to the Far East. 

THE YAMASHITA KISEN KABUSHIKI 

KAISHA (yAMASHITA STEAMSHIP 

COMPANY, limited) 

This company, whose history is one of 
rapid expansion, covers a wide range of 
activities. Beside the shipping business it is 
conducting a general brokerage and mer- 
cantile agency, trading in fuel, directing 
mining and dock operations, and in other 
ways stimulating and developing the indus- 
trial and business energies of the Empire. 
The capital of the company amounts to Yen 
10,000,000 and the Board of Directors com- 
prises the following: President, Mr. K. 
Yamashita; Vice-President, Mr. K. Matsuki 
(late President of the Tokyo Municipal Elec- 
tric Bureau and Director of the Imperial 
Board of Railways); Managing Directors, 
Messrs. M. Itani and S. Hata; Director, 
Mr. B. Hayayashi, and Auditor, Mr. T. 
Machida, President of the Uraga Dock 
Company. 

The Yamashita Company originated with 
Mr. K. Yamashita, who founded the business 
in 1 894 at which time he was Manager of the 
Yokohama Coal Company. Mr. Yamashita 



was conspicuously successful, and his business 
having developed to embrace other lines of 
trade, he rapidly added one department after 
another to his activities. He opened a 
shipping and forwarding business in 1903 
with the S. S. Kisagata Maru. Eight years 
later he formed a partnership and instituted 
the Yamashita Steamship Company, which 
in the following year (1912) took over the 
Nippon Shosen Kwaisha, a steamship com- 
pany with several vessels. This step gave 
the Yamashita Company a foremost place in 
the shipping industry, and started it on its 
real career of prosperity, the concern being 
noted already before the present world war 
as one of the leaders in Japan's mercantile 
marine. In May, 191 7, the company was 
reorganised as the Yamashita Kisen Kabus- 
hiki Kaisha, a limited liability corporation 
controlling enormous interests. 

The company's regular fleet is as follows: 
Teikoku Maru, Itsukushima Maru, Biiyo 
Maru, Bushu Maru, Asahi Maru, Otaru 
Maru 2nd, Otaru Maru 3rd, Echigo Maru, 
Togo Maru, Akebono Maru, Toyotomi Maru, 
Doyo Maru, Sodegaura Maru, Yoshida Maru 
1st, and Yoshida Maru 2nd. These vessels, 
with three others which are nearing com- 
pletion, give the company a gross tonnage of 
60,276, and a deadweight carrying capac- 
ity of 82,729 tons. In addition to this fleet 
the Yamashita Company has chartered rights 
over the following vessels: Uraga Maru, 
Rokuko Maru, Shokwa Maru, Miyo Maru, 
Fuzan Maru, Kinko Maru, Katori Maru, 
Toto Maru, Chiyoda Maru, Hirado Maru, 
Toshima Maru, Chichibu Maru, Etsuyo Maru, 
and the Masaki Maru. 

The company's business includes that of 
shipping, forwarding, chartering, and brok- 
erage, and among its agencies is that of the 
London Marine Insurance Co., handling 
ordinary and war-risk insurance. A big 
trade is done by the Yamashita organisation 
in domestic and foreign fuels. Among the 
subsidiary companies directed by the Yama- 
shita combine are the Yamashita Sekitan 
Kabushiki Kaisha (Yamashita Coal Co., Ltd.), 
capital Yen 1,000,000; Fukushima Tanko 
Kabushiki Kaisha (Fukushima Coal Mining 
Co., Ltd.); capital Yen 2,000,000, and the 
Honbetsu Tanko Kabushiki Kaisha (Hon- 
betsu Coal Mining Co., Ltd.), capital 
Yen 1,000,000. The two coal mines re- 
ferred to are now set in working order and 
they are expected within a year or two to 
have an annual total output of 600,000 tons 
of coal. In order to govern these various 
enterprises Mr. Yamashita formed the 
Yamashita Gomei Kaisha, an investing 
organisation. 

Mr. Yamashita intends to take a big step 
in the marine insurance business by accepting 



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YAMASHITA KISEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA: THE NEW BRANCH OFFICES AT TOKYO — S. S. "YOSHIDA MARU' 



192 



I' K R S E N T - 1) A \' IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



one-quartor of the shares in the Fuso Marine 
Insurance Company, which is expected any 
moment to be estabhshed under his auspices 
with a capital of Yen 10,000,000. The great 
Yamashita Company is also deeply inter- 
ested in shipbuilding, having bought up a 
large number of shares in the Uraga Dock 
Company. It is fiu"ther intended to open 
up iron and steel works, so it may be seen to 
what an important and varied extent the 
Yamashita concern is interested in general 
affairs, and how rapid and substantial has 
been its development. The head office of 
the company is at 47 Nichome, Sakae-michi, 
Kob^. Branches are maintained at 37 It- 
chome, Kitajimacho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, 
and at 31 14 Yo-chome, Higashi Honmachi, 
Moji. Agencies of the Yamashita Kisen 
Kabushiki Kaisha exist at London, New 
York, Seattle, San Francisco, Honolulu, 
Shanghai, Hongkong, Singapore, Penang, 
Colombo, Bombay, Port Said, and Sydney 
(Australia). 
(See also page 732.) 

KABUSHIKI KAISHA SHOSHO-YOKO 
This concern is one of those remarkable 
developments of the past two decades in 
Japanese commerce and industr)', and 
already large and important though it is, 
it is certain to play an even yet more impor- 
tant part in the economic life of Japan in 
the not distant future. The Shosho-Yoko 
has far outgrown many similar businesses, 
and its operations are widespread and varied, 
covering a whole range of industrial and com- 
mercial activity, not only in Japan, but in 
China, and farther afield. 

The Shosho-Yoko was originally estab- 
lished in 1889 by the late Mr. H. Shimomura, 
the founder of the Hokkaido Colliery and 
Railway Company, who was renowned as 
one of the most enterprising business men of 
his day in Japan. Mr. Shimomura was the 
pioneer of the export of Japanese hardwood 
sleepers from Hokkaido to North China at the 
time when that territory was being developed 
by railways. In fact this was the first pur- 
pose of the concern, and as an experiment it 
was watched with great interest, and its suc- 
cess directed attention to the enterprise of the 
Shosho-Yoko. It was in 1894 that Mr. T. 
Yamamoto, the present principal of the com- 
pany, entered the service of the Shosho-Yoko 
as manager of the office at Tientsin. Mr. 
Yamamoto was only twenty-two years of age 
at the time, and was fresh from the Agri- 
cultural College at Sapporo, Hokkaido, when 
he entered upon a business career which has 
been conspicuously brilliant. He showed 
himself to be a man of extraordinary business 
capacity and energy, and under his manage- 
ment the Shosho-Yoko grew from a compara- 



tively small firm into a great enterprise. Mr. 
Shimomura retired, and Mr. Yamamoto took 
entire charge of the business, expanding it in 
all directions. At present it is registered as a 
limited company with a capital of 5,000,000 
yen, l)Ut its annual business transactions 
embrace a sum of nearly fifty million yen. 
The oijerations of the Shosho-Yoko are con- 
ducted under four departments, viz.. Timber, 
Coal, Shipping, and Shipbuilding. The Ship- 
ping Department has, since the outbreak of 
the war, been enormously enlarged. 

The Shosho-Yoko has the distinction of 
having introduced the Kaiping coal to Japan. 
This operaition resulted from a trial shipment 
some eight years ago when one of the com- 
pany's steamers carrying timber from Hok- 
kaido to China, returned with a trial ship- 
ment of coal, and demonstrated its true value 
for steam and general purposes, particularly 
for gas making and for smelting coke, for 
which latter purpose it exceeds in value the 
best Japanese coal. The Shosho-Yoko is now 
sole sales agent in Japan for the Kailan 
Mining Administration which operates the 
enormous coal fields of Kaiping territory. 
This enterprise of the Shosho-Yoko, like the 
original experiment of shipping Japanese 
hardwood to China, was regarded as a foolish 
move, in view of Japan's own great coal-pro- 
ducing capacity, and the result of the trial 
shipments was watched with much interest. 
When its success was seen, the energy and 
foresight of Mr. Yamamoto and his company 
received another great advertisement. The 
success of the move may be gathered from the 
fact that now over 600,000 tons of Kaiping 
coal are annually imported to Japan. Con- 
tinuing a progressive policy the Shosho-Yoko 
purchased its own collieries in Japan, taking 
over the Koyanose Colliery Company at the 
end of 191 6 and purchasing the Fukuoka 
coal mines at Kyushu early in 1917. A vig- 
ourous development policy was put in force 
and these collieries are now turning out 20,000 
tons of the best quality coal per month. New 
shafts are being sunk and it is expected that 
the output from the Fukuoka mines alone 
will be raised to 700,000 tons per annum. 
To handle this output the Shosho-Yoko has 
not hesitated to spend its money on new 
wharves and shipping plant. The company 
is also interested in the Kanko Mining Com- 
pany at Kankonando, Chosen, which pro- 
duces the only bituminous coal in the depen- 
dency. Another enterprise associated with 
the coal-mining interests of the Shosho-Yoko 
is the establishment of a coke works at 
Higashi-Kanagawa, near Yokohama. This 
factory is now producing 100 tons daily of the 
best quality of smelting and industrial coke, 
for which the demand in Japan has increased 
enormously owing to the rapid expansion of 



engineering and other manufacturing works 
of all classes. 

Of the original operations of the Shosho- 
Yoko, the shipment of Japanese hardwood 
for railway and similar purposes, it need only 
be said that this industry has steadily pro- 
gressed. The leading buyers are the Kailan 
Mining Administration which use the com- 
pany's mining props exclusively, and the 
railways of North China, as well" as the prin- 
cipal Chinese contractors. Although this 
department of the Shosho-Yoko business does 
not enjoy the same degree of prosperity as 
other departments, owing to high freights, it 
is nevertheless one of which the concern is 
justly proud because it was the pioneer of an 
important industry. The cutting and prep- 
aration of timber is going on on a large scale 
at Saghalien, Hokkaido, and Hoki, and the 
annual sales of such products as mining props, 
sleepers, round poles, square logs, etc., in 
China and Japan aggregate about 2,000,000 
cubic feet. 

The Shipping Department of the Shosho- 
Yoko was originally established for the 
sole pvupose of handling the timber and coal 
shipments, but upon the outbreak of the war 
Mr. Yamamoto, who is especially quick to 
seize an opportunity, realised the impending 
shortage of tonnage, bought several ships, 
and chartered as many more as his success 
allowed. Again it was considered in general 
business circles that this step was an auda- 
cious one, but it was a decision not based on 
a desire for speculation, but upon the soundest 
judgment and foresight. Once more the 
success of the Shosho-Yoko policy had to be 
admitted. To-day the firm's house-flag with 
the character "Matsu" (pine) is to be seen 
not only in every port of Japan and China, 
but also in British and American ports. The 
investment in ships can not fail to remain a 
successful one, because even if after the war 
freights fall, the Shosho-Yoko will have hun- 
dreds of thousands of tons of its own products 
to transport, and thus derive the benefit of 
reduced freights and its own management of 
the vessels. Of the Shosho-Yoko fleet five 
large vessels are engaged in trading overseas 
in Europe, America, the South Sea Islands, 
and the Pacific. The remaining vessels, 
mostly on time charter, are engaged in the 
Chinese and coastwise traffic. Following 
are the ships owned by the Shosho-Yoko: 
Daiten Marti (5,800 tons), Daisai Maru 
(4,800), Tansan Maru (3,800), Miyo Maru 
(3,350), No. 6 Fukusan Maru (1,420). Total, 
5 vessels, 19,170 tons. Chartered steamers: 
Rokko Maru (3,600 tons), Omuro Maru 
(3,400), Yesan Maru (4,600), Shokwa Maru 
(3.300), Paling Maru (3,100), Nichihoku 
Maru (2,800), Kinko Maru (2,700), Takeshi- 
ma Maru (2,100), Kfllohuki Maru (1,850), 




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S. S. "dAITEN MARU" — TIMBER DEPOT, SAGHALIEN, SHOWING STOCKS OF MINING PROPS AND SLEEPERS ON THE PRIVATE RAILWAY OF 

THE SHOSHO YOKO, CONNECTING THE TIMBER DEPOT WITH THE SEAPORT OF ODOMARI — NISHISHIN SHAFT, FUKUOKA 

MINES, OWNED BY SHOSHO YOKO— HEAD OFFICES OF THE GOSHI KAISHA SHOSHO YOKO, TOKYO 



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TOKYO SHIPPING CO., LTD.: TYPE OF STE.^MER OWNED BY THE COMP.\NY THE GENER.\L OFFICE — THE M.\N.^GER'S PRIV.ATE OFFICE 



1' R !•; S E N T - I) AY I M P R IC S S I O N S OF J A I' A N 



195 



Taishu Maru (1,800), Fuyo Maru (1,600), 
Yahiko Maru (4,000), Miyoshino Maru (3,900), 
Yechigo Maru (3,600), Karafuto Maru (3,150), 
Heiitia Maru (3,000), Fudo Maru (2,600), 
Choko Maru (2,100), Yeikn Maru (1,900), 
Dainichisan Maru (900), Sanpeisan Maru 
(900). Total 21 vessels, 56,900 tons. 

The Shosho-Yoko has now organised a 
dockyard company with a capital of Yen 
1,000,000, to construct dry-docks in the 
harbour of Yoshiura, and the work is being 
advanced at such a rate as to warrant the hope 
that in the course of a few months the yards 
will l>e able to turn out five steamers of from 
2,000 to 3,000 tons, and two vessels of 5,000 
tons each. There is no doubt that for such an 
undertaking the outlook is very bright. 

From this recital of the activities of the 
Shosho-Yoko it may readily be seen what a 
vigourous and enterprising concern it is, and 
how wide-spread are its activities. The suc- 
cess attained by Mr. Yamamoto has been 
most pronounced, and all the more con- 
spicuous because his efforts have been di- 
rected generally in new Unes of enterprise. 

The head office of the Shosho-Y'oko is at 



3-chome, Ginza, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. The 
Shipping Department is at No. 5 B, Kaigan- 
dori, Kobe. It also has branches at Tientsin, 
North China, Nagoya, Osaka, Wakamatsu, 
Imajuku, Hakata Bay, Yonago, Hoki, Odo- 
mari, Saghalien, Chinwangtao, and Yoko- 
hama. Mr. Yamamoto is Managing Director. 
Mr. T. Ogawa is chief of the Shipping Depart- 
ment. Other officers of the Shosho-Yoko are 
Mr. N. Inoh, Manager of the head office, and 
Mr. I. Mori, General Secretary. 

THE TOKYO SHIPPING COMPANY, 
LIMITED 

A STRIKING instance of the vigour with 
which Japanese business men have entered 
into the shipping industry is fiu-nished in the 
case of the Tokyo Kaiun Kabushiki Kaisha, 
or the Tokyo Shipping Company, Ltd. This 
company came into existence on June 3, 1917, 
under the auspices of Messrs. Kiyomatsu 
Tokushima, Nobujiro Iguchi, Makoto Ogawa, 
and Hanroku Ota. The inital capital was 
Yen 2,000,000 which was quickly subscribed. 
At once the new company chartered vessels, 
and entered upon the lucrative business of 



marine transport, at the same time placing 
orders for the construction of steamers of 
modem design for deep sea freight carrying, 
and also for the coastal trade. On October i , 
19 1 7, an amalgamation was effected with the 
Hokkai Shipping Company, Ltd., and the 
capital of the joint concern was raised to Yen 
2,750,000. What a rapid development has 
taken place may be seen from the state- 
ment of the fleet, on the ne.xt page, now 
under the control of the company. 

The Tokyo Shipping Company, Ltd., has 
also purchased the Kirishimasan Maru, of 
7,300 tons D. W., for delivery on December 
31, 1917, and has under construction the 
vessels shown in the second table on the 
next page. 

It can easily be seen what energy has been 
displayed by the new company during the few 
short months it has been in existence, to 
enable it to command such a volume of ship- 
ping. The policy of the directors is an 
ambitious one, though well justified by the 
healthy tone which prevails in Japanese ship- 
ping circles, and by the strong demand that 
will obtain, even when the war is over, for 




THE HEAD OFFICE OF MESSRS. TANIMICHI & CO., TOKYO 



196 



P R E S K N T - I) A \ 



IMPRESSIONS 



O F 



.1 A P A X 



shipping space. Mr. Tokushima is the 
Managing Director of the Tokyo Shipping Co., 
Ltd., and his co-directors arc Messrs. Iguchi, 
Ogawa, and Ota. The head office of the 
company is at No. 7 Hiramatsu Cho, Nihon- 
bashi-ku, Tokyo. 

T.\NIMICHI AND COMP.\NY, 

INCORPORATED 

Messrs. Tanimichi & Co., Inc., transact 
a large volume of business as steamship agents 
and ship and freight brokers, their business 
having expanded considerably since the great 
development in the shipping interests of 
Japan. The firm is one of the oldest estab- 
lished concerns in this line of activity, having 
been founded in 1 889 by the late Mr. Eikitsu 
Tanimichi. It was originally a private con- 
cern, but in February, 1908, the business was 
incorporated as the Goshi Kaisha Tanimichi 
Shoten with a capital of Yen 10,000. The 
partners are Messrs. Seinosuke Tanimichi, 
Manager, Kotaro Tanimichi and Masao 
Nakai, the liability of the latter two being 
limited, in accordance with the law under 
which the firm was incorporated. Messrs 



Vessels owned : 



Vessels under ch, 



Takeno Maru 1,800 tons D. W. 

Tenun Maru 910 " 

rtcr: Taislio Maru 4>50Q " 

Taman Maru 4,500 " 

Tsuru Maru 4,250 " 

Kaga Maru 3,450 " 

Ularu Maru I 3,200 " 

Kissho Maru 3,200 " 

Kabajuto Maru 3A50 " 

Toryo Maru 2,850 " 

Fukuju Maru 2,350 " 

Cliisan Maru 2,300 " 

Mansei Maru II 2,250 " 

Jun Maru 1,585 " 

Kashin Maru 1,450 " 

Shunyo Marti 500 " 

Kinko Maru V 480 " 



Tama Maru 4,900 tons D. W. 

Sumida Maru 2,000 " " 

Ayase Maru 1,600 " " 

Onuma Maru 870 " " 

Saru Maru 230 " " 



Tanimichi & Co., Inc., have their head office 
at No. 12 Nishigashi, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, 
and a branch has been established at Kobe, 



where the bulk of the shipping business is now 
being done. The cable address of the firm is 
"Tanimichi," Tokyo. 





THE BENTEN-DORI, A FAMOUS SHOPPING CENTRE FOR FOREIGNERS 

XII. The Port of Yokohama 

History and Progress— Government, Finance, Commerce, and 
Industry— Commercial Notice 



YOKOHAMA is the gateway through 
which most travellers find their w'ay 
to Japan. Its name seems familiar 
even to the untravelled, while to everj' tourist 
it recalls first impressions of the Far Eastern 
wonderland. Approaching the city from the 
sea it seems a vast aggregation of houses 
covering the extensive reclaimed foreshore, 
with well inhabited hills rising like sentinels in 
the background. The harbour is filled with 
shipping of every sort and nationality ; and on 
shore everywhere are signs of active indus- 
try and trade. This is the ocean gateway 
through which Japan pours a great part of her 
silk and other merchandise into the markets 
of the world. The premier port of Japan in 
volume of trade, Yokohama claims over 40 per 
cent of the nation's total foreign commerce, 
and has a larger foreign population than any 
other city in Japan. 

Yet sixty years ago Yokohama was but a 
tiny fishing village on a marshy beach near the 
town of Kanagawa. When the Tokugaw-a 



authorities concluded the first treaties with 
Western powers, opening up Japan to foreign 
trade and intercourse, Hakodate, Kanagawa, 
and Nagasaki were designated as open ports. 
Soon afterward the French Minister estab- 
lished his residence there, and the British and 
American consuls were lodged in temples. A 
few foreign merchants had by this time settled 
in Kanagawa; but, as the tow-n was on the 
main highway of the Empire, the Tokaido 
as the Japanese called it, the authorities 
thought the proximity of foreigners to the 
route taken by the great daimyo processions 
on their way to the shogun's capital might 
engender foreign complications. This actu- 
ally did happen in one notable case w-hen the 
Englishman, Richardson, was attacked and 
killed by the men of Satsuma because he 
failed to dismount as their daimyo was passing. 
Consequently the Government deemed it 
safer to have the foreign settlement at Yoko- 
hama, although the treaties definitely desig- 
nated Kanagawa as the site of the open port. 



The foreigners, in the person of their consuls, 
protested against the change, on the ground 
that Kanagawa was the place named in the 
treaties, and that it was an unfriendly act to 
banish the foreigners to the insignificant fish- 
ing village of Yokohama. The authorities of 
the shogun were inclined to heed the protest 
as reasonable, but Midzuno, lord of Chikugo, 
interfered and insisted on the decision of the 
Government being acted upon. So the 
foreign consuls were duly informed that, 
although the site selected for the foreign 
settlement was not exactly in Kanagawa, it 
was at the northern boundary of the district; 
that if foreigners were allowed to frequent the 
main highway of the Empire collisions 
between them and obstinate samurai were 
likely to arise; that although Yokohama had 
no harboiu- it was a better site for the con- 
struction of one than Kanagawa, where the 
foreshore was precipitous, and as Yoko- 
hama was in the vicinity of watering 
places like Kamakura and Enoshima, it was 



14 



iqS 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




THE LAW COURTS, YOKOHAMA 



certain to become an important town and well 
suited to the residence of foreigners. The 
foreigners at first were not disposed to fall in 
with the decision of the authorities, for, being 
not verj" familiar with Japanese customs, they 
supposed that if they were cut off from the 
daimyo routes they would be deprived of 
valuable opportunities of trade with the 
wealthy feudal chieftains. However, at the 
order of the Government, many foreign 
merchants opened offices in Yokohama, and 
the place soon proved to be a much better site 
for trade than Kanagawa. 

Those visiting the large and flourishing city 
that is now known as Yokohama can hardly 
realise the vast changes that have taken 
place since foreigners first began to settle 
there. From the spacious and imposing 
waterfront of to-day, with its magnificent 
buildings, onward to the end of the settle- 
ment at Honmoku, there stretched in the old 
days nothing but a reedy marsh with heaps of 
shells here and there, together w4th a few- 
scattered huts, hardly more than a hundred in 
all. With the transfer of the foreign con- 
cession to Yokohama a great transformation 
at once began, of which the present city is the 
proud achievement. 

Originally there were three villages, Yoko- 
hama, Ota, and Tobe, swamps and streams 
separating them; but when the merchants 
began to flock into the newly opened port, 
all those doing business with the Govern- 
ment were ordered to engage in reclaiming 
the land as far as possible, until finally the 
three tiny villages became one large town. 
Soon the people in Kanagawa found that if 
they wanted to deal in the best shops they had 
to go over to Yokohama, and it was not long 
until they decided that Yokohama was also 



the best place to live. Foreign merchants 
coming to Yokohama took land on perpetual 
lease for a nominal ground rent and exempt 
from further taxation. Many of these lots 
are still held by foreign firms, and as the 
value has in the meantime enormously in- 
creased the authorities have sought to le\-y 
taxes over and above the original agreement. 
The attempt, however, was frustrated by an 
appeal to The Hague Tribunal, which resulted 
in a decision in favour of the contention of 
the foreigners. There are some 650 of these 
perpetual leases still valid in Yokohama, 
representing about 1,353,628 square feet of 
land, paying an annual rental of 60,406 yen. 
The first foreign building in Yokohama was 
owned by a British firm, as was also the 
second, while the third one was owned by an 
American firm; and this proportion has con- 
tinued pretty well ever since. These pio- 
neers in the foreign settlement, following the 
instincts of their civilisation, at once set about 
making a model city, and by 1869 the whole 
waterfront was improved. Ten years later 
Yokohama had been completely transformed 
from a village to a great and growing city. 
In i860 there were only 100 houses, which by 
1867 had grown to a population of 21,000, 
and in 1897 to 187,400. To-day the popula- 
tion of the port is over 450,000, with some 
90,000 households. Nowhere in Japan are 
the benefits of Western influence more appar- 
ent than in Yokohama, which, so far as the 
foreign settlement goes, is more like a pro- 
gressive Western city than an Oriental port. 
It is only fair to state, however, that since 
the revision of treaties and the abolition of 
extraterritoriality, the Japanese authorities in 
Yokohama have utiUsed their assumption of 
autonomy to preserve as far as possible the 



policy initiated by the foreigners in the settle- 
ment, though they have not always been as 
successful as they might desire. Foreigners in 
Yokohama, of whom there are at present 
about 8,000, reside for the most part on the 
beautiful eminence known as the Bluff at 
Honcho, with the exception of the Chinese, 
who occupy numbers 120 to 160 in Ihe settle- 
ment. The influence of foreigners has been 
rendered still more conspicuous by the erec- 
tion of a magnificent City Hall in commem- 
oration of the opening of Yokohama to foreign 
trade, the cost of which was borne by the 
Japanese, with liberal subscriptions from the 
leading foreign firms of the port. Yokohama 
has the most modem streets and gardens 
and the finest hotels in Japan. The Japanese 
city is something apart, most of the best shops 
being in the foreign settlement. The centre 
of native life is Isegaki-cho, where kinemato- 
graph halls, theatres, and restaurants present 
a gay scene, especially at night. The princi- 
pal streets are in the lower town near the 
harbour, where are also located the Govern- 
ment and pubhc offices as well as the foreign 
consulates and great banks. 

GOVERNMENT, FINANCE, COMMERCE, 
AND INDUSTRY 

From an administrative point of view 
Yokohama may be regarded as a provincial 
capital, as it is the seat of the Prefectural 
Office, as well as ha\-ing its own municipal 
government, with mayor, municipal council 
and all the latest methods of management 
adopted in Western cities. There is a well 
organised poHce force, modelled in some 
measure after English methods, British offi- 
cers having been employed in the early days 
of its organisation. Owing to constant 
danger from devastating conflagrations the 
Yokohama fire brigade is one of the best in 
the Empire, having over a thousand men. 
The municipal council, which administers the 
affairs of the city, has under its control the 
gas works, waterworks and other undertak- 
ings, including the tramways, which, never- 
theless, are owned by a private company. 
Special attention has been paid by the city 
authorities to the development of education, 
the municipality maintaining a good com- 
mercial school and an adequate number of 
secondary- and primary schools, and in addi- 
tion there are several good mission schools. 
The total number of school children in the 
city is over 50,000. 

Being one of the greatest financial centres 
of the Empire, Yokohama has branches of all 
the great banks, and the head office of the 
Yokohama Specie Bank, which is second only 
to the Bank of Japan, but first in the promo- 
tion of foreign trade. In addition to the 
numerous Japanese banks there are branches 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



199 




VIEW OF YOKOHAMA, TAKEN FROM THE MEMORIAL TOWER, LOOKING WEST ALONG MAIN STREET, 
THE YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK BUILDING IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND 



of the Hongkong & .Shanghai Banking Cor- 
poration, the Chartered Bank of India, 
Australia, and China, the International Bank- 
ing Corporation, the Russo-Asiatic Bank and 
others. The annual revenue of Yokohama 
City is about 3,000,000 yen and the expendi- 
ture usually a trifle less. For gas, water- 
works, hospitals, and cemeteries there is a 
separate and larger account. The city has 
some 250 miles of gas mains connected with 
16,991 houses, representing 70,000 lamps. 
Gas is used for the greater part as motive 
power and for street lighting, as most of the 
houses are lighted by electricity. The gas 
works consume only 22,125 tons of coal 
annually, and the revenue from the service 
is about 900,000 yen a year, on an investment 
of 1,041,364 yen. Yokohama was one of 
the first cities in the Empire to put in a 
modern system of waterworks, from which 
the annual revenue is 572,684 yen and ex- 
penses 444,258 yen. The total foreign 
indebtedness of the municipality is 14,000,000 
yen, involving an annual interest of 780,000 
yen, most of the debt having been incurred 




THE MEMORIAL H.\LL, ERECTED BY' JAPANESE 

AND FOREIGN RESIDENTS TO COMMEMO- 

R.\TE THE OPENING OF THE PORT 



in putting in the gas works and the water 
system. The drainage system of Yokohama, 
which is superior to that of most Japanese 
cities, was carried out on the advice of an 
English engineer. 

Commercially, of course, Yokohama has 
witnessed its greatest development. So 
remarkable has been the growth in this direc- 
tion in recent years that a new harbour works 
was found absolutely necessary to meet the 
situation; and already at great outlay, borne 
largely by the Government but shared by the 
municipality, fine new customs piers with 
adequate warehouses have been constructed. 
The harbour is spacious and well protected 
by breakwaters and can accommodate vessels 
up to 20,000 tons. In the early days the 
Government did not encourage expansion of 
foreign trade, even taking special steps to 
check it; but the inauguration of a modem 
government and the introduction of European 
methods proved that the policy was a mis- 
taken one, and a revolution was soon brought 
about in commercial practice and progress. 
Imports continued to exceed exports almost 



200 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




THE WEST END OF MAIN STREET, YOKOHAMA, LOOKING TOWARD THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY STATION 



even^ year between 1868 and 1876. The 
decade beginning with 1882 saw a great 
increase in the demand for Japanese silk 
abroad, and then exports commenced to 
show a favourable balance of trade. The 
table at the foot of this page will indicate 
the rate of growth in Yokohama's foreign 
trade at intervals of some years. It is 
apparent that Yokohama's ascendency to a 
paramount position in the foreign com- 
merce of the nation is assured, and when the 
Panama route is fully taken advantage of it 
will lend further impetus to Yokohama trade. 
It is not too much to say that similar 
progress is being made by Yokohama along 
industrial lines, though this is a new phase 
of the city's ambition. By decreeing that 
water for industrial purposes should be fur- 
nished free for the first five years of a fac- 
tory's establishment, and the exemption of 
new industries from taxation for the same 
period, great inducements were offered by 
the Yokohama municipality for the promo- 
tion of new enterprises, and capitalists from 
Tokyo, Kob^ and other industrial centres 



began to secure lots and build factories in 
Y'okohama. In 191 1 there were practically 
no industries of any size or significance in 
Yokohama, except, of course, those asso- 
ciated with the business of exporting. By 
191 7, however, there were no less than 125 
new factories, representing some 500 com- 
panies and a capital of nearly 200,000,000 
yen. Among the new undertakings must be 
mentioned several important shipyards cap- 
able of turning out large vessels. 

The interests of merchants and manufac- 
turers in Yokohama are watched over by an 
efficient native Chamber of Commerce, while 
the Foreign Chamber of Commerce has done 
and is doing excellent work in suggestion and 



leadership, to promote the extension of for- 
eign trade. Nowhere in Japan is there 
keener rivalrj' between the native and the 
foreign merchant than in Yokohama; but the 
foreigner seems to be holding his own exceed- 
ingly well, as may be seen by reference to the 
article on Exports and Imports in this 
volume, thus proving that the best e\adence 
of a port's prosperity is its power to attract 
and hold the foreign merchant. The great 
Silk and Rice Exchanges of the nation are 
at Yokohama, as well as the Government 
.Silk Conditioning Office, while native indus- 
trial guilds to the number of over sixty are 
another interesting feature of the city's 
commercial methods. There is but one 



Year 


Exports 


I.\l PORTS 


'I'oTAL 


Yen 


Yin 


Ytn 


i860 
1906 
1911 
1916 


578,907 
200,847,000 
225,174,470 
497,6.13,158 


343,005 
149,070,000 
■54,284,552 
209,737,683 


1,121,912 

349,917,000 
379,459,022 
707,390,841 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



20I 



foreign newspaper at present, the Japan 
Gazelle, printed in English. The Yokohama 
race course, situated near Negishi, is one of 
the finest in Japan, and race-mcctings regu- 
larly are held. Though Yokohama is too 
new to possess the historical relics and 
associations of other Japanese cities, it is a 
pretty and a pleasant place either to visit or 
to reside in. while its commercial importance 
renders it a, centre of vital activity to the 
Empire. 

Brett's ph.vkm.vcy 
The development of Yokohama as the 
oldest centre of foreign commercial influence 
in Japan has brought in its train most of the 
conveniences and services which are usualK- 
associated with a modem town or city. In 
Brett's Pharmacy Yokohama possesses what 
has come to be regarded as a public institu- 
tion, as well organised and as large as any 
similar concern in the Orient. And as a 
matter of fact Brett's Pharmacy has been 
established so long, and has grown so en- 
tirely in keeping with the development of 
Yokohama itself, that it can properly be 
regarded as one of the landmarks of the 
foreign settlement. The business was 
founded considerably over thirty years ago. 
There are very few people who can give the 
history of the Pharmacy, but all know that 
it has been in existence, never failing in its 
ser\'ices to the general community, a fact 
which doubtless explains what seems Hke a 
lack of interest in the names associated at 
different times with the business. The 
original Brett has passed out of present-day 
knowledge. Through various stages of con- 




BRETT S PHARMACY, YOKOHAMA 



trol and direction the business has come down 
to the present time, when it is conducted as 
a proprietary concern under the management 
of Mr. H. V. Hawley, M. P. S. 

Situated in Main Street, at No. 60, Brett's 
Pharmacy occupies a singularly central and 
convenient position for all the foreign resi- 
dents, or visitors at the leading hotels. The 
store itself is a large and commodious two- 
story modem building, with a well arranged 
interior, and ample accommodation for the 
dispensary and other departments of a 




THE YOKOHAMA UNITED CLUB, Ox\ THE BUND 



modern pharmacy. Progressive ideas have 
kept the business well abreast of the times, 
and Brett's Pharmacy presents all the con- 
veniences which are looked for in such an 
institution. Large and complete stocks of 
all standard British and American drugs, 
medicines, toilet requisites, etc., are main- 
tained, and with the numerous transient and 
permanent community continually making 
their purchases, a busy air prevails. There 
is a large staff of foreign qualified dispensers, 
trained in the best colleges. Practically all 
foreign languages are spoken by the staff, 
and prescriptions are dispensed in accordance 
with the pharmacopceias of the country in 
whose language the prescription is written. 
This is a consideration and convenience 
which is greatly appreciated in a community 
like that of Yokohama, which is very cos- 
mopolitan. It also means much to passing 
travellers from foreign countries. The at- 
tendance at the Pharmacy is all that could 
be desired, a day and night service being 
maintained, a qualified foreign chemist being 
always in attendance. 

Brett's Pharmacy has a number of exclu- 
sive agencies, amongst which may be men- 
tioned Gerhard Mennen's products; Kolynos 
Co.'s tooth pastes and other lines; Nyal's 
toilet requisites and proprietary preparations ; 
and the "B. K." disinfectants, prepared by 
the General Laboratories, Inc., Wisconsin, 
U. S. A. This latter agency represents the 
most recent products in antiseptic research, 
"B. K." disinfectants having not so long ago 
been adopted for army medical purposes 
on the Western Front. Another important 



202 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




A PRETTY SPOT IN THE PUBLIC PARK AT YOKOHAMA 



agency is that which has recently been 
acquired for the tabloid products of the 



famous Burroughs & Welcome, Ltd. A num- 
ber of travelling salesmen are now distrib- 




uting these various special lines throughout 
Japan on account of Brett's Pharmacy. 
Laboratory work has also become quite a 
feature of Brett's Pharmacy's business, as 
many as four hundred to five hundred anal- 
yses of a clinical and commercial nature 
being carried out monthly. For some time 
an American soda fountain was maintained 
in the store, but with the expansion of 
business, this department had to be trans- 
ferred to adjacent premises, together with 
the department handling the agency for the 
Columbia Gramaphones. 

Lender the same management is a modem 
aerated mineral water and cordial factory, 
Brett's being the manufacturers of all classes 
of soda water and other distilled waters, 
which are such a boon in a country where 
the water supply is not always above sus- 
picion. In the summer season the plant is 
worked at full capacity, a staff of fourteen 
or fifteen being employed. L'nder the direc- 
tion of the proprietary of Brett's Pharmacy 
are branches at Tokj'o, Karuizawa (the sum- 
mer resort), Osaka, and Harbin, Manchuria. 



THE BUND, OR WATERFRONT, YOKOHAMA 




CHERRY BLOSSOMS 



XIII. Imports and Exports 

(Yokohama and Tokyo Section*) 

Trade in Old Japan — Be(;innings of Trade with Europe— Unlimited Trade — Causes of 

Trade Expansion — General Survey of Markets — Proportion of Raw Materials 

to Finished Articles — Principal Exports and Imports — Japan's Trade Policy 

-Commercial Institutions— Japan's Button Trade— Commercial Notices 



THE story of Japan's abnormal develop- 
ment and appearance as a rival of 
more advanced nations in the great 
trade fields of the world is one of the 
most interesting and remarkable in the 
records of modem enterprise. As Japanese 
history mns back till lost in the mythic ages, 
it is impossible to say just when the nation's 
foreign trade began; but in all probability the 
immigrants from the continent who colonised 
the coast of Idzumo tried to keep up some 
measure of communication with the ancestral 
mainland, and to bring over as far as possible 
the available necessities of civilisation. There 
is mention of iron for spears and of earthen- 
ware utensils, as well as of silk and hemp, all of 
which must at first have been imported from 
Korea. In ancient Yamato imports must 
have formed a more practical commodity than 
exports. With the dawn of recorded history, 
* See Page 661. 



in the sixth century, we read of horses, cotton 
cloth, musical instruments, and jewels, as well 
as of bronze mirrors, coming from the conti- 
nent. It is safe to assume that with increas- 
ing intercourse between Yamato and China in 
the seventh and eighth centuries went on a 
corresponding development of trade, though 
the year's turnover was probably insufficient 
seriously to affect much one way or the other 
the finances of the infant empire, since the 
nation apparently was much more concerned 
with extracting tribute from Korea than in 
pushing commercial enterprise. At any rate, 
trade was sufficient to enable the superior 
intelligence and ciNnlisation of the early 
settlers to overcome the savage aborigines, 
who were left to defend themselves unequally 
with their prehistoric weapons and implements 
of war. The ver>' remarkable development of 
ci\'ilisation and culture that characterised the 



Heian era (800-1 100 A. D.) implied an unusual 
measiu-e of commercial intercourse with Korea 
and China, if not with India, promoted, as 
commerce not infrequently is, by religion. 

BEGINNINGS OF TRADE WITH EUROPE 
With the advent of Europeans in the 
sixteenth centur>- Japanese commerce entered 
on a new phase. The long period of civil 
strife which the Tokugawa regime had ended, 
must have given prominence to trade in 
weapons and munitions of war. But just 
when the land was seething with blood and 
anarchy a Chinese junk was blown ashore on 
the coast of Japan with a Portuguese mer- 
chant adventurer aboard, who was on the 
lookout for new fields of trade. He and his 
two companions quickly saw that Japan was a 
country well worthy of exploitation, and they 
returned to their colony with a tale that 



204 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



brought more Portuguese traders, eager to 
enter the new market. The foreign merchants 
were welcomed by the dainiyo of Japan, the 
great feudatories competing with one another 
in their offers of facilities of trade. For half a 
century or so the Portuguese merchants had 
things all their own way, but, having taken 
into their service and confidence a Dutchman 
named Linschoten, they gave away their 
secret. In consequence, when the Dutch 
shook oflf the domination of Spain, which at 
the time held Portugal, they resolved to send 
ships of their own to the East, since they were 
no longer allowed to deal in Oriental goods at 
Lisbon. On finding their hated rivals in 
possession of the field in Japan, the Dutch 
naturally did all in their power to drive them 
out by fair means or by foul. When they had 
finally succeeded in doing this by arousing the 
suspicions of the authorities against the 
poUtical motives of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese, English arrived, whom the Dutch in 
turn hated and tried to hinder in trade. From 
these bickerings and animosities between 
peoples of the same religion the Japanese 
derived a very poor idea of Western mer- 
chants, who were so willing to betray one 
another for the sake of gold; and consequently, 
in time they obliged all merchants to reside in 
Nagasaki, the Dutch at Deshima and the 
English at Hirado, the latter finally abandon- 
ing the field. 

But the foreigners did a roaring trade while 
it lasted, amounting to over £660,000 a 
year; and during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries they carried out of Japan 
no less than Yen 100,000,000 in gold, until 
the shogun had at last to place restric- 
tions on exports of the precious metal. The 
Dutch made a clear gain of 100 per cent on 
each voyage, while the English gave up after 
a loss of some £40,000. The foreigners at 
any rate succeeded in opening up trade 
between Japan and the Occident, bringing in 
firearms, powder, woollens, and various 
utensils, while taking away silk, lacquer and, 
above all, gold. There are indications ' that 
the Japanese did not fully understand or 
failed to appreciate foreign methods of 
barter and trade. The predominance of the 
military spirit, which always takes instead 
of gives, and despises the mere bargainer, 
placed the merchant at some disadvantage; 
and it is, therefore, all the more remarkable 
that the foreign merchants did so well. 
Trade in Japan was carried on by the 
lowest classes only, who won a reputation as 
tricksters and barter-mongers. The seclusion 
policy of the Tokugawa Government proved 
a serious set-back to foreign trade, which 
did not revive until the reopening of 
the country to foreign commerce in the 
year 1854. 




B.^ROX EIIUCHI SHIBUS.^WA, ONE OF J.^P.^N S 
GRE.\TEST BUSINESS MEN 



UNLIMITED TRADE 
After Commodore Perry's treaty of 
commerce in 1854, followed by similar agree- 
ments with Prussia, France, and England in 
1859, the foreign merchant soon appeared in 
all open ports and began to lay the founda- 
tions on which Japan's foreign trade has since 
been built up. From that time Japan's 
commercial history has been one of unbroken 
progress. The first essays at trade were over- 
cast by the gloom of civil war, and some of the 
earliest imports were in munitions for the 
respective belligerents of the Restoration 
period. Foreigners and Japanese were alike 
ignorant of each other's ways and customs, 
and consequently of the proper values of what 
each had to sell. During the early years of 
the Meiji era trade had to struggle against a 
depreciated irredeemable paper currency, 
liable to fiuctuations of value from day to day, 
while a total w-ant of credit and a low produc- 
tive capacity on the part of the people added 
further complications to commerce. The 
nation had practically no manufacturing 
industries. Exports were confined for the 
most part to agricultural products such as 
silk, tea, and rice, the only manufactures 
being such objects as fans, porcelain, and 
lacquer. Other difficulties of trade arose 
from the fact that although Japan was a 
bimetallic country, silver had practically 
displaced gold; and as the silver market 
depreciated throughout the world the reaction 
on Japanese credit and foreign trade was 
unfavourable. With the revision of the 
monetary system in 1871, introducing a uni- 
form currency, and the establishment of a 
legal system of weights and measures in 1875, 
together with needed improvements in com- 
munications and media of exchange, commerce 
entered on a new and more progressive phase 
wherein modem methods became possible. 



The general commercial awakening of the 
nation must in a large measure be ascribed to 
the efficient assistance of the Government in 
aiming definitely at improvement of commer- 
cial institutions, the establishment of banks 
and educational facilities and means of 
communication based on Western systems. 
The result was a phenomenal growth in the 
progress of trade, together with greatly 
improved methods in commercial intercourse 
By the year 1878 the total trade of the coun- 
try had arisen to twice what it was at the 
beginning of the Restoration in 1 868 ; and ten 
years later it was nearly three times that of 
the previous decade. Capital invested in 
Japanese commercial companies in 1908 was 
twice that of the ten years before, amounting 
to over 120,000,000 yen, a sum that jumped to 
2,700,000,000 in 1916, and to 10,047,000,000 
yen in 1917. In 1908 the total amount of bills 
exchanged at the national clearing houses was 
6,370,000,000 yen, while to-day it is over 
20,1 12,640,000 yen. Thus almost at a bound 
Japan has passed from the land of romance 
and cherry blossoms to a country of trade and 
energetic materialism. 

CAUSES OF TR.\DE EXPANSION 
The two great landmarks in the history of 
Japan's foreign trade are the war with China 
in 1895 and that with Russia in 1905. The 
indemnity of 350,000,000 yen which Japan 
received from China was largely applied to 
reform of national currency; and in 1897 the 
gold standard was adopted, when trade, freed 
from speculative risks inseparable to fluctuat- 
ing exchanges in silver currency, rapidly 
advanced, and lent impetus to manufacturing 
industries as well. A tide of commercial 
prosperity seemed to flow over Japan after the 
war with China. In 1899 the new customs 
tariff increased import duties from 5 per 
cent to over 15 per cent; so that from 
that period the value of goods imported 
must be taken to represent the cost of goods 
as landed in Japan, instead of, as before, 
the cost at the place of production. Men- 
tion of a few figures is sufficient to show the 
remarkable expansion of Japanese trade in 
recent years, especially, as already suggested, 
since the wars with China and Russia. At the 
beginning of the Meiji period in 1868 the total 
trade of Japan amounted to 26,000,000 yen. 
Ten years later it had more than doubled, 
amounting to 56,000,000 yen; while in the 
succeeding decade it increased fivefold to 
over 130,000,000 yen. In 1887, about ten 
years before the war with China, the total 
value of foreign trade was 96,710,000 yen; but 
two years after the war with China it jumped 
to 382,440,000 yen, nearly four times more 
than the total of ten years earlier. The suc- 
cessful termination of the war with China gave 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



205 



a tremfiiiloiis impetus to industrial expansion 
on account of influx of capital for indemnity ; 
and this rate of increase was steadily main- 
tained up to the time of the war with Russia, 
one year after which the nation's foreign 
trade arose to 926,880,000 yen, or more than 
nine and one-half times the total of 1887. 
Indeed, it may be questioned whether any 
other country has shown in its foreign trade 
such a ratio of progress in a similar period. 
With the outbreak of the great war in Europe 
Japanese trade grew to figures still more 
unprecedented, totalling over 1,833,000,000 
for 1916, and in 1917, an abnormal year, the 
total trade of Japan reached the amount of 
2,583,290,000 yen. The causes of this enor- 
mous development must be ascribed to an 
increasing demand for Japanese goods abroad, 
to rapid increase of industrial enterprise 
within the country, and especially to the 
exigencies of the war in Europe. 

The following table gives the totals of 
Japan's foreign trade since 1868; 



fore, had it not been for the war the exports 
for 1916 ought to have totalled about 735,- 
247,541 yen, which is some 392,220,577 yen 
below the actual figures, or an increase of 62 
per cent in exports due to the war alone. At 
the same time it should be borne in mind that 
such calculations deal with values only and 
not with (juantities; and since the prices of 
almost all commodities have advanced con- 
siderably in the war years, the actual quan- 
tities of imports and exports should be 
examined in order to arrive at an accurate 
estimate of the ratio of increase in Japan's 
trade. If this be done the results will show a 
decrease in volume of imports for the year 
1 9 16 of about 26 per cent, while exports will 
show an increase in Quantitv of about 29 per 
cent. 

GENERAL SURVEY OF MARKETS 
A SURVEY of the general position shows that 
the United States of America stands foremost 
in Japan's export trade, China coming next, 



Year 


Exports (Yen) 


Imports (Yen) 


Total (Yen) 


Population 


1868 


15.533,473 
23,349,000 


10,693,072 
27,421,000 


26,246,545 
50,770,000 




1877 


35.768,547 


1882 


37,722,000 


29,447,000 


67,168,000 


37.451,727 


1887 


52,408,000 


44,304,000 


96,712,000 


39,607,234 


1892 


91,103,000 


71,326,000 


162,429,000 


41.388,313 


1897 


163.135.000 


219,301,000 


382,436,000 


43.763.855 


1902 


258,303.000 


371,731,000 


530,034,000 


46.732.876 


1907 


432,414,000 


494,467,000 


926,880,000 


48,825,234 


1908 


378,246,000 


436,257,000 


814,503,000 


49,588,804 


1909 


413,113,000 


394,199,000 


807,311,000 


50,295,279 


1910 


458,429,000 


464,234,000 


922,663,000 


50,939.137 


1911 


447,434,000 


513,806,000 


961,240,000 


5 1,. 59 1. 342 


1912 


526,982,000 


618,992,000 


1,145,974,000 


53,362,682 


1913 


632,460,000 


729,432,000 


1,361,892,000 


55.467,530 


1914 


591,101,000 


595.736,000 


1,186,837,000 


57.442.177 


1915 
1916 
1917 


708,307,000 
1,116,744,465 
1.596,830,000 


532,450,000 

754.933.723 
983,230,000 


1,120,757,000 
1,833,896,028 
2,583,290,000 











Of course the increase of over 40 per cent in 
imports and 57 per cent in exports, a total 
increase of over 112 per cent, represented by 
the war years, can not be taken as normal. To 
ascertain the actual growth of Japanese trade 
during the war years the normal ratio of 
increase must be deducted from the actual. 
If, for example, the figures for the ten years 
preceding the war be examined, they will 
show an increase in the value of imports 
amounting to 41,229,612 yen, which, had the 
war not broken out and the average of imports 
been maintained, would have brought the 
imports of 1916 up to about 853,120,480 yen, 
or 96,692,570 yen less than the actual imports 
for that year, or a fall of over 13 per cent. 
Comparing exports in the same way for a 
similar normal period we find an average 
increase of 34,295,776 yen per annum. There- 



followed by England, France, Russia, British 
India, and Italy, Germany and Austria having 
been eliminated by the war. Asia continues 
to be Japan's best customer, America coming 
second and Europe third, though the whole of 
Europe does not take as much from Japan as 
the United States or China. The war years 
saw an extraordinary increase in Japan's trade 
with Russia, the Dutch East Indies, the 
South Sea regions, and South Africa, which 
may or may not continue. There was also a 
considerable extension of Japanese trade 
toward Egypt and Australia. In regard to 
imports Japan still draws most of her stock 
from British India, England, and the United 
States, after which come China, the Dutch 
East Indies, and French India. 

The main volume of Japanese exports to 
Europe consists of foodstuffs, raw materials. 




AN AGREEABLE OCCUPATION - 
COCOONS 



-SORTING SILK 



and indigenous manufactures in the way of 
luxuries, while to America go chiefly raw silk 
and tea, India and China taking mostly cotton 
yarns and textiles, which commodities also 
had extended sales recently in the South Seas 
on account of the war. With, perhaps, the 
exception of cotton hosiery, Japan's latest 
application of mechanical science plays, as yet, 
an exceedingly small part in Western markets, 
where her exports would recently have show'n 
but slight increase had it not been for the war. 
Most of Japan's manufactures go to Eastern 
markets, in which direction the ratio of 
increase is much more pronounced. In the 




THE SE.\L-CARVER 



206 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



matter of imports, however, Japan gets from 
Europe chiefly manufactured goods, while 
deriving her provisions for the most part from 
Oriental countries. With the increasing and 
rapid development of domestic industry 
Japan will probably import less manufactures 
from the West, and will continue to depend on 



Asia 



China 

Kwantung 

Korea 

Hongkong 

British India 

Straits Settlements. 

Dutch India 

French India 

Russian Asia 

Philippines 

Siam 



Total . 



Europe 



England 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Austria-Hungaiy 

Holland 

Sweden 

Norway 

Russia 

Spain 

Denmark 

Turkey 

Portugal 



Total. 



America 



United States. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Peru 

Chile 

Argentine. . . . 



Total . 



Australasia . . . 

Hawaii 

Egypt 

South Africa . 



Total . 



Other Countries . 
Ambiguous 



1905 



Yen 



98,681,998 
26,618,870 
20,215,081 

7,997.594 
4,424,068 
1,233,011 

406,933 
1,709,787 
1,363,673 

I03,.H2 



162,754,357 



13,039,401 
27,227,473 

4,360,402 
665,520 

8,095,467 

ii.5,S4 
414,106 
161,834 

193 
11,689 

10,584 
77,742 
70,045 
50,516 
604 



54,197,130 



94,009,072 

3,240,036 

60,935 

10,407 



97,320,450 



E.\ PORTS 



I9IO 



Yen 



90,037,354 

17,450,330 

23,459.911 

18,712,918 

6,549,661 

3,133,598 

341,083 

2,503,476 

4,410,505 

533,098 



167,131,934 



Grand Total . 



Eastern countries for her raw materials. The in a remarkably brief period has developed 
following table gives Japan's relations with for- from a purely agricultural to an important 
cigncountriosinrespecttoimportsandexports. industrial and commercial nation. During 

the enforcement of her policy of isolation 

PROPORTION OF RAW MATERIALS TO ^^ade depended almost wholly on agriculture, 

FINISHED ARTICLES ^^^ ^,^^^ ^■^^ country was again opened to 

Enough has been said to show that Japan foreign trade there was an immediate influx of 

— Western manufactures and a return trade was 
at once established. In 1868 trade consisted 

chiefly of imports of cotton and woollen cloth, 

'915 and exports of tea and raw silk, the latter 

covering at least two-thirds of the total value 

of exports. As time went on, however, 

141,123,000 Western manufacturing processes were intro- 

22,201,000 duced and soon developed to a point where the 

49,492,000 home demand was being supplied and a sur- 

27,401,000 pj^jg jgff g^.gj. foj. exportation. This was 

42,202,000 particularly the case with such items as cotton 

'' "'.' goods, sheetings, watches, beer, and groceries, 

'';" ' which had changed from being the largest 

637,000 *=■ . . 

-8 200 000 figures among imports to bemg important 

- 771 000 exports. This tendency is emphasised by the 

778,000 fact that while the total value of Japanese 

imports to-day is some forty times greater 

390,982,000 jj^^n tj^g figures of 1868, the importation of 

cotton is only about five times as great, and of 

other textiles and manufactured clothing only 

68 SQA. 000 about thirteen times as great. 

.j'^Q^jooo The nature of a country's imports and 

exports is always a good test of its industrial 

and tradal conditions; for no matter how 

3,012,000 great its increase of foreign trade may be, the 

44,000 circumstances can not be taken as a sign of 

permanent progress if imports are chiefly 

42,000 manufactures, and exports mostly raw mate- 

'"' rials. It has aU ready been shown that up to 

1877 most of Japan's exports were raw mate- 
11,239,000 '' ■' '^ 

rials, while her machine-made products were 

45'? 000 ^^1 imported, a condition that during the last 

2,000 decade or so has been completely reversed. 

13,000 Thus it has come about that the class of 

commodities formerly supplied to Japan from 

126,081,000 abroad has now, in turn, become the chief 

item in Japan's exports, which accounts for 

the remarkable development already shown 

204 142 000 i" '^he country's foreign trade. This steady 

7,024,000 decline in the importation of manufactured 

13,000 articles simultaneously with an increasing 

135,000 domestic demand for such goods, proves the 

170,000 reality of Japan's industrial progress, fostered 

1,129,000 largely by her protective tariff. As time goes 

, on Japan will become more and more indepen- 
212,613,000 -' ' 
dent of foreign nations in regard to all manu- 

18,098,000 factured articles, except, perhaps, machinery, 

6,095,000 pursuing a policy of importing mostly raw 

985,000 materials and exporting finished articles. 

1,000,000 'j-jjg table on the next page gives the pro- 

, „ portion of raw materials to manufactured 
26,178,000 '^ 
articles in imports and exports during thirty 

722,000 years of the nation's development 

381,000 How far Japan will be able to maintain 

this policy successfully in competition with 

75 ,957i jjjg usually superior manufactures of Western 



25,781,364 

44,925,229 

11,167,773 

3,464,839 

16,834,878 

1,943,040 

1,159,587 

725,952 

256,115 

5.107 

1,811,283 

269,911 

138,021 

81,166 

5,640 



108,569,905 



143,702,249 

4,261,792 

318,350 

200,378 

71,411 



4,072,936 

1,876,454 

283,801 



6,233,191 



10,281,482 



330,786,610 



148,554.180 



6,552,457 

3,964,066 

806,821 



11,323.344 



2,728,837 
972,333 



439,280,533 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



207 



countries is an interesting question. Com- 
plaints from importers of Japanese manu- 
factures arc numerous in respect to lack of 
uniformity in quality and regularity in output, 
due chiefly to the fact that so often large 
orders are sublet to various smaller concerns, 
each making the goods according to his own 
lights. Doubtless with closer official super- 



vision and increase of efficiency, Japanese 
goods will eventually attain a reputation for 
standard quality and hold their own in the 
trade markets of the world. 

Notwithstanding the remarkable extension 
of trade experienced by Japan in recent years 
the value of her trade per head of the popula- 
tion is still found to be only something over 30 



Asia 



China 

Kwantung 

Korea 

Hongkong 

British India 

Straits Settlements 

Dutch India 

French India 

Russian Asia 

Philippines 

Siam 

Total 

El'ROPE 

England 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Austria-Hungary 

HoUand 

Sweden 

Norway 

Russia 

Spain 

Denmark 

Turkey 

Portugal 

Total 

Amkrica 

United States 

Canada 

Mexico 

Peru 

Chile 

Argentine 

Tola! 

Australasia 

Hawaii 

Egypt 

Total 

Other Countries 

Ambiguous 

Grand Total 



1905 



Yen 



52,618,408 

6,150,541 

90,226,830 

,S.397,886 

14,830,004 

10,147,957 
2,276,564 
1,367,612 
4,5«6,555 



186,730,954 



ii5,3''<o,ioi 

5,129,208 

42.579,960 

11,002,185 

502,091 

2,974.305 

2,256,196 

873,528 

1,002,574 

1,268,615 

29,049 

249,083 

24,'95 

36,964 

15,720 



183.323.774 



104,286,528 

732,022 

166,873 

3,608 



105,189,031 



Imports 



6,001,197 

13.692 

2,999,133 



9,014,022 



3,336,867 
493,369 



1910 



Yen 



68,569,541 

9,740,160 

8„S9I,835 

674,651 

106,361,497 

4,615,981 

18,879,501 

4,438,133 
762,610 
788,206 

2,635,575 



!26,()57,6go 



94,700,911 

5,404,849 

43,946,478 

9,409,075 

591,502 

1,694,199 

2,782,032 

919,207 

3,059,596 

371,350 

208,015 

536,490 

97,840 

20,417 

21,371 



163,763,332 



54,699,166 
850,126 

12,775 
456,059 

1,469,517 



57,487,643 



7,601,681 

11,526 

4,192,196 



11,805,403 



488,088,017 



4,689,800 
429,940 



1915 



Yen 



85,848,000 
27,819,000 

1,594,000 
147,585,000 
5,356,000 
16,312,000 
3,687,000 
3,564,000 
7,309,000 
2,808,000 



301,882,000 



58,084,000 

3,891,000 

5,919,000 

372,000 

299,000 

1,513,000 

70,000 

278,000 

6,299,000 

1 ,225,000 

607,000 

194,000 

165,000 

94,000 

5.000 



79,015,000 



102,534,000 

1,053,000 

7,000 

22,000 

2,999,000 



106,615,000 



28,571,000 

43.000 

6,136,000 



34,750,000 



3,657,000 
6,344,000 



464,233,808 



532,263,000 



yen, as compared with 260 yen per head in 
Great Britain, a contrast which is very strik- 
ing, especially as the per capita ratio of 
Japanese trade is even lower than that of 
Spain and Italy. Moreover, in such articles 
as first-class woollens, iron, machinery, dyes, 
and paper Japan will be more or less depend- 
ent on foreign countries for some time to 
come, though in chemical dyes and cheap 
paper she has made rapid development since 
the war. But it may safely be said that in all 
the highest classes of goods, except silks, 
Japan still depends on other countries, more 
especially on England. In 1913 Japan 
imported iron, machinery, woollen stuffs, 
cotton fabrics, and paper to the value of 
29,000,000 yen; but in 1916, notwithstanding 
a decline in imports on account of the war, 
she yet managed to import these goods to the 
value of about 1 10,000,000 yen, and in 1917 to 
the value of 150,000,000 yen. 

PRINCIPAL EXPORTS AND I.MPORTS 
Japan's principal exports at present are 
raw silk, cotton yams and fabrics, silk goods, 
copper, coal, sugar, matches, knitted goods, 
waste silk, tea, hemp plaits, timber, fish (both 
salt and dried), earthenwares, straw plait, 
chip plait, hats, handkerchiefs, rice, figured 
matting, camphor, menthol crystal, pepper- 
mint oil, fish oil, whale oil, canned and bottled 
foods, glass and glassware, buttons, paper, 
towels, machinery and accessories, toys, 
pulse, brushes, fruits, sak^, edible seaweed, 
sulphur, bamboo ware, umbrellas, isinglass, 
ships, boats, patent medicines, soaps, vegeta- 
bles, etc., of which silk, copper, camphor, 
braids, and fish oil go chiefly to America 
and Europe, while cottons, knitted goods, 
and marine products as well as sugar go for 
the most part to Oriental countries. Porce- 
lain and timber go to America, Austraha, 
and Mexico. 

The principal imports are raw cotton, 
ginned cotton, rice, fertilizers, sugar, machin- 
ery, wool, crude sulphtuic acid, ammonia, 
woollen goods, wheat, petroleum, woollen 
yams, finer cottons, mineral phosphates, flax, 
hemp, vegetable fibers, paper, pulp, aniline 
dyes, railroad equipment, coal, ships, boats, 
India rubber, gutta percha, zinc, artificial 
indigo, bicycles and accessories, iron goods, 
drugs and chemicals. Of these, most of the 
iron, machinery, and woollens come from 
Great Britain; raw cotton from the United 
States, India, Egypt, and China; wool from 
Australia and Germany; sugar and cereals from 
India and Oriental lands; paper from England, 
Germany, and Austria; petroleum from 
America; and fertilizers from South America. 
The table on the next page shows the prin- 
cipal items of Japanese exports and imports 
during intervals of five years for the fifteen 
years up to the European war. 



208 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 





Raw M 


VTERIALS 


Manifactirks 
Used as Raw Materials 


Finished 


Articles 


Year 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 


Imports 




Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


Yen 


1877 


i.794.24f' 


1 .205,507 


10,923,091 


6,659,352 


749,430 


14,833,175 


1893 


9.579.377 


IS,S17,674 


36,616,197 


17.725,982 


22,260,622 


29,550,820 


1903 


30.399.596 


89.303,711 


138,948,851 


42,918,267 


79,207,104 


78,286,198 


1913 


4i.7'0.399 


292,792,054 


335,132,884 


141,812,555 


183.748,683 


191,608,329 


1917 


65,000,000 


455,000,000 


£89,000,000 


250,000,000 


473,000,000 


83,000,000 



japan's trade policy 
It is not too much to say that the entire 
population of Japan is now, and will be for 
many years to come, absorbed in the ambi- 
tion to become supreme in the commercial 
as well as the political world of East Asia. 
With their enormous expansion of industry 
and shipping as a result of the war, and their 
close and accurate investigation of trade con- 
ditions everywhere, the commerce of the 
country may be expected to find permanent 
extension in fields formerly held by Western 
countries, more especially in India, South 
America, South Africa, the South Sea Islands, 
Australia, and China; while the nation's high 
tariff protects its nascent industries from 
competition through foreign imports at home. 
But, as has already been suggested, Japan 
has still to show that she can hold her own 
against the superior manufactures of Great 
Britain and the United States on even 



terms. Owing to her cheap labour and 
better knowledge of conditions, Japan has 
already practically driven her American 
rivals from the cotton and tobacco markets 
of China, and is running Great Britain a 
close second. She is making a big bid for 
similar achievements in India, the chances 
there being so far problematical. What 
Japan has to remember is that her phe- 
nomenal expansion thus far has been in no 
small measure due to the satisfactory rela- 
tions she has been able to maintain with the 
nations she now hopes to rival and outdis- 
tance in the great trade fields of East Asia. 
The question of direct trade is one of 
increasing interest to foreigners and Japanese 
alike. The foundations of Japan's foreign 
trade were laid by the merchants of Europe 
and America who established branches and 
agencies in the open ports at a time when 
Japan had practically no commercial inter- 



course with the outside world. For the 
first years of Japan's foreign trade these 
intermediaries were essential to the proper 
facilitation of trade, but with the increasing 
expansion of commerce in recent years efforts 
arc being made to get rid of the foreign mid- 
dleman and bring the trade of the Empire 
as far as possible into native hands. The 
policy is regarded by foreigners as a mistaken 
one, since foreign merchants resident in 
Japan know the needs of the foreign market 
best, and are more trusted by Western buyers 
in promoting transactions with Japan. That 
the policy of eliminating the foreign middle- 
man has not yet been wholly successful 
may be seen from the large number of foreign 
firms still prospering in the great commercial 
centres of the Empire, as well as from the 
fact that about 60 per cent of the country's 
foreign export trade is still transacted by 
foreign middlemen, the ratio according to 
nationality being about 40 per cent British 
and American (17 per cent of which was in 
German hands before the war), China 16 per 
cent, and other nations the rest. In imports, 
the Japanese control about 58 per cent, 
British and Americans 30 per cent (of which 
10 per cent was in German hands before the 
war), and China 7 per cent. 

It has already been shown that by the 
introduction of a high protective tariff and 
the promotion of rapid development in indus- 
trial output, Japan has succeeded in reducing 
her imports and bringing about a favourable 




main street. YOKOHAMA, IN THE FOREIGN BUSINESS SECTION 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



209 



Comparative Value of Classes of Commodities Exported and Imported 



Articles 



Exports 



Grains, flours, starches, and seeds. . . . . 

Tea 

Marine products 

Sugar, confections, sweetmeats, etc. . . . 

Beverages and comestibles 

Tobacco 

Animal products (skins, horns, bones) . 
Drugs, chemicals, medicines, pigments. 

Oils, fats, waxes, etc 

Tissues, yarns, and materials thereof: 

Silk 

Cotton 

All others 

Clothing and accessories 

Paper and manufactures thereof 

Minerals and manufactures thereof. . . . 

Ores and metals 

Metal manufactures 

Earthenware, porcelain, glass, etc 

Machinery 

Miscellaneous 



Tolul . 



Imports 



Grains, flours, starches, and seeds. . . 
Sugars, confections, and sweetmeats. 

Beverages and comestibles 

Animal products (skins, bones, etc.) . 
Drugs, chemicals, and medicines .... 

Dyes, pigments, and paints 

Oils and waxes 

Tissues, yarns, and materials thereof: 

Cotton 

Wool 

Silk 

Flax, hemp, etc 

All others 

Clothing and accessories 

Paper and stationery 

Minerals and manufactures thereof. . 
Ores and metals: 

Iron 

All other metals 

Metal manufactures 

Earthenware, procelain, glass, etc.. . . 

Machines and machinery 

Miscellaneous 



Total . 



Total of Exports and Imports. 



1905 



Yen 



4,168,60,^ 

1 0,584, ,^22 

8,044,480 

4,440,863 

12,460,633 

2,209,089 

18,058,186 

2,661,596 

1I3,7I,?,.WI 

47,818,865 

2,142,893 

5.&,S7.,S36 

4.043.469 

14,816,190 

17,181,108 

2,245,661 

7,563.,S,3,S 

3.<'97.i«3 

37,102,923 



321..S33.610 



1910 



Yen 



7,5S<).384 

14.342,334 

9.107,39" 

6,259,807 

12,488,799 

1,256,659 

3,811,268 

I9,.S«9,I9l 

6,"C>9.37.=i 

>79,3«7,322 

68,927,518 

6,652,169 

14,009,389 

5,025,218 

18,004,547 

24,617,004 

3,53".6^<'i 

7,64^,737 

3,357,054 

46,564,145 



458,428,996 



66,573,005 
14,018,277 
16,489,805 
18,661,482 
15,404,274 
8,254,532 
i5-«30,7''<2 

i3i.3«6,909 

35.249.740 

2,237,290 

6,869,698 

6,620,995 

I .^56.303 
7.509,556 

9.736,767 

36,688,029 
15,090,221 
10,390,769 
2,302,298 
38,160,773 
29,206,512 



488,538,017 



810,071,627 



27,172,655 

13,293,191 
6,772,327 
7.432,712 
26,012,802 
10,082,802 
21,359,661 

173,474,600 
31,969,967 
2,202,175 
4,582,709 
4,503,016 
i,3«6,757 
12,042,291 
«, 1 29,243 

33.644,467 

9,609,041 

1 1,102,417 

3,173.941 
23,611,774 
32,675,260 



464,233,808 



922,662,804 



1915 



Yen 



24,466,898 
15,402,023 

11.934.355 
12,092,461 

1 4,308,542 

372,203 

6,021,548 

32,825,053 

10,146,513 

207,414,456 

108,968,247 

29,277.630 

36,532,349 

6,351,436 

22,191,233 

64,719,377 
7,760,036 
12,857,089 
10,031,193 
74,634,255 



708,306,897 



24,802,559 
14,912,886 

5,204,255 
12,622,144 
30,596,1 16 

7,373,468 
'7,276,236 

222,369,433 
34,764,123 
4,476,245 
9,148,398 
2,530,888 
368,285 
9,786,359 
9,321,564 

36,232,296 
22,437,421 
4,118,158 
1,252,006 
14,707,887 
48,148,111 



532,448,838 



1,240,755,735 



Years 


ToT.\L Imports 
Yen 


Goods Dutiable 
Yen 


Customs Revenue 
Yen 


Average 
Percent.\ge 


1912 


618,992,000 


312,689,000 


58,242,000 


18.63 


1913 


729,431,000 


368,256,000 


73,580,000 


19.78 


1914 


595,735,000 


255,667,000 


50,512,000 


19.76 


1915 


532,449,000 


174,783,000 


30,195,000 


17.28 


1916 


756,427,000 


294,876,000 


33.832,000 


11.47 



balance of trade. Her ability to maintain 
this position depends somewhat on whether 
she can retain command of the Oriental mar- 
kets in the necessities of life. In her efforts 
in this direction she can never afford to be 
defiant toward her competitors, with whom 
in any tariff war she must inevitably 
suffer. 

Now that Japan has chosen to become a 
mercantile and commercial nation her pros- 
perity must largely depend on foreign trade. 
Apart from silk, tea, copper, and coal she 
has no staple commodities for which the 
Western world might have to depend on her. 
She is always, therefore, more beholden to 
her friends than they to her. Her home 
markets can not be compared for a moment 
to those of the countries she most desires to 
rival in industry and trade. In both England 
and the United States the consuming power 
of the individual is ten times what it is in 
Japan, to say nothing of his greater purchas- 
ing power. Ignoring these facts Japan has, 
nevertheless, gone on increasing her tariff 
until in some items it is now almost pro- 
hibitive. Not over 5 per cent in 1896, it 
jumped to 8}^ in 1900; and now for some 
years it has been steadily over 15 per cent, 
and recently above 17 per cent. The table at 
the foot of this page will indicate the upward 
movement of Japan's tariff. 

COMMERCI.\L INSTITUTIONS 

In old Japan commercial institutions per- 
tained to the local daimiates, but after the 
opening of the country to foreign trade 
chambers of commerce began to appear, of 
which there are now sixty in the Empire, 
with over 1,800 members and spending about 
350,000 yen a year. The chambers are con- 
ducted entirely on European lines and are 
self-governing bodies, whose chief functions 
are the investigation of industrial and com- 
mercial affairs, arbitration, commercial con- 
sultative bodies for the Government and the 
carrying on of commercial propaganda. 
Japan has also numerous Trade Guilds 
which exercise an important influence on 
commerce. 

These guilds represent the various indus- 
tries and manufactures, and their main pur- 
pose is to promote the benefit of the mem- 
bers generally, the rectifying of bad business 
customs, as well as improvement of produc- 
tion and the opening of new markets. The 
guilds act in conjunction with one another 
toward the attainment of common ends and 
the exchange of mutual information helpful 
to trade and industry. The various local 
guilds are united under one central authority 
W'hose officers are appointed by the Govern- 
ment. The total number of these guilds 



210 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



is now over 1,000, with some 46 allied asso- 
ciations, having a membership of 1,100,000 
and an annual expenditure of some 3,000,000 
yen. 

The total capital now represented by 
the industrial guilds of Japan is estimated at 
about 720,000,000 yen. The Central Asso- 
ciation of Trade Guilds, as well as the Govern- 
ment, is devoting careful attention to the 
regulation of quantity and quality of output 
in the more important lines of industry, 
especially as to goods intended for export, 
all manufactures being subject to inspection. 
By this careful conditioning of exports it is 
hoped to prevent the sending abroad of 
inferior or unsatisfactory goods such as 
might prejudice the reputation of Japanese 
manufactures. 



JAPAN'S BUTTON 
TRADE 

By MK. K.MILE OTT, of Messrs. Israel & 
Oppenheimer, Ltd., Kobe 

THE manufacture of buttons from sea 
shells is, in Japan, a comparatively 
young industry, and it is interesting to 
trace the development of the button trade 
from the first small and primitive factory 
to the present up-to-date installations and 
enormous export capacity. 

It is a difficult matter to decide who was 
the first button maker as there are several 
men, each of whom claims to be the founder 
of one of Japan's most important modern 
industries. However, there is no doubt 
but that a Japanese can claim this distinction. 



In 1 87 1, only forty-seven years ago, Mr. 
Uwo, who still lives in Osaka, obtained a 
foreign made button from a foreign mer- 
chant, and immediately began to manu- 
facture buttons, though on a very small 
scale. He made use of the Shinju shell, 
which he obtained from the Inland Sea of 
Japan, the same shell which is being used 
to-day. Mr. Uwo's only tools to cut the 
shell were scissors, and the holes were bored 
through the unfinished buttons, one by one, 
w'ith a primitive borer, therefore one can 
easily imagine how small his output of poor 
quality buttons was. His first essay at 
button- making was certainly not a very 
profitable proposition but it did not dis- 
courage him, though he soon realised that 
without better tools it could not possibly 




LEADING FOREIGN MERCHANTS OF YOKOHAMA 

(Upper Row, Left to Right) H. M. Arnould, of Varnum Amould & Co. — E. C. Davis, Partner of Davis, Summers & Co. — J. Alston, 
Manager for Japan of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China — F. W. R. Ward, Managing Partner, Cooper & Co.— S. IsA.\cs, 
of S. Isaacs & Co. (Middle Row) J. D. Longmire, Manager, International Banking Corporation— R. T. Wright, Manager for Japan, 
Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, Yokohama— The Hon. A. M. Chalmers, British Consul-General at Yokohama— F. H. Bugbird, Repre- 
sentative for Japan, Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ltd. — A. H. CoLE Watson, Yokohama Representative of Findlay, Richardson & Co., Ltd. 
(Lower Row) R. E. Kohzevar, Yokohama Agent for Peninsular & Oriental S. N. Co. — O. M. Poole, Manager, Dodwell & Co., 
Ltd. — A. P. Scott, Managing Director, The Rising Sun Petroleum Co., Ltd., and Author of Article on "Petroleum" in this Volume 
— H. A. Ensworth, General Manager for Japan of Standard Oil Co. of New York, and President of the American Association of 
Japan — H. S. Hume, Managing Director, Samuel Samuel & Co., Ltd. — R. M. Varnum, of Amould Varnum & Co. 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



211 



turn out a success. He made experiments 
with a view to devising a machine, and 
succeeded in improving to a considerable 
extent, at least, on the scissors, and produced 
a certain quality of very cheap Shinju 
buttons, quite good enough for home use. 

Mr. Uwo's activity attracted the attention 
of other persons to the industry, and the 
Okayama and Osaka penitentiaries soon 
began turning out similar buttons. A few 
years later about a dozen small factories 
were at work. 

In 1880 the first South Sea Island and 
Indian shell was imported to Japan, and the 
makers of the cheap Shinju buttons imme- 
diately started to copy the foreign good 
quality buttons. The bleaching, however, 
was very bad, as none of the manufacturers 
seemed able to get hold of the chemical 
process formulas which were in use in Europe. 
Some nine years later, in 1889, a German by 
the name of Winkler established a button 
factory in Kobe, starting on quite an e.xten- 
sive scale, with two hundred up-to-date 
machines, forty-eight of which he imported. 
He began at once to use other shells from 
Japan's Inland Sea, such as Yanko and 
Awabi, beside those of Macassar and South 
Sea Island Takase. Winkler brought out 
experts from Germany thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the manufacture of buttons, 
and he thus established himself from the 
beginning as the leading manufacturer, 
keeping, moreover, all his machines and 
manufacturing processes as secret as possible. 
After a few years he began the importation of 
the necessary bleaching material and started 
his own bleaching department, along the 
same Unes as the Austrian and German 
manufacturers in Europe. In 1895 a Japa- 
nese named Masagaki experimented success- 
fully in the bleaching of buttons with chemi- 
cals, and much of the tremendous develop- 
ment of the export business in the following 
years is due to the early adoption of this 
bleaching process and the consequent expor- 
tation of the completely finished buttons. 

FIRST EXPORT 

According to statistics of the Department 
of Finance, early in 1872 the first buttons 
were exported from Koh6 to Austria, amount- 
ing to 3,880 pieces of buttons of a value of 
Yen 40.00. It is very doubtful, however, 
whether these buttons were made in Japan, 
as Austria then produced a very good button 
and could not possibly use Japan's first trial 
in cheap Shinju. In fact, Japan's statistics 
do not mention buttons as an export during 
the seventeen years following 1872. During 
the first years Winkler exported the unfin- 
ished buttons (simple holed button forms, 
unbleached) to Germany, where they were 



bleached and finished. There is no further 
record though it is possible that Japan-made 
buttons may have been exported together 
with manufactured articles such as under- 
wear, clothing, etc. The first export, accord- 
ing to official statistics, was made in 1893, of 
a total value of Yen 174,000. 

The war has naturally had a great influence 
on Japan's button trade, and the following 
facts will be of interest. Despite the fact 
that labour in Japan has gone up since the 
beginning of the war from forty to fifty per 
cent; that prices of bleaching materials have 
doubled, and that foreign raw material has 
raised from twenty to forty per cent owing 
to the scarcity of, and increase in, shipping 
space, the prices of buttons have remained 
not only the same, but dropped in certain 
instances twenty per cent. This is princi- 
pally due to the fact that Japan lost in 
Germany one of its largest buyers, and, 
further, to the import restrictions of England 
in 19 16 (fifty per cent of previous years' 
import only). On the other hand, however, 
the exports to the United States nearly 
doubled. In America, the buttons known 
as the Mississippi fresh water buttons are 
used in tremendous quantities, but the cost 
of labour in the United States has risen 
during the war to such an extent that 
Japan is able to sell buttons at favourable 
prices, despite the high customs tariff of 
the United States. The American consumer 
did not want, however, to part with his 
white fresh water button, so large quantities 
of Taimin Dobu, a white shell of similar 
appearance to the Mississippi shell, are im- 
ported into Japan especially for the American 
and Canadian markets. This tremendous 
export of Dobu buttons in Taimin and Japa- 
nese Dobu shell did not influence the other 
quality buttons to the betterment of the 
trade, and prices are still low. They will 
presumably rise as soon as the war is over. 

WORK OF THE EXPORTER 
To-day Japan with her modern machinery 
and perfect bleaching and shaping plants can 
produce buttons which compete with the 
foreign product, and the labour, which in 
comparison with other button-producing 
countries is still cheap, enables her to lead 
all foreign producers. France, of course, 
manufactures a very good, or even better, 
quality button, but the prices are propor- 
tionately higher. The fancy shaped buttons 
are not, of coiu-se, to be forgotten, and the 
dyeing of buttons, which has improved of 
late, enables Japan to compete also with the 
French manufacturers in the fancy and 
coloured lines. There are actually only a 
limited number of exporters who are oper- 
ating successfully in the button trade, for 



only years of experience in the different 
markets, a perfect knowledge of the raw 
material and the manufacturing process, 
will enable an exporter to handle buttons 
successfully and satisfy customers abroad. 
Winkler was the only man who exported his 
own buttons, whereas to-day all manufac- 
turers deal through exporters, though it is 
easily understood that most of the leading 
exporters are financially interested on the 
manufacturing side. The very greatest care 
has to be exercised because so many points 
require consideration. The diflferent quali- 
ties of shell of almost identical appearance 
but difference in price, the various thick- 
nesses of the shell and consequently varying 
thickness of the buttons, the size of the holing, 
which differs according to the market, the 
thorough bleaching and polishing, and the 
various different grades (first, second, third, 
and fourth quality), all make it essential that 
the up-to-date exporter shall keep an experi- 
enced staff of inspectors with a thorough 
knowledge of the raw materials and the 
requirements of the different markets. The 
careful inspection of every single button is 
the only way to satisfy the foreign consumer. 

Some of the leading exporters are actually 
importing their own raw and bleaching mate- 
rials, beside giving to the manufacturers 
financial assistance. Some exporters, with 
world-wide connections, control the whole 
outjjut capacity of several factories and their 
export to various countries enables them to 
dispose of every grade the factories produce, 
while it is of great importance that the 
makers be induced to turn out new shapes 
and designs. The great improvements in the 
fancy buttons within the last few years is 
mostly due to the assiduous work of some of 
the leading exporters and foreign experts in 
buttons. 

The Japanese button manufacturers are 
preparing for foreign competition after the 
war, and are confident, not only of being 
able to hold their position, but of being able 
to improve the same, and their expectations 
appear in many ways to be justified. 

TOKYO BUSINESS 
HOUSES 

OKURA AND COMPANY 
The firm of Okura and Company was 
founded by the present Baron Okura, a man 
of fine personality, unusual genius for organi- 
sation, unflinching faith in industry and of 
resistless enterprise. Baron Okura stands a 
peer among the great merchant princes of 
Japan, and his concern is one of the leading 
import and export houses of the Empire. 
Commencing business in 1869 to supply 
equipment for Japan's nascent army, the 




TOKYO PREMISES OF OKURA & COMPANY 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



213 



firm made large profits on Government con- 
tracts, and has ever since enjoyed the confi- 
dence and patronage of the Imperial au- 
thorities. Messrs. Okura and Company arc 
doing business on a capital of 10,000,000 yen, 
and are engaged chiefly in the importing of 
mining and other engineering machinery, as 
well as in the export of leather goods, army 
cloths, arms, ammunition, explosives, muni- 
tions, pig iron, smokeless coal, engineering 
equipment, and manufacturing machinery. 
The company has branch offices in Shanghai, 
Hankow, Tientsin, Darien, Mukden, Tsing- 
tau, Tsainanfu and other places in China, 
with offices in Sydney, New York, and Lon- 
don, as well, the Okura house being the first 
Japanese company to open an office in Lon- 
don. The company is especially popular in 
China, where Baron Okura has himself gone 
to interview Government officials and close 
contracts, frequently accommodating China 
with private loans. The head and founder 
of Okura and Company takes a keen and 
liberal interest in national aflfairs. He 



established the Okura Commercial College in 
Tok>'0 for the educating of men of business 
so much in demand everywhere in Japan, 
and in iSyS he endowed the institution with 
half a million yen. Baron Okura has estab- 
lished similar schools at Osaka and in Seoul. 
Recently he presented the nation with a 
valuable museum. Beside the head of the 
firm. Baron Okura, there are Mr. C. Kadono, 
Mr. Kumema Okura, Mr. Hatsumi Okura, 
Mr. K. S. Okura, and Mr. Yamada, as 
Directors. 

TAKATA AND COMPANY 
Mr. Shinzo Takata, who established the 
business which bears his name, was one of 
the very earliest importers and exporters in 
Japan, having entered upon trade with for- 
eign countries as far back as 1869. After 
many difficulties which attended the effort 
to do foreign business in those early days, 
Mr. Takata built up a world-wide connec- 
tion, and the firm to-day is undoubtedly 
among the most important concerns in Japan. 



Messrs. Takata & Co. are general mer- 
chants, mine owners, and industrial manu- 
facturers and Government contractors, their 
interests being widely varied. They direct 
and manage the Takata Ship Paint Factorj' 
at Ohsakimura, Tokj'O-fu; the Yanagishima 
Iron Works, Tokyo; the Ohdera Zinc Refin- 
ing Works at Fukushima-ken, and are inter- 
ested in the following mining properties: 
Takata Mine (zinc and lead), Miyagi-ken; 
Hiroo Zinc Mine, Hokkaido; Takakoshi 
Copper Mine, Tokushima-ken; Hiyoshi Cop- 
per Mine, Okayama-ken, and the Katsuura 
Mine, Hyogo-ken. In the Sino- Japanese 
and Russo-Japanese Wars Mr. Takata ren- 
dered great service to the Imperial Govern- 
ment and he was awarded the third Order 
of the Rising Sun. In 1909, owing to the 
great expansion which had taken place, the 
business was transformed into a semi- 
partnership, the principals of which are 
Mr. Shinzo Takata and his two sons, Messrs. 
Kamakichi and Nobujiro Takata. The head 
office of Messrs. Takata & Co. is at Eiraku- 




PALATIAL TOKYO OFFICES OF TAKATA & CO. 



15 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



215 



cho, Nichome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo, and 
there arc branches at Osaka, London, 
New York, Shanghai, Hankow, Dalny, 
Keijo, Taihoku, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Kob6, 
Maizuru, Kurc, Moji, and Sascbo. 

SALE AND FIi,\ZAR, LIMITED 
Among the names of the pioneers of foreign 
trade in the Orient, none are better known 
than those of Sale and Frazar, and in Japan, 
the names in combination in the big enter- 
prise known as Sale & Frazar, Limited, stand 
for all that is enterprising, substantial, and 
stable in commerce. The origin of the con- 
cern goes back into the remote stages of trade 
development in China and Japan, and in the 
early and romantic history of the pioneer 
days the two names of George Frazar and 
George Sale frequently recur, as do those of 
their respective descendants. The late Mr. 
George Frazar, who founded the firm of 
Frazar and Company, started in business in 
Canton as far back as 1834. He was captain 
of one of the famous clippers which used to 
carry raw silk and tea from China to Boston. 
Mr. Frazar was among the earliest settlers in 
Hongkong when that port was ceded to the 
British and opened for foreign trade in the 
forties. His son, Everett Frazar, proceeded 
to Shanghai in 1856 and there established a 
branch of Frazar and Company, engaging in a 
general import and export business, which is 
still actively operated under the proprietor- 
ship of Mr. MacMichael, who purchased the 
firm's interest in 1890. Everett Frazar made 
his first visit to Japan with Commodore 
Perry's second expedition in 1858, but as at 
that time the future of foreign trade with 
Japan was a closed book, owing to the 
extremely hostile attitude of the Japanese, 
Mr. Frazar considered the prospect too unin- 
viting, and retlu^led to Shanghai. In 1878 
his partner, Mr. John Lindsley, started the 
firm in business in Yokohama, and remained 
with it until his retirement in 1901. Mr. 
Everett Frazar died in the same year, and his 
son, Mr. E. W. Frazar, the present Managing 
Director of Sale & Frazar, Ltd., succeeded his 
father in the business, and in 1902 bought out 
Mr. Lindsley. In the same year the combina- 
tion of Messrs. Frazar and Company and 
Messrs. Sale and Company took place, Mr. 
C. V. Sale becoming a partner of Frazar and 
Company and Mr. Frazar a director of Sale 
and Company. 

Meanwhile the Sale family had been estab- 
lishing their great interests in Japan. The 
pioneer was the late Mr. George Sale who 
came to Japan from England in 1879, and 
opened up business. He was succeeded by 
his son, Mr. Charles V. Sale, and the business 
was developed to a large extent, ultimately 
being incorporated under the laws of Japan in 
1895 ^s Sale and Company. In 1907 Mr. 




WOOD CARVERS AT WORK 



Sale retired and took over the London branch 
of the firm. This branch was subsequently 
made a separate concern, and is controlled by 
Mr. Charles V. Sale. His brother, Mr. Fred 
G. Sale, continued with the business in Japan 
until 191 •?, when he retired to England. 

The linking of the interests of these two old 
firms, which took place in 1902, was entirely 
successful, and two years later it was decided 
to make the amalgamation complete, the two 
concerns being merged in the present corpora- 
tion of Sale & Frazar, Ltd. During the many 
years of the activity of the old partnerships 
and the present company almost every 
branch of business has been carried on in 
import and export, shipping and finance. 
Sale & Frazar, Ltd., have the distinction of 
having brought the first electric dynamo to 
Japan, and they installed the first electric 
plant in the Emperor's Palace. They also 
put in the first plant for the Tokyo Electric 
Light Company. They introduced the first 
phonograph and the first American locomo- 
tive. They were pioneers of American cotton 
and flour, and also inaugurated the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company's ocean service, 
beginning with sailing ships, next with 
chartered steamers, and finally the magnifi- 
cent Empress" liners. 

From this history it will be seen what an 
important part the company and its predeces- 
sors have played in the development of foreign 
interests in Japan. The foundations laid by 
the founders of the great concern have been 
steadily built upon and to-day the business 
must be numbered among the very first in the 
Far East. It is conducted with vigour and 
along the soundest lines, making for the 



maintenance of British and American com- 
mercial prestige in Japan. The business is 
organised into eight departments, each under 
expert direction, and well staffed with foreign 
and Japanese servants fitted by experience to 
handle the intricate and multitudinous under- 
takings which the companyalwayshasin hand. 
To attempt to describe the work of each 
department is not within the scope of this 
brief description of Sale & Frazar, Ltd. 
There is hardly a l^ranch of trade with Japan, 
no matter over what wide range of activity 
we glance, that is not dealt with. In imports 
such agencies as those of Armour & Co., of 
Chicago, "Carnation Milk," Morgan Crucible 
Co., and Ford cars may be mentioned. 
Imports include rubber, metals, chemicals, 
fertilizers, textiles, dyes, paper pulp and 
scores of other lines. Exports embrace 
practically every exportable line produced in 
Japan. The company is agent for half a 
dozen insurance companies, and several of the 
big shipping organisations, and it is hard to 
say where its ramifications end, the business 
extending through several branches in Japan 
and to such important commercial centres as 
London, New York, Sydney, Shanghai, 
Peking, Tientsin, Dairen, and Thursday 
Island. 

Sale & Frazar, Ltd., is capitalized at Yen 
400,000.00 fully paid up. The legal reserve is 
Yen 100,000.00. The Board of Directors 
consists of Messrs. E. W. Frazar (Managing 
Director), V. R. Bowden, F. S. Booth, 
H. Carew, E. J. Libeaud, J. N. Strong, A. L.J. 
Dewette, and C. E. Kirby (Auditor). The 
head office is at No. i Yaesu-cho, Itchome, 
Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. 



2l6 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



THE MEI.TI TRADING COMPANY, LIMITED 
The officers of this company arc Mr. S. H. 
Matsubara, President; Mr. K. Ishikawa, Mr. 
Tad. Ayai, and Mr. S. Soycjima, Managing 
Directors; Mr. T. Funiya, Mr. S. Xishimura, 
Mr. T. Murai, and Mr. Yakichi Murai, 
Directors; and Mr. G. Murai, Mr. Yaichiro 
Murai, and Mr. Y. Uyeno, Auditors. Mr. 
K. Murai, a well known millionaire and the 
paterfamilias of the Murai family, is the 
largest stockholder of the company. He is 
the President of the Murai Bank, with paid up 
capital of Yen 2,000,000, a reserve of over Yen 
1,000,000, and deposits of about Yen 30,000,- 
000. Mr. K. Murai, as President, and Mr. 
S. H. Matsubara, as Secretary, had both been 
Directors of the American-Japanese Tobacco 
Syndicate, known as Murai Bros. Company, 
Ltd. Mr. T. Murai had also been on the 
Board of Directors of the Syndicate, and at 
present is one of the Managing Directors of 
the Murai Bank. Mr. K. Ishikawa had been 
head of the supply department of the Syndi- 
cate which was bought up by the Government 
in the year 1904, when tobacco was monopo- 



lised in Japan. Mr. Tad. Ayai, who had also 
been connected with the Syndicate as Assis- 
tant Treasurer and, at one time. Manager of 
the Murai Bank, and until lately one of 
The Meiji Trading Company's Auditors, 
succeeded, in December, 1916, Mr. Ter. M. 
Uyeno, who, on account of illness, had retired 
from the directorship. Mr. S. Soyejima has 
until recently been Assistant Manager of one 
of the local branches of Mitsui & Company. 
Mr. T. Furuya and Mr. S. Nishimura were 
formerly proprietors of the firm of Furuya & 
Nishimura, prominent tea exporters, and 
these two gentlemen are now in charge of the 
Shizuoka and New York offices. Mr. G. 
Murai is the General Manager of the Murai 
Bank, and Mr. Y. Uyeno is the Superintend- 
ent of the general business of the Murai 
Honten. Mr. Yakishi Murai is the President 
of the Murai Colliery Company, while Mr. 
Yaichiro Murai is the President of the Murai 
Warehouse Company at Kyoto. 

The British references of The Meiji Trading 
Co., Ltd., are the Yokohama Specie Bank, 
London, the British American Tobacco Co., 




PREMISES OF MEIJI TRADING CO., LTD., LOCATED IN MUR.M BUILDING 



Ltd., Messrs. George Kent, Ltd., London, 
Messrs. Robert Legg, Ltd., London, and 
Messrs. Betts & Co., London. American 
references are: The American Tobacco Co., 
New York, Messrs. J. P. Taylor Company, 
Richmond, Va., the Yokohama Specie Bank, 
Ltd., New York, The United States Steel 
Products Company, New York, California 
Ink Company, San Francisco, and Messrs. 
Felton & Son, Inc., Boston. 

The business was first established under the 
title of Ishikawa & Company, with a capital of 
Yen 100,000, in 1904, when the Tobacco 
Syndicate was liquidated. In December, 
1911, Messrs. Murai joined the firm as part- 
ners, the capital was doubled, and the name 
was changed to Meiji Trading Company. 
In January, 1915, it was reorganised into a 
limited joint-stock company. As the sphere 
of work was widened from time to time, and 
the business rapidly expanded, the capital 
was again increased, in Januarj', 1917, to Yen 
1,000,000 — five times the amount previously 
invested. Furthermore the company has the 
financial support of the Murai Bank, as well 
as that of Mr. K Murai, personally, and is 
enabled to carry out almost any large under- 
taking. The principal lines are, in the 
Import Branch, leaf tobacco and tobacco 
manufacturing supplies, cork, pig iron, steel, 
tin plates, galvanized sheets and wire and 
other metals, hardware in general, machinery, 
pulp, paper, rubber (crude and manufactured) 
tops, textiles of all kinds, printing inks and 
supplies, building materials, paints, tea lead, 
water metres, hemp, flax, etc. The chief 
exports are cigarette mouthpieces, menthol 
crj'stal, peppermint oil, lily bulbs, peanuts, 
vegetable oil, fish oil, sulphur, hemp braids, 
matches, copper, cathodes and sheets, Japa- 
nese paper, rice, tea, coal, textiles of silk and 
cotton, etc. The Osaka branch, with the 
Kob^ branch under the new organisation, 
looks after the business in the western part of 
Japan, under the supervision of Mr. S. Soye- 
jima, one of the Managing Directors, assisted 
by Mr. T. Kaneko, who has had long experi- 
ence in foreign trade. The oversea branches 
are as follows: Shanghai, Dairen, Tsingtao, 
New York (attending to all imports from and 
exports to America), Chicago, Montreal, 
and Sydney. The London branch is now 
being opened. The head office of the Meiji 
Trading Co., Ltd., is Murai Bank, Xihon- 
bashi-ku, Tokyo. 

GOMEIKAISHA .MURAI BANK 
This bank, the partners of which are Mr. 
Kichibei Murai (who is popularly known, and 
has contributed much to the finance and 
economy of the country, as the pioneer of 
cigarette manufacture in Japan) and his 
relatives, was first established in Ohdemma- 





SANKYO & CO., LTD.: GENERAL VIEW OF LABORATORIES, SHINAGAWA — INTERIOR OF OFFICE — PART OF RESEARCH ROOM - 

SECTION OF RETAIL SHOP, TOKYO — SHOW ROOM OF SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, TOKYO OFFICE 



2l8 



PRESENT-DAY I M P R I<: S S I O N S OF JAPAN 



cho Street, Nihonbashi district, Tokyo, in 
January, 1904, a year after the liquidation of 
Murai Brothers Company owing to the 
Government monopolising the tobacco busi- 
ness in 1903. The next year, the Kyoto 
Branch was established in Shijo and Tomino- 
koji streets, Kyoto, and the Shichijo Ware- 
house came into the bank's possession and 
under its management, and then the Shichijo 
Branch was opened. In 191 1, Kabushiki 



of Jajian's leading scientists and discoverers, 
and it occupies a foremost jjlace in the chem- 
ical and drug industry, which has attained 
such importance in Japan since the outbreak 
of war. The origin of the company dates 
back to 1899, when Mr. Matasaku Shiohara, 
the present Managing Director, opened in 
Yokohama an agency for the importation and 
sale of the digestive preparation, "Taka- 
Diastase," invented by Dr. Takamine, who 




MAKING DRAWNWORK FOR EXPORT 



Kaisha Murai Chokin Ginko (Murai Savings 
Bank, Ltd.) was established in addition. 
Then several branch offices were opened in 
Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka. In Sejjtember, 
1913, the magnificent new five-story building 
at the south comer of the Nihonbashi Bridge, 
which is situated at the very centre of the 
metropolis, was completed, and the bank 
moved there in October of that year. The 
rigid way of conducting business has more 
and more enhanced the bank's good reputa- 
tion, and with the expansion of its business an 
increase of capital became inevitable, and it is 
now under contemplation to reform the 
organisation into a joint-stock company with 
a capital amounting to Yen 10,000,000.00. 

SANKYO AND COMPANY, LIMITED 
Messrs. Sankyo & Co., Ltd., are manufac- 
turers, importers of, and dealers in, chemicals, 
drugs, hardened oils, surgical instruments, 
chemical apparatus, electric insulating mate- 
rials and various patented articles appertain- 
ing to the trade in which the company is 
active. This organisation is associated with 
the great name of Dr. Jokichi Takamine, one 



had been a resident of New York for over 
thirty years, establishing there the Takamine 
Laboratory, Inc., where scientific research 
work under his direction had given to the 
world "Taka- Diastase," "Adrenalin," and 
many other preparations, manufactured by 
Messrs. Parke, Davis & Co. of Detroit, 
Michigan. 

In 1912 Mr. vShiohara removed to Tokyo 
and established a factory at Hakozaki (the 
works being still in use under the direction of 
the present company), and begun the manu- 
facture of pharmaceutical preparations, at the 
same time exerting his energies toward 
importing and selling various drugs and 
chemicals, both medicinal and industrial. 
All kinds of chemical and industrial machin- 
ery were also handled, Mr. Shiohara always 
keeping in touch with the most influential 
companies in his own line of business in the 
LTnited States, and thus building up and 
extending the influence and prestige of his 
business. In 1913 Mr. Shiohara transformed 
his private interests into a limited liability 
company, known under the present title of 
Sankyo and Company, Ltd. This operation 



gave the business further impetus, because 
the formation of the company attracted the 
support of many influential business men who 
realised the value to the country of the 
industry which Mr. Shiohara had put on such 
a prosperous footing. The outbreak of the 
great war and the cutting ofT of commercial 
relations with warring nations, drew serious 
attention on the jiart of the Japanese to the 
uncertain supply of drugs and chemicals, 
seeing that the principal articles used by 
physicians in Japan were mainly imported 
from foreign countries. Sankyo & Co., Ltd., 
were the first to take in the situation and 
begin the manufacture of drugs and chemicals, 
and their efforts have been rewarded with 
success. In a year they were able to supply 
the market with their products, all of the 
highest quality, as enumerated hereafter: 
Salicylic acid and salicylates, acetyl salicylic 
acid (Aspirin), dimethylamidoantipyrin 
(Pyramidon), phenacetin, lactic acid 
and lactates, hexaraethylenetetramine (Uro- 
tropin), carbolic acid, Arsaminol (606), Salol, 
Theobromine sodio salicylate (Diuretin), 
Antifebrin, citric acid, benzoic acid, caffeine 
sodio benzoate, etc. Thus the company 
which had hitherto been chiefly engaged in 
the manufacture of galenic preparations and 
other specialties, has added to its list of 
manufactured articles the leading general 
products of world demand, as mentioned 
above. Sankyo & Co., besides being the 
largest pharmaceutical manufacturing con- 
cern in Japan, is also making investments in 
chemical industries in all directions, and thus 
endeavouring to extend its lines of business. 
As an example we may mention that the 
future of the Satowlite Company, which was 
recently organised at the initiative and under 
special auspices of Sankyo & Co. for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing non-inflammable cellu- 
loid-like articles, is attracting special interest in 
the scientific world. The Satowlite articles 
are the products resulting from the scientific 
investigations and researches made by the 
Science Institute of the North Eastern Imperial 
University, the Institute being kept going by 
funds contributed by Sankyo & Co. Several 
of the professors of the University, of most 
advanced knowledge and progressive spirit, 
are energetically and enthusiastically pur- 
suing their investigations, the results of which 
will be forthcoming to brighten the future of 
Sankyo & Co. more and more. 

Messrs. Sankyo & Co., Ltd., have a capital 
of Yen 2,300,000.00, with various reserve 
funds aggregating Yen 1,700,000.00. The 
shareholders number 167, most of whom are 
men of prominent position in the financial 
circles of Japan. The company owns seven 
factories, three at Shinagawa, one each at 
Hakozaki, Onagigawa, and Mukojima, Tokyo, 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



219 



and another at Noda-machi, Osaka. A staff 
of 300 experts and clerks is engajjed and 
employment is found for over 2,000 factory 
hands of both sexes, actively engaged in the 
manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical 
preparations, hardened oils, insulating mate- 
rials, surgical instruments, etc. The factory 
at Shinagawa, which is the subject of an 
illustration in this volume, is the largest of 
its kind in Japan. The concerns in the United 
States for which Sankyo & Co., Ltd., are the 
sole exclusive agents for Japan are : Hooker 
Electrochemical Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y.; 
Arthur Colton & Co., Detroit, Mich. ; General 
Bakelite Co., New York City; Gall and 
Henning P. M. D. Manufacturing Co., 
Milwaukee, Wis. ; Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit, 
Mich.; Chesebrough Manfg. Co., New York; 
J. P. Devine Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; Radium 
Chemical Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Spencer Lens 
Co., Buffalo, N. Y., and Johnson & Johnson, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

The officers of Messrs. Sankyo & Co., Ltd., 
are as follows: President and Director, Dr. 
Jokichi Takamine; Managing Director, Mr. 
Matasaku Shiohara; Directors, Messrs. Shin- 
taro Ohashi, Chosaburo Uyemura, Sojiro 



Furuta, and Oenjiro Fukui; Inspectors, 
Messrs. Yoshibumi Murota and Konosuke 
Otani. The head office of the company is 
at Muromachi Sanchome, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo. 

TANAKA AND COMPANY 
The business of the Tanaka Gomei Kaisha 
was established about thirty years ago by 
Mr. Mokujiro Tanaka, who has spent a 
lifetime in scientific research, and who 
undoubtedly has contributed a great deal to 
Japan's store of higher technical knowledge. 
Messrs. Tanaka & Co. devote themselves to 
the importation and manufacture of all 
classes of surgical and scientific instruments 
and appliances, test tubes, microscopes, etc., 
as well as to the manufacture of chemicals 
for laboratory use and commercial purposes 
generally. Mr. Tanaka himself has been 
responsible for a large number of inventions 
of a scientific nature, and he is the one man 
in Japan who has really succeeded in a sub- 
stantial way in producing glass of the 
chemically hard quality and fineness requisite 
for laboratory use. For this purpose the 
company started a factory in 191 1, at Tama- 



himccho, Asakusa, and produced and sold 
its product under the name of "Japan Jena 
Glass." The success thus obtained prac- 
tically stopped the importation of this kind 
of glass from abroad, and directed attention 
again to the fact that Japan was rapidly 
becoming more and more self-reliant in the 
higher branches of manufactures. Mr. Tan- 
aka soon found that his patent rights were 
being infringed by rival concerns, who were 
imitating his products but were unable to 
produce the right quality. Taking advan- 
tage of the Imperial Coronation ceremony in 

1915, he obtained another special trade 
mark, "Yata Glass," and put on the market 
a glass of such superior quality as to chal- 
lenge all rivalry. It was at once recognised 
that the Tanaka "Yata Glass" was better 
than the imported Jena glass of Germany, 
and the reputation of the firm was estab- 
lished. In the report of the Industrial 
Experimental Laboratory for August 20, 

1916, it was shown that in the case of the 
German glass the degree of oxygen test was 
0.13, and the heat resistance 155 to 160 
degrees, whereas in the case of the Tanaka 
"Yata Glass" the o.xygen test was o.io, and 




SAMPLE ROOM OF TANAK.\ GOMEI KAISH.\, TOKYO 



220 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS () I" JAPAN 



the heat resistance from 230 to 235. The 
gauge glasses manufactured by the Tanaka 
Gomei Kaisha are exckisively used in the 
Imperial Japanese Na\'y. Mr. Tanaka has 
also invented what is known as the "Tanaka 
Style Microscope." For more than twenty 
years he was experimenting with this in- 
strument. Other persons also tried to turn 
out a satisfactorj' instrument, but they 
failed, and to Mr. Tanaka belongs the 



of Tokyo. The factories are of brick, and 
are quite modern in design and construction. 
They cov^er a total area of about 1,000 
tsubo, and about 500 men are employed. 
The annual output of the factories is valued 
at half a million yen, and in addition to 
supplying the requirements of the local 
markets, the firm is exporting to England, 
America, Russia, Australia, India and else- 
where. 



K. OGURA AND COMPANY 
This is one of the oldest commercial 
houses in Japan, having been established 
over one hundred and ten years, and having 
been controlled by five generations of the 
Ogura family. Messrs. K. Ogura & Com- 
pany are manufacturers and importers and 
exporters, and their business extends through- 
out Japan, and also far abroad, the firm 
having connections with all the commercial 



II 




^11! 



- -'SI 



Sammemaa 



<-T<--i:.K7!i<g&-E--Tt«:^-iicT-.v. -v.?i?iXS«a£aB«r 




SAKAI-CHO-DORI, YOKOH.\MA, LOOKING TOWARD THE CUSTOM HOUSE 



credit of having produced the first micro- 
scope in Japan. The Tanaka microscope 
may be compared with Wright's microscope. 
A factory for its manufacture was estab- 
lished at Minamimachi, and to-day the firm 
is turning out the lenses and complete instru- 
ments in large quantities. The Tanaka 
Gomei Kaisha has also erected a chemical 
factory at Tozukamura, in the suburbs of 
Tokyo, where such chemicals as carbonate 
of potassium, chloride of potassium, molyb- 
den acid, ammonia, etc., are made in large 
quantities for general commercial purposes. 
The laboratory is also energetically engaged 
in the production of other chemicals, and 
general research and experimental work is 
continually being carried on. To recapitu- 
late the activities of the Tanaka Gomei 
Kaisha it should be said that the head office 
and salesroom is at No. I Yaesucho, Itchome, 
Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The glass factory is 
at Tamashimecho, Asakusa, the metal fac- 
tory at Takecho, Shitaya, and the experi- 
mental laboratory at Tozukamachi, outside 



Since October, 1 909, Mr. Tanaka has 
been publishing a monthly magazine called 
" Kagaku-no-Tomo " (The Chemist's Friend). 
He has also circulated a large catalogue of 
five hundred pages over the country where 
chemical laboratories are established, and 
to Saghalien, Formosa, China, and Man- 
churia. The high position which Mr. 
Tanaka has reached among the manufac- 
turers of Japan was recognised in 1910, when 
he was appointed a member of the Tokyo 
Committee to select exhibits for the Anglo- 
Japanese Exhibition held in London that 
year. Mr. Tanaka was deputed to visit 
London, and he made an extensive tour of 
Europe, enquiring into conditions of manu- 
facturing in various countries. In July, 
1917, the Bureau of Decorations conferred 
on Mr. Tanaka a special silver cup in recog- 
nition of his services to the manufacturing 
industries of Japan. The Tanaka Gomei 
Kaisha is capitalised at Yen 50,000. Mr. 
Mokubei Tanaka is the Managing Director 
of the Tanaka Gomei Kaisha. 



centres in foreign countries. Principal 
among the Unes handled are all sorts of flax, 
hemp, and cotton goods, fishing tackle, pro- 
visions, chemicals, and sundries. The firm 
imports hemp, jute and flax, cotton, wool, 
all sorts of vegetable fibres, Hessian cloth, 
metals, such as steel, tin, etc., dyestuffs, 
copra, cocoanut oil, cedar, black lead, chemi- 
cals and agricultural stuffs. The bulk of 
these imports are either sold direct to the 
local trade, or are worked up into manu- 
factured goods in the factories of Ogura 
& Company. Exports comprise the finished 
articles in hemp, flax, cotton and woollen 
goods, chemicals, agricultural produce, 
caimed provisions, stationery and paper, 
lacquer ware, glass manufactures, filter cloth 
and all kinds of sundries. These articles 
go to Great Britain, the United States, 
Australia, India, China, the Straits Settle- 
ments, and Asiatic and European Russia. 
The factories and godowns are at Nishima- 
rucho, Koishikawa, Tokj^o, and there are 
branch establishments at Yokohama, Osaka, 




GURA & company: the YOKOHAMA OFFICES— THE MAIN GODOWN. TOKYO — THE HEAD OFFICE, TOKYO 



222 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Kob(5, Ilankow, Chiu-chiant;, Wu-chung, 
Singapore, and Manila. Tlic firm's godowns 
and factories are mainly of stone and brick, 
though some portions are of wood. They 
cover an area of over i,ooo tsiibo, and com- 
prise two- and three-storj- buildings. About 
200 clerks and other assistants arc employed 
in the different offices, and 300 hands are 
engaged in the works and godowns. The 
annual wages bill is about Yen 50,000. 
What the original capital of this firm was is 
unknown, but to-day it is about Yen 200,000, 
and the annual turnover is approximately 
Yen 2,000,000. 

Messrs. Ogura & Company are agents for 
the Teikoku Seima Kaisha, the Taiwan 
Seima Kaisha, and the Nihon Seima Kaisha, 
as well as for other industrial concerns. 
They are represented abroad as follows: 
New York, American Import and Export 
Corporation; Belfast, Ireland, Mr. D. K. 
Duncan; Singapore, Arisaka Riichi; Vladi- 
vostock, Hara Shoten; and Sydney, Austra- 
lia, Messrs. E. Bentley & Sons. The head 
office of the firm is at No. 3 Koamicho, 
Itchome, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo. Mr. 
Kyubei Ogura is the proprietor of the busi- 



ness. Mr. T. Hiraga is manager of the head 
office at Tokyo, and Mr. Takahashi is in 
charge of the imi)ortant branch at Yokohama. 

SUZUKI .\ND COMI>.\NY 
The name of Suzuki & Co. is familiar to 
all those who are in any way connected with 
the commerce and industry of Japan. The 
firm was established in 1887, and is now one 
of the most influential houses in the domestic 
and foreign trade of the country, there being 
branches and agencies throughout Japan, 
and in every important commercial centre 
abroad, since the business is world-wide in 
its extent. Not only are Messrs. Suzuki & 
Co. one of the largest importing and export- 
ing concerns, but they are managing agents 
for several dockyards and industrial com- 
panies, as well as being proprietors of large 
factories which produce many lines for 
export. 

The Tokyo branch of Messrs. Suzuki & Co. 
transacts a large volume of business of a 
general nature, each department being busily 
engaged in attention to the various diflerent 
activities of the concern. Among the 
imports are such lines as sugar, rice, wheat. 



fiour, cotton, fertilizers, iron, steel, ship- 
building materials and railway reciuirements, 
machiner)', metals, ores, timber, chemicals, 
etc. Exports comprise practically every 
Japanese natural or manufactured product, 
and merchandise of various kinds, shipment 
being made to Europe, the United States, 
India, China, the South Seas, Australia and 
elsewhere. The Industrial Department deals 
with the firm's interests in camphor and 
methol refineries, fish and vegetable oil, 
chemical works, rice mills, alcohol distillery, 
and coal mines. Our illustration in con- 
nection with the Tokyo branch shows the 
bean-oil factory which is located at Shim- 
idzu, Shizuoka Prefecture. 

The Tokyo office is situated at Nos. 52 
and 53 Koamicho, Nichome, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo. This branch was opened on May 5, 
1915, and is now under the management of 
Mr. K. Kubota. The number of employees at 
the Tokyo office is one hundred and twenty. 

HOBO, KONDO AND COMPANY 
Messrs. Hobo, Kondo & Co., or as they 
are styled in Japanese, the Hobo Kondo 
Gomei Kaisha, are importers and exporters, 




BEAN OIL MILL OF SUZUKI & CO., SHIMIDZU, SHIZUOK.\ PREFECTURE 




HOBO, KONDO & CO.: THE TOKYO OFFICE — ^ SCENE IN ONE OF THE GODOWNS — ENTRANCE TO YOKOHAMA PREMISES - 

THE TOKYO PREMISES 



224 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 




ENTERPRISING MERCHANTS OF TOKYO AND YOKOHAMA 

(Left to Right, Upper Row) Mr. M. Ogawa, Managing Director, Nippon Shoji Kaisha, Ltd. — Mr. S. Matsuyama, of Matsuyaraa 

Jimusho — Mr. Seisuke Koro, President, Southern Pacific Trading Co., Ltd. — Mr. G. Kumazawa, Proprietor, G. Kumazawa & Co. — 

Mr. T. Shimidzu, Proprietor, Shimidzu Trading Co. — Mr. Seizo OhsAWA, Proprietor, Ohsawa Seizo Shoten 

(Middle Row) Mr. Konosuke Abe, of Abe Kobei — Mr. K. Sugiyama, Managing Director, International Trading Corporation, Ltd. — Mr. 

S. MoGi, Managing Partner, Mogi & Co. — Mr. Kobei Abe, Proprietor, Abe Kobei — Dr. Jokichi Takamine, President, Sankyo & Co. — 

Mr. M. Shiohara, Managing Director, Sankyo & Co. — Mr. K. Yamamoto, Managing Director, Imperial Theatre, Tokyo 

(Lower Row) Mr. M. Yamaguchi, Proprietor, Yamatake & Co., President, Japan Precision Works Co., Ltd., President, Japan Oxygen 

Co., Ltd. — Mr. M. Tanaka, Proprietor, Tanaka Gomei Kaisha — Mr. S. Nak.ai, President, Nakai & Co., Ltd. — Mr. Kyubei Ogura, 

Proprietor, K. Ogura & Co. — Mr. Tokutaro Hir.\ga, General Manager, K. Ogura & Co. — Mr. G. Moritani, Principal, Moritani & Co. 



and manufacturers' agents, and are very 
widely known throughout Japan and the 
Far East, an extensive business having been 
built up over a long period, during which 
the firm has established a high reputation. 
The business was formerly carried on under 
the name and style of Shigekichi Kondo, 
from 1907 to 1915, when the organisation 
was changed into the present joint partner- 
ship which comprises Messrs. Sankuro Hobo 
and Shigekichi Kondo, Managing Directors, 
and Messrs. Yeinosuke Totsuka and Teisuke 
Kondo. Messrs. Hobo, Kondo & Co. carry- 
on a general business as exporters of Japanese 
articles, chiefly' dealing in curios and toys, 
and numerous other lines. They are also 



importers of several particular lines, and as 
exclusive agents for Roneo, Limited, London, 
for Japan, Chosen, and Manchuria, they 
possess a valuable connection. In the Roneo 
products Messrs. Hobo and Kondo do a large 
business which is steadily expanding. Their 
well equipped showrooms in Tokyo and 
Yokohama display the Roneo appliances to 
the best advantage, and it is not surprising 
to learn that through such active agents, 
the Japanese business houses, eager on their 
part to avail themselves of all modem busi- 
ness methods, are rapidly learning the value 
of the Roneo lines. 

Both Messrs. Hobo and Kondo, and their 
partners, have had considerable experience 



of foreign trade, and possess a thorough 
knowledge of the English and other foreign 
languages. This also applies to the majority 
of their different staffs, and greatly facilitates 
the transaction of business with foreign firms 
locally and abroad. All business and corre- 
spondence are treated exclusively through 
the head office, No. 2 Nichome, Honza- 
imokucho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokj'O, except 
transactions relating to Hongkong, India, 
and the Straits Settlements, which are dealt 
with in the Asiatic Department of the Yoko- 
hama 1:)ranch under the management 
of Messrs. M. A. Sofaer and D. Darab, who 
are both British subjects. The Roneo busi- 
ness is handled in Tokvo and Yokohama. 





y^ 



C. TSUUOVA i. CO.: SCENE IN THE CENERAL OFEI. E - CUKRIUUK LEADING TO OFFICES, TAKEN FROM THE CENTRE FLOOR - 

THE manager's office — THE STAFF 



226 



PRESENT- DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



Branches of Messrs. Hobo, Kondo & Co. are 
also established at No. 3 Sanchomc, San- 
nomiya-machi, Kob6, and at No. 27 San- 
chomc, Nakanocho, Nakaku, Nagoya. The 
firm has factories in Tokyo, Yokohama, and 
Nagoya, and warehouses and shipping 
departments at each branch. The head 
office in Tokyo consists of the main building 
(brick, two storj-s), and in addition there are 
two fire-proof two-stor}- warehouses, one 
one-story wooden building, and the ser- 
vants' quarters, the whole, together with 
ample ground space for the arrival and 
departure of goods, covering an area of 257 
tsubo, forming a very valuable and com- 
modious property for general business pur- 
poses. The Kobe and Y'okohama premises 
are of brick. The Nagoya branch and the 
branch establishment in Tokyo are wooden, 
but the warehouses attached are fire-proof, 
being constructed according to the Japanese 
system to secure this result. Messrs. Hobo, 
Kondo & Co. give employment to thirtj^ 
persons in their head office and stores, and 
about ten persons are engaged at each of the 
several branches. Some idea of the impor- 
tance of the business transacted by this 
well-organised concern may be gathered 
from the fact that the annual turnover is 
approximately Yen 3,000,000. 

In Yokohama as well as in other ports and 
cities throughout the world, the business 
man will find that all his requirements for 
putting his office in order can be obtained 
from the agents of that enterprising London 
firm, Roneo, Ltd. The offices and show- 
rooms are situated at 77 Main Street, where 
all kinds of up-to-date appliances for pro- 
moting business efficiency are attractively 
displayed. At the time of the compilation 
of this publication the war is still going on, 
and business men are certainly very fortu- 
nate in that they have no difficulty in obtain- 
ing Roneo specialities, and share in the same 
ser\'ice rendered the London business men. 
who have the benefit of being so much nearer 
the factory. To the majority of commercial 
men "Roneo," and all it stands for, is too 
well known to need detailing at length here, 
but one should remember that a visit peri- 
odically is necessary in order to keep pace 
with new ideas and improvements. In addi- 
tion to the Roneo Duplicator, Roneo Letter 
Copier, Roneo Steel FiUng Cabinets and 
Systems, many innovations may be seen 
which are an absolute necessity in the accel- 
eration of business. 

C. TSUBOYA AND COMPANY 

This firm, which was established in 

Januarj', 1913, has developed a valuable 

business, comprising many new lines of 

activities which were not very well known 



at the time Mr. Chuzo Tsuboya directed his 
attention to them. These lines arc largely 
connected with the exploitation of Japan's 
resources in rare metals, such as tungsten, 
and similar products utilised so largely since 
the outbreak of the war for hardening steel. 
Messrs. Tsuboya & Co. have built up an 
extensive trade in metals, as well as handling 
other more general lines such as curios, 
cereals and so forth. The firm has its own 
factories which are situated at No. 82 Higashi 
Ogibashi-machi, Fukagawa-ku, Tokyo, and 
at No. I Hanabusa-cho, Kanda-ku, Tokyo. 
These factories are known respectively as 
the Omura and Kanda factories. The first 
covers an area of 1,050 Isubo, and the Kanda 
factory extends over 450 Isubo, the buildings 
being constructed of stone, brick, and wood, 
three storys high. The motive power used 
is electricity, and about a hundred work 
people are employed. 

The firm imports minerals, shipbuilding 
and railway materials, and general machinery, 
and exports tungsten ore, molybdenite ore, 
metallic tungsten, tungsten trioxide, every 
description of ferro-alloys, sulphur, cereals, 
oils, and curios. The bulk of the shipments 
go to Europe and America, but an extensive 
trade is also done with China in certain lines. 
Agents of the firm are located at Shanghai, 
London, New York, and San Francisco. 
It is estimated that the yearly output, or 
turnover, is about Yen 3,500,000, but the 
trade is constantly expanding, the firm's 
operations being governed by a progressive 
policy, which is responsible for the pros- 
perous condition of the business. The head 
office of Messrs. Tsuboya & Co. is at No. 7 
Hiramatsucho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, and 
there are branch offices at Osaka and Kure. 

FUTABAY'A AND COMPANY 
The Japanese are great lovers of Nature, 
and their conceptions of the beautiful in 
Nature's works are frequently to be found 
expressed even in business undertakings. It 
is not uncommon to find names of business 
houses, trade marks, etc., which suggest 
something of Nature. Such, for instance, is 
expressed in the name Futabaya. This 
name had its origin in the idea of Mr. K. 
Inomata, founder of the business of Futabaya 
& Co., that his enterprise should suggest by 
its name the twin leaves of a bud in which 
lay all promise of the development of the 
large and strong tree. The literal meaning 
oi jutaba is "the twin leaves of a bud." 

Convinced of the success of his enterprise 
which was to develop from a small beginning 
into a great and powerful undertaking, the 
late Mr. K. Inomata founded the business 
as a personal venture many years ago, the 
original capital being 50,000 yen. The trade 



name was then Futabaya. In 1903 the 
business became a goshi kaisha, or partner- 
ship, members of the late Mr. K. Inomata's 
family being admitted to the firm. Through 
the energy and sound business policy of the 
founder, supported particularly by the vigour- 
ous work of his son-in-law, Mr. Taisaku 
Inomata, Futabaya & Co. realised the earliest 
expectations of its founder, and has developed 
in a manner comparable to the growth of the 
strong tree from the bud. 

Messrs. Futabaya & Co. are general im- 
porters and exporters and manufacturers, 
their special lines being cycles, motor cycles, 
motor cars and their accessories, rubber 
goods, chemicals, hardware, etc. The firm 
does a splendid and increasing business in all 
these lines, and has the great advantage of 
being in close touch, through family connec- 
tions, with the two factories for the output 
of cycle parts, rubber goods, etc., owned by 
Mr. Kichihei Inomata, though conducted by 
that gentleman as his private undertaking. 
Futabaya & Co. are among the leaders in the 
cycle and atitomobile trade. They import a 
wide variety of lines, and have the agency for 
the famous Indian motor cycle. Their 
manufactured lines are exported to China, 
India, the Malay States, and Dutch Indies. 
Attention is not, however, confined solely to 
this trade, for the firm is importing all classes 
of hardware and manufactured goods for the 
Japanese market, and its operations will be 
very widely extended in the near future, the 
Directors being determined to develop the 
business in everj' direction. They will 
import large quantities of raw materials to 
be made up into manufactured goods, 
Messrs. Futabaya & Co. being convinced 
that there is a wide scope for the exportation 
of Japanese-made goods. 

Messrs. Futabaya & Co. have their head 
office and handsome showrooms at No. 7 
Tatami-cho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. Their 
main warehouse is located at Shinanomachi, 
Yotsuya-ku, Tokyo. There is a branch at 
No. 7 Utsubo Shimo-dori, Nishi-ku, Osaka, 
and an American branch has been tempo- 
rarily established at No. 30 Church Street, 
New York. The firm employs about thirty 
clerks, mechanics, etc. The co-Managing 
Directors of the firm are Messrs. Kichihei 
Inomata and Taisaku Inomata, though the 
latter gentleman chiefly attends to the direc- 
tion of affairs. 

OHSAWA SEIZO SHOTEN 
The Ohsawa Scizo Shoten are general 
importers and exporters, established in 191 1. 
The general office and showroom is at No. 4 
Shichome, Koamicho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo; 
the sawmills and timber yards are at No. 18 
Kibamachi, Fukagawa-ku, Tokyo, and the 




FUTABAYA & CO.: IHK MANA..ER'S PRIVATE OFFICE — THE MOTORCYCLE SHOWROOM — TOKYO HEAD OFFICE - 
THE CHARMING RESIDENCE OF MR. T. INOMATA, CO-MANAGING DIRECTOR OF FUTABAYA & CO. 



228 



PRESENT-DAY I M I' R K S S I O N S OF JAPAN 



oak furniture factory is at No. 19. The 
telegraphic address is "Easterning," Tokyo. 
The main line of business of this firm formerly 
was and is at present the exportation of hard- 
woods from Hokkaido, especially oak, for 
Europe, North America, Africa, Australia, 
and India. The company has made the 
most strenuous efforts to advance the trade 
in which it is interested, and has made endless 
improvements in business, to give the very 
finest results, and accordingly has made a 
rapid development and enjoys the highest 
confidence of its customers in the countries 
above mentioned. Its reputation is one of 
entire trustworthiness and this is reflected 
in the increasing volume of orders received 
day after day from the important centres 
of Australia and Africa. 

Owing to the growth of its relations with 
foreign firms, the Ohsawa Seizo Shoten has 
started as general importers and exporters 
of Japanese goods, for which there is such a 
strong demand. Under present war condi- 
tions, what with restrictive government 
regulations and lack of cargo space, the 
Ohsawa Seizo Shoten, like many other con- 
cerns, has been seriously handicapped in 
filling orders, but it nevertheless invites early 
inquiries, especially for Japanese agricvd- 
tural products and any other manufactures, 
as well as the materials for manufacture, etc., 
from present and prospective customers in 
Europe, North America, Australia and else- 
where. There is every reason to foresee that, 
immediately the war terminates, the com- 
pany will be in a most favourable position 
to supply all foreign requirements and give 
that faithful and prompt attention to orders 
which is its characteristic. 

In the oak-working factorj' the company 
utilises the short lengths of wood, working 
them up in furniture and interior decora- 
tions and for other general purposes, with 
careful attention and endless improvements 
in machinery and methods of manufacture 
and treatment of timber. 

MATSUYAMA AND COMPANY 
The business of the Matsuyama Jimusho, 
or Matsuyama & Co., comprises, apart from 
the ordinary lines of the import and export 
trade, a number of activities which are of 
first rate importance to the secondary indus- 
tries of Japan. To the principal of the house, 
Mr. Shigeru Matsuyama, is due the credit 
for a great deal of enterprise, and the develop- 
ment of new lines which were practically 
unknown until he devoted his attention to 
them. Mr. Matsuyama's business career 
is an instance of the good use to which the 
best trained commercial men of Japan put 
the knowledge gained by them in foreign 
fields. 



Mr. Matsuyama went to the United States 
in 1895 to study the science of mechanical 
engineering. He was graduated from Michi- 
gan University in 1900 with the degree of 
B.Sc. (M. E.), and after another year devoted 
to the practice of the theories he had learned, 
he returned to Japan in 1901 and entered the 
service of the Mitsui Mining Company, by 
which he was engaged to superintend the 
plaiming and construction of mining plants. 
Mr. Matsuyama joined the Mitsui Bussan 
Kaisha in 1904 and was appointed chief of 
the Machinery Department at the company's 
New York Branch in 1906. He devoted a 
great deal of attention to the development 
of the machinery trade with Japan and in 
1909 returned to Japan to take charge of 
the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha's machinery and 
metal department at Moji. In 1912 Mr. 
Matsuyama resigned from the company and 
entered upon his present business. It may 
be seen, therefore, that the principal of 
Matsuyama & Co. is well qualified by 
training and experience to carry on a brisk 
trade in machinery and hardware generally, 
and, as a matter of fact, Mr. Matsuyama has 
achieved a success which is enviable. Since 
the war the development of his interests has 
been extensive. In 19 16 the volume of 
imports and exports was Yen 800,000, but 
this sum was doubled in 191", such a remark- 
able growth necessitating an extension of 
premises and the planning of an expansion 
of activities. 

Mr. Matsuyama principally imports from 
England and the United States and exports 
to those two countries, as well as to France, 
China, India and the South Seas. The fol- 
lowing are the principal articles in which the 
firm deals: Machines and tools for machine 
shops, mining machinery and equipment, 
electric machinery and equipment, motive 
power machinery and equipment, Ikeda's 
patent water tube boilers, locomotives and 
railway supphes, steel rails and accessories, 
steel pipes, gas pipes and fittings, electric 
insulating materials, electric sheets, mining 
steels, wire ropes, chains, ship-weights mate- 
rials, marine auxiliary machines, steel wires, 
copper wires, bright nuts, black nuts, rivets, 
steel plates, steel bars, channels, angles, 
beams, pig iron, spiegel-isen, silico-spiegel, 
ferro-manganese, ferro-silicon, ferro-chrome, 
ferro-vanadium, ferro-tungoten, ferro-molyb- 
den, ferro-titanum, metallic tungsten, tung- 
sten trioxide, nickel, spelter, antimony, 
aluminum, lead, tin, copper, sulphate copper, 
sulphur, manganese, ores, tungsten ores, 
molybden ores, graphite, zinc, chrome ores, 
asbestos, micas, talcs, barites, silica, clays, 
boiler compound, mineral oils, fire bricks, 
rosin, cyanides, caustic sodas, and many 
other chemical products, buttons and other 



sundries too numerous to mention. In 
all these lines a large import and export 
trade is done, but, in addition, Matsuyama 
& Co. have other interests. 

The firm has a silica-crushing factory at 
Kamcido, a suburb of Tokyo, and an asbestos 
factory at Ohsaki. At these factories large 
quantities of material are produced to meet 
the strong local demands from steel makers, 
glass makers, brick makers, and manufac- 
turers of asbestos articles and products. 
The factories are equipped with the latest 
machinery, comprising rock crushers, asbestos 
beaters, etc. For manganese and other 
ferro-alloys the firm has close connections 
with mines in Akita and Aomori Prefectures, 
and is exporting alloys of excellent quality. 
An extensive warehouse is maintained at 
Zaimokugashi, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, where 
there is always in stock, rails, steel manu- 
factures, ferro-alloys, etc., in large quantities 
to meet the demand of the market at any 
time. A staff of technical experts is employed 
whose services are at the disposal of local 
customers, and through them new products 
are continually being introduced to the 
market, while Japanese-made goods are 
placed before foreign buyers. The whole 
business is conducted on the most progressive 
lines and is a good example of the thorough 
organisation which has been introduced in the 
great modem Japanese houses. 

The head office of the Matsuyama Jimusho 
is at No. 7 Hiramatsucho, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo. 

NAKAI AND COMPANY, LI.MITED 
This company claims the distinction of 
being the oldest paper-trading concern in 
Japan, the business having been founded in 
1867 by the late Mr. Saburobei Nakai. At 
that time there was, of course, very little 
paper made in Japan, and the business was 
almost entirely confined to the handling of 
foreign-made products, but with the expan- 
sion of the paper-making industrj^ within 
recent years, the company has realised an 
enormous trade, both in import and export 
lines. For many years the business was 
conducted as the private enterprise of Mr. 
Nakai and his family, then it was turned into 
a limited partnership, and in 191 7 it was 
reorganised as a limited liability company 
with a capital of Yen 2,000,000. 

Messrs. Nakai & Co., Limited, operate 
as wholesale paper merchants, deaUng in 
imported and locally made products of 
every description. They handle practically 
all classes of newsprint paper in reels and 
sheets, general printing and writing papers, 
straw and card board, packing paper, and so 
on. Furthermore, they do a large trade in 
paper pulp, which is obtained from Karafuto 



11' -I ill 




fiPiPiPWipr 



MATSUYAMA & CO.! GENERAL VIEW OF SILICA lACTORY, SHOWING SILICIOUS ROCK FOR THE CRUSHERS — GROLP COMPRISED OF THE 

PROPRIETOR, THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS, AND THE HEAD OFFICE STAFF SCENE IN THE GENERAL 

OFFICE — POWDERED SILICA BEING WEIGHED AND BAGGED 



16 



230 



P K E S E N T - 1) A V IMPRESSIONS OF J A 1' A X 




NAKAI &- company: THE HEAD OFFICE AND GODOWNS — THE OSAKA BRANCH 



and brought to Hokkaido, or is shipped 
abroad to foreign paper manufacturers in 
China, India, Siam, Australia, the United 
States and elsewhere. The company is the 
selling agent for such important paper 
manufacturers as the Fuji Paper Mills Co., 
Ltd., the Oji Paper Mills, the Kyushu Paper 
Mills, and the Chuo Paper Mills, and they 
hold altogether seven difTerent agencies for 
mills. Nakai & Co., Ltd., number among their 
clients the Imperial Government Monopolies 
Bureau and the Government Printing Office, 
beside other important Government depart- 
ments. Some idea of the extent of the trade 
which passes through the company's hands 
may be gathered from the fact that the 
annual turnover is about Yen 20,000,000. 
The head office is at No. 7 Jukkendana- 
cho Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, and there are 
branches at Osaka, Nagoya, and Kyoto. 
In addition, the company is represented at 
Shanghai by the Daishin Shokai. The main 
warehouse of the company is a four-story 
stone building of modem construction. 
Mr. Sannosuke Nakai is President of the 
company. The other Directors are Messrs. 
Yakichi Tanino (Manager of the Osaka 
branch), Mijiro Nakai, and Shigeru Inui. 



TOKIWA & COMPANY, LIMITED 
Messrs. Tokiwa & Co., Ltd., is a company 
that has developed to a remarkable extent in 
the last year or two, having expanded from 
almost purely an insurance broking business, 
into that of insurance, and import and export 
and commission merchants and ship brokers, 
the activities of the company covering a 
wide range of commercial enterprises. Origi- 
nally the establishment was known as the 
Nitto Shokai, then working only for the 
Liverpool & London & Globe Insurance Co., 
Ltd., as their agents for Japan. It was in 
1910 that Mr. Goro Matsukata bought the 
business from the Nitto Shokai and it was, 
indeed, at this time that the trade name of 
"Tokiwa" was adopted. This means literally 
in Japanese, "everlastingly green," or more 
appropriately for such an enterprise, "con- 
stant" or "permanent." Since Mr. Matsu- 
kata took over the business there has been a 
most marked expansion. He formed a 
limited liability company with a capital of 
500,000 yen of which 160,000 yen is paid up. 
At the same time the South British, the New 
Zealand, and the Scottish Union Insurance 
Companies appointed the Tokiwa & Co., Ltd., 
their agent, testifying to the high respect in 



which the company is held by foreign corpora- 
tions. Beside the above named agencies, 
which in themseh-es mean a vast volume of 
business for Tokiwa & Co., Ltd., the company 
opened a department for the transaction of 
general commerce in 1916, the activities of 
this new department embracing general 
brokerage, and the import and export of 
merchandise, machinery, and products. 

The principal lines of import are: Steel, pig 
iron, galvanized iron, sheet iron, tin plate, 
nickel and other metals: boiler, electric 
machine, and other machinen,', parts and 
accessories, and machine tools of every 
description, shafting, etc. ; piano wire, spring 
wire, galvanized wire, wire rope, and nails of 
every description; boiler tube, gas pipe, etc.; 
materials for railway construction, materials 
for construction of buildings, bridges, ships, 
docks, mines, etc.; quicksilver, drugs and 
chemicals, paints and colours, etc.; eye- 
glasses, telescopes, microscopes, surveying 
instruments, etc. 

The main lines of export are: Electric and 
alloy, heating apparatus, crucible or gas 
apparatus and parts thereof, enamelled ware, 
glass ware, buttons, surgical instruments, 
pressure and vacuum gauges, every kind of 



PRESENT-DAY 



IMPRESSIONS 



O F 



J A P A N 



231 



gauges, clinical thermometers, other kinds of 
metres, and all kinds of goods for surgical use; 
copper, zinc, lead, sulphur, and other kinds of 
mine produce; fish oil, whale oil, soja bean oil, 
colza oil, peppermint oil, etc.; ammunition 
and sundry goods. 

The company has two branches, one at 
Kitadori, Edobori, Ni.shi-ku, Osaka, and the 
other at Meiji-machi, Keijo, Chosen, and, 
moreover, three hundred agencies throughout 
the Empire of Japan, Formosa, and Chosen. 
Unquestionably the development of this 
Inisiness is due to Mr. Matsukata's influence, 
energy, and business experience. This gentle- 
man has, in fact, had a sound commercial 
experience extending over many years, with 
some of the largest enterprises in Japan, 
notably the Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd., 
Kobe, Japan Steel Works at Muroran, Hok- 
kaido (Armstrong & Vickers, Associate in 
England), and he is now the proprieter and 
President of Tokiwa & Co., Ltd., the Presi- 
dent of the Tokyo Gas & Electric Co., Ltd. 
(Agencies for the Studebaker Motor Car Co., 
National Motor Car and Vehicle Corporation, 
Empire Automobile Co., Interstate Motor Co., 
NashMotorCo.,and Republic Motor Tr'k Co.) 
President of the Tokai Mutual Life Ins. Co., 
Ltd., Managing Director of the Toyo Sugar 
Mfg. Co., Ltd., Director of the Toyo Marine 
Ins. Co., Ltd., Director of the Toa Cement 
Co., Ltd., and Inspector of the Ujigawa 
Hydroelectric Co., Ltd. Beside these busi- 
ness experiences Mr. Matsukata's family 
influence has also been a contributing factor 
to his success. He is a son of Marquis 
Masayoshi Matsukata, one of the Elder 
Statesmen of Japan, the present "Naidaijin" 
(the Keeper of the Privy Seal) and many 
times Premier of the country, who made his 
fame by his administration and his financial 
reforms. 

YAMATAKE & CO.\ll'.\NV 
Among the successful business men of 
Japan who have put their technical knowl- 
edge and experience to good use and have 
launched out on new lines, is Mr. Takehiko 
Yamaguchi, jjroprietor of the Yamatake 
Shokwai of No. i, Yuraku-cho, Kojimachi-ku, 
Tokyo. This business covers a wide range of 
activity, but its main purpose is the importa- 
tion and sale of high-grade machinery and 
machine tools, etc., principally for use in 
arsenals, dockyards, and railway shops. 
And as may be seen from the biography of its 
proprietor, no one is better fitted for handling 
such a trade than Mr. Yamaguchi himself. 
This gentleman is a native of Kagoshima, and 
was born in 1865. After his preliminary 
education, he took a long course in the techni- 
cal school of the Tokyo Higher Industrial 
College, from which he was graduated in 1 89 1 . 



For a few years Mr. Yamaguchi was an 
inspector of machinery- in the Patents Bureau, 
engaged in the examination of models and 
plans submitted to that Bureau. In 1896 
when Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda projected the for- 
mation of a nail factory he selected Mr. 
Yamaguchi as his Chief Engineer, and des- 
patched him to Europe and America with in- 
structions to examine closely the industry in 
those countries and to purchase the necessary 



operations, and to-day the firm of Yamatake 
& Co. are sole agents for over forty of the best 
known American tool and machinery manu- 
facturers. Mr. Yamaguchi's intimate knowl- 
edge of the requirements of the various 
construction concerns, and his thorough 
technical training have stood him in good 
stead, and his firm is doing what is prob- 
ably oni' of the largest businesses in 
Japan to-day. Another factor making for 




BUILDIN(i l-\ WHICH .\RE LOCATED THE OFFICES OF TOKIWA SHOKAI, LTD. 



plant and machinery for the factory. On his 
return Mr. Yamaguchi took up the position of 
General Manager of the Yasuda nail factory, 
but it was found impossible to compete with 
the cheap imports from Germany, and 
the works were closed. On Mr. Yasuda's 
recommendation Mr. Yamaguchi was then 
appointed to a highly responsible post with 
the Hokkaido Railway Company, and became 
one of the managers. From this position he 
was selected as Manager of the Hokodate 
Dockyard Company, and so further extended 
his already wide knowledge of mechanical 
engineering, and the requirements of the 
industries of Japan. Mr. Yamaguchi's skill 
and capacity for organisation and control 
were prominently displayed during the Russo- 
Japanese War, when he rendered signal 
.service to the nation by handling traffic and 
facilitating the building and repair of ships. 
At the conclusion of the war Mr. Yamaguchi 
came to Tokv'O and established himself in 
his present business in 1906. At first he was 
merely local agent for one or two manu- 
facturers, but gradually he extended his 



the success of the business is that Mr. 
Yamaguchi has all along gauged the effects of 
the war accurately, and has anticipated the 
conditions which must arise in Japan. For 
instance, he was one of the first to realise 
that the great war would seriously interrupt 
supplies of various kinds of machinery and 
requisites from Europe, and he lost no time 
in strengthening and widening his connections 
with the manufacturing companies in the 
United States. 

Arising from the business of the Yamatake 
Shokwai, and organised by Mr. Yamaguchi, 
are two other important enterprises, both 
highly successful adjuncts, or developments, 
of the phenomenal growth of the dockyard, 
machine shop, and arsenal undertakings in 
Japan. The first is the Japan Oxygen Com- 
pany, to carry on oxy-welding and cutting 
operations. Mr. Yamaguchi was the first 
to introduce this system to the naval and 
other Government departments. As the 
oxygen had to be made in Japan after the 
cessation of imports, two factories were 
established under Mr. Yamaguchi's direction, 





®: 




0^: 



YAMATAKE & CO.: INTERIOR OF TOKYO OFFICE — MR. M. YA.MAGUCHI, I'KOPRIETOR, IN HIS OFFICE - 

SCENE IN THE TOKYO GODOWN 



P R E S E N T - n A Y IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



233 



one in 'I'okyo and llie otlu-r in Hiroshima. 
The second industry is that conducted by 
the Japan Precision Works. Considerable 
difficulty has always been experienced in 
gauging small parts, such as gun sights, etc., 
and it was to fulfil this requirement that the 
Ja])an Precision Works entered on the manu- 
facture of special tools and gauges for the 
arsenals, dockyards, spinning mills, etc. 
The company has saved Government ofificials 
all the trouble of sending to Europe for tests 
of accuracy to be made, as the work can now 
lie done by the Japan Precision Works. The 
Imperial Government has given its hearty 
support to the works, and the company has 
been appointed makers of many different 
classes of deUcatc mechanisms. Last year 
the Japan Precision Works were taken over 
by a limited liability company, having a 
capital of Yen 350,000. 

Mr. Yamaguchi's services to mechanical 
engineering in Japan have been freely recog- 
nised. In February, 1917, he was appointed a 
member of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce, 
to w'hich he is now giving valuable assistance 
regarding all industrial and manufacturing 
interests. 



NIPPON HIIOJI KAISHA, LIMITED (tHE 
JAPAN TRADING CO., LTD.) 

This is a company that is bound to become 
an important factor in the general commerce 
and trade of Japan. It is an organisation 
under the auspices of the well known Kawa- 
saki family, Mr. Hajime Kawasaki, principal 
of the Kawasaki Bank, the Japan Fire 
Insurance Co., and other concerns, being its 
President. The company was established on 
February 29, 1916, as a branch enterprise of 
the Kawasaki interests, and though the 
capital placed at its disposal was only Yen 
500,000, this was merely by way of an initial 
investment, and it is now planned to increase 
the capital to Yen 5,000,000. As a matter of 
fact that sum has already been placed in 
circulation for Nippon Shoji Kaisha, Ltd. 
(The Japan Trading Co., Ltd.), the business 
having proved so successful. That is to say, 
the Kawasaki group have furnished the 
money to finance several industries and 
investments conducted by the company. 
The Managing Director is Mr. INIakoto 
Ogawa, who w-as long in the service of the 
Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. Mr. Ogawa is one 
of the few licensed firearms and explosives 



merchants, so that his company can deal in 
these lines, in which it occupies an excellent 
position among trading companies. The 
business of Nippon Shoji Kai.sha, Ltd., is 
jirincipally exporting and importing, but it 
is also investing in any promising manufac- 
turing industry that comes under its notice. 
In this connection it is interested in mining 
affairs, in shipping and transport generally, 
and is also engaged in the selling, buying, 
and chartering of ships. 

The main lines dealt in b^' Nippon Shoji 
Kaisha, Ltd., as import and export merchants 
are: Machinery and materials for the manu- 
facture of same, cotton, cotton piece goods, 
hemp cloth, silk thread, silk cloth, woollen 
piece goods, etc., coal, coke and other fuels, 
cement, timber, stone, brick and other building 
materials, electrical and gas plants and 
appliances, material for railways, waterworks, 
and ships, metallic ores of every description, 
minerals, metal goods, materials, and wares, 
leather and skins and their manufactures, 
surgical, medical, and industrial chemicals, 
dye stuffs, etc. Among the other lines, 
mainly domestic products, handled by the, 
company are, rice, cereals and fertilizers. 




THE TOKYO PREMISES OF NIPPON SHOJI KAISHA 



234 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



sugar, clothing, ornamental articles, paper and 
pulp, glass and glassware, lacc|uer and por- 
celain, oils and tallow, chemical and indus- 
trial articles and materials, toys and station- 
ery, curios, cinematograph instruments and 
films, automobiles, aeroplanes, firearms, ex- 
plosives, and military goods. 

The head office of Nippon Shoji Kaisha, 
Ltd. (The Japan Trading Co.), is at No. 5 
Kabutocho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo (P. O. Box 
No. 39), and the Automobile Garage is 
at Uchisaiwaicho Kohjimachi-ku, Tokyo. 
There are branch and despatch offices at 
Osaka, Moji, Yokohama, Kobe, London, 
New York, and other commercial centres 
of importance. The company's banks and 
references are, for Japan, the Kawasaki 
Bank, and for abroad, the Yokohama Specie 
Bank. The principal officials of the company 
are: President, Mr. Hajime Kawasaki; 
Managing Director, Mr. Makoto Ogawa; Di- 
rector, Mr. K. Sugiura; and Auditors, Messrs. 
M. Yoshii, S. Suzuki, and Kaneo Kawasaki. 

THE B. F. GOODRICH RUBBER COMPANY 

The Japan offices of the B. F. Goodrich 

Rubber Company are under direct manage- 



ment and control of the B. F. Goodrich 
Company, the well-known New York cor- 
poration with its head offices located at Nos. 
1 780-82 Broadway, New York City. 

This corporation has a paid up capital of 
gold §90,000,000.00 and during the year 1916 
its sales figure reached the tremendous 
volume of gold §71,000,000.00. The com- 
pany dates its inception from the year 1869, 
when Dr. B. F. Goodrich settled in the city 
of Akron, where he started the nucleus of 
this wonderful industry and began building 
up the world-wide reputation that Goodrich 
rubber products now enjoy. 

To-day the Goodrich plant has the proud 
distinction of being universally recognised 
as the "Largest Rubber Factory in the 
World," comprising a group of fifty-seven 
buildings, covering in excess of 4,000,000 
square feet, where a staff of 18,000 employees 
are regularly engaged in the manufacture and 
handling of the many hundreds of different rub- 
ber articles the company produces. It is diffi- 
cult to grasp the magnitude of the company's 
operations, but some conception of its scope 
and standing may be realised from the follow- 



ing facts, representing a part of the daily 
volume shipped out from these factories: 
5 miles of belting; 14 miles of hose; 70 miles 
of insulated wire; 17,000 pairs of boots and 
shoes; and 200,000 automobile tires and 
tubes. 

To arrive at the stage outlined above, it 
will be apparent that something more than 
the mere ability to manufacture was required. 
Throughout the whole period of forty-eight 
years the company's interests have been in 
the hands of capable, far-seeing, and shrewd 
business men, who have handled its aflfairs 
along the lines of soundest business principles. 
It has always been their aim to maintain the 
highest standard of quality, till to-day the 
Goodrich trade mark stamped upon any 
rubber article is. universally recognised and 
accepted as similar to the hall-mark on 
silver. 

Along these same progressive lines new 
fields have been opened after a careful and 
first-hand study of existing conditions and 
possibilities. The company was until the 
year 191 3 represented in Japan bj- agents. 
It then decided to open up a main branch in 




KOnE PREMISES OF B. DIEDEN & CO. 



PRESENT-DAY I ^[ P R E S S I O N S OF JAPAN 



235 



Tokyo, and a little later subsidiary branches 
were started in the cities of Osaka and 
Kokura, the former to take care of the 
demand in the Kwansai district, the latter 
to take care of the demand in Kyushu. In 
addition to this, representative houses act as 
agents in the larger cities such as Sapporo, 
Nagoya, Nagasaki, etc. Japan's depen- 
dencies such as Korea, South Manchuria, and 
Tsingtau (North China) are handled from the 
main Tokj-o branch, also by means of direct 
agents. 

The principal demand in Japan for rubber 
goods is for those articles comprised in the 
mechanical line, and to take care of all ordi- 
nary requirements stocks to the value of 
Yen 150,000.00 to Yen 200,000.00 are 
regularly carried at the Tokyo and Osaka 
branches. Goodrich conveyor, elevator and 
transmission belting; water, fire, steam, and 
acid hoses, spiral, superheat, square duck, 
brass wire and cloth insertion packings; 
rotary drillers' hose, printers' blankets, 
pneumatic and air drill hoses, pimip valves, 
etc., represent part of the goods regularly 
supplied to the Imperial Government Rail- 
ways, Government dockyards, steel works, 
and arsenals; all the largest copper, coal, 
iron, silver, gold, and zinc mines; the many 
cotton, woollen, muslin, linen and other 
textile mills; sugar, beer, coke, and cement 
plants; shipbuilding and car manufacturing 
yards; paper and pasteboard mills; also all 
factories of importance throughout the 
Empire. 

In addition there are carried large stocks 
of automobile, solid, and motorcycle tires 
and tubes, to look after a demand which 
is as yet small but steadily increasing. 
Goodrich druggist and surgical goods, sport- 
ing goods such as tennis and golf balls, base- 
ball body protectors, etc., are in regular 
demand amongst the better class retail 
stores. Last but not least are the numerous 
sundrjr articles such as boots and shoes, 
rubber bands, rubber thread, raincoat mate- 
rial, stamp gum, dental rubber, dental dam, 
dental bulbs, plaster bowls, rubber matting, 
interlocking tiling, etc., for which there is an 
ever-increasing demand, and throughout the 
countrj' the fact is recognised that, whilst 
Goodrich products are usually considerably 
dearer than the locally manufactured articles 
and those from other foreign countries, they 
are at all times to be depended upon and the 
service given is such as to render them 
"Cheapest and Best in the I>ong Run." 

SOUTH SEA TR.\DING CO., LI.MITED 

The trade possibilities of the South Sea 
Islands have been evident to the Japanese 
business man for some time past; a fact 
obvious from the number of companies 



springing u]> for the .sok; purpose of trading 
with the islands. 

The South Sea Trading Co., Ltd., com- 
menced operations in 1893, as a private 
enterprise, and became a limited company 
with a capital of Yen 100,000 in 1899. No 
great degree of progress was made until the 
appointment of Mr. Tanakamaru as presi- 
dent of the company in 191 5. The capital 
was then immediately increased from Yen 
150,000 to Yen 500,000; to twice that sum 
within one year, and in 191 7 to the present 
figure of Yen 3,000,000. 

The sphere of operations was greatly 
increased to embrace shipping, shipbuilding, 
imports and exports, agriculture, and marine 
products. The head office of the company 
is at Kamiyanagiwarcho, Kyobashi-ku, 
Tokyo, with branches at Yokohama, Toba, 
Singapore, and forty other points throughout 
the South Sea Islands. 

Naturally, the business of the company, 
especially in imports and exports, has in- 
creased pro rata with the capital, thus, in 
the three years 1912, 1913, and 1914, the 
total business was about Yen 800,000, as 
compared with imports Yen 3,500,000 and 
exports Yen 2,000,000 for 1917. Practically 
all lines for which there is a market are 
handled, but special mention may be made 
of copra, shell, tortoise-shell, manila hemp, 
rice, ivory nuts, etc., imported, and curios, 
provisions, clothing, cement, kerosene oil, 
beer, building materials, tinned provisions, 
biscuits, sugar, tobacco, cotton cloth, general 
necessities, etc., exported. Copra may be 
said to be the company's special line. Des- 
patch offices are continually Ijeing opened 



throughout the islands wherever the pro- 
duction warrants it. Moreover, the com- 
pany has actually 3,000 acres of their own 
property under cocoanuts. 

The company enjoys the great advantage, 
especially in these times, of owning a fleet 
of well equipped steamers and auxiliary 
sailing vessels, representing more than 
20,000 tons, in addition to which 10,000 tons 
is chartered. The fleet is being continually 
added to, as the company's shipbuilding 
yard at Toba works solely for this purpose. 
At present three auxiliary sailing vessels 
of 1,000 tons each are nearing completion. 

The following gentlemen are the principal 
officers of the company: E. Tanakamaru, 
Esq., President; R. Fujiyama, Esq., Adviser; 
Messrs. M. Ishikawa, S. Iwasaki, T. Sato, 
Directors, and Messrs. H. Kawasaki and S. 
Tanakamaru, Auditors. 

SHIBAK.WVA & CO., LI.MITED 
Founded in 1866 by the late Mr. Shinsuke 
Shibakawa, father of Mr. Shinjiro Shibakawa, 
this enterprise operated privately until 1903 
when it was turned into an unlimited com- 
pany with a paid-up capital of Yen 500,000. 
The expansion of the business has pro- 
ceeded since the Meiji Restoration, pro 
rata with that of the import and export 
trade of Japan. Indeed, by the adoption 
of a most progressive policy, the formation, 
and, be it noted, retention of important 
international connections, and by setting 
an example of unquestionable business 
integrity, the company may be regarded 
as having done signal service in fostering 
the same. Thus, from the most humble 




FEEDING SILKWORMS 





TOKYO PREMISES OF THE SOUTH SEA TRADINX. C'OMrANV, LIMITED (NANYO nOYEKI KAISHA) 



PK]':SK NT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



237 




THE TOKYO OFFICES OF SHIBAKAWA & COMPANY, LIMITF.D 



beginnings the Shiliakawa Shoten, at present 
Shibakawa & Co., Ltd., has become one of 
the foremost houses in the country, operat- 
ing with a capital of Yen 3,000,000, of which 
Yen 2,400,000 is paid up. 

The head office is located in well con- 
structed and spacious premises at No. 10 
Koraibashi, 3-chome, Higashiku, Osaka, and 
branches equally up-to-date are maintained 
at No. 8 Sanaicho, Nihonbashiku, Tokyo. 
No. 91 Kitamachi, Kobe, No. 202 Yamashita- 
cho, Yokohama, No. 18 6-chome, Demmacho 
Nishiku, Nagoya, No. 6 Lloyds Avenue 
London E. C, 120 Broadway, New York, 
No. 5 Hankow Road (British Concession), 
Shanghai, and No. 17 Wha-cheong Road 
(British Concession), Hankow. 

The goods handled include practically all 
important lines listed in the Japanese Trade 
returns. Chief among the staple imports 
maybe mentioned woollen and worsted goods, 
raw cotton and cotton goods, yams, wools, 
tops, metals, machinery, paper, pulp, rosin, 
chemicals, drugs, dyestuffs, etc. The princi- 
pal exports are woollen and worsted goods. 



cotton goods, linen goods, raw silks, habutai 
and other silk products, hosiery, cotton and 
woollen yams, hemp braids, rubber goods, 
matches, tinned foods, cereals, beans, oils, 
chemicals, minerals, etc. 

As may be surmised from the above list, 
very close connections are maintained with 
the principal cotton and woollen mills of the 
country, such as the Osaka Woollen Manu- 
factyring Company, the Nippon Woollen 
Manufacturing Company, the Tok^'o Woollen 
Manufacturing Company, the Tokyo Woollen 
Cloth Manufacturing Company, the Tokyo 
Weaving Company, the Teikoku Hemp 
Manufacturing Company, the Nippon Wor- 
sted Spinning Company, and others, both 
for the supply of the raw material and the 
marketing of the finished products. 

The business-like methods of the house 
attract special attention, and are explained 
by the length of time the company, has been 
engaged in foreign trade, and the further 
fact that, like Mr. Shinjiro Shibakawa, the 
able Managing Director, many of the heads 
of departments have a fluent knowledge of 



English and other languages, and have 
gained valuable experience in the London 
and New York branches, and elsewhere 
abroad. 

The officers of the company are: Mr. 
Yeisuke Shibakawa, President; Mr. Shinjiro 
Shibakawa, Managing Director; Mr. Ein- 
shin Yuasa, Director; Mr. Terukichi Shiba- 
kawa, Auditor; Mr. Gitaro Hirata, Auditor. 

YOKOHAMA 
BUSINESS HOUSES 

JARDINE, MATHESON & CO., LIMITED 
In previous numbers of this series of pub- 
lications the complete history of the famous 
house of Jardine, Alatheson & Co., Ltd., has 
been given, but in dealing with its operations 
in Japan it will not be out of place to refer 
again to the origin and early development of 
the gigantic concern whose name has been 
associated with the commerce and progress 
of the Orient for the best part of a century. 
Among the officials of the old East India 
Company in the days when that politico- 



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4" 






4 ^. 





I 



OLD STYLE FOREIGN PREMISES OF JARDINE, MATHESON & CO., LTD., OCCUPIED BY THE FIRM FOR OVER SIXTY YEARS. 
THE JAPANESE GATEWAY WAS ORIGINALLY BlILT FOR DEFENSIVE PURPOSES 



PRESENT-DAY IMPRESSIONS OF JAPAN 



239 



commercial organisation was in the zenith of 
its power, was the late Dr. WilHam Jardine. 
This was the time when Macao was at the 
height of its prosperity, and when the East 
India Company had practically a monopoly 
of the China trade. That monopoly came 
to an end in 1832, and Dr. Jardine started the 
premier mercantile house in the Far East, 
associated with him being Mr. James Mathe- 
son, afterwards Sir James Matheson, Bart., 
and Mr. Hollingw^orth Magniac. Offices 
were opened at Macao and Canton, and at 
once Jardine, Matheson & Co. set out to 
earn and justify, by their energy, enterprise, 
and honourable dealing, the name of the 
"Princely House," which was early applied 
to them, and has remained ever since. In 
1835 Mr. Alexander Matheson, afterwards a 
baronet, came from India where he had 
received his business training, and was taken 
into the partnership by his uncle. As a 
result of the first "Opium War" with China, 
Hong Kong was ceded to the British in 1 84 1 . 
The iilace was then only a barren island and 
military post, with nothing to suggest its 
subsequent rise to great commercial pros- 
perity and importance. The young firm of 
Jardine, Matheson & Co. found its business 
interests in Macao threatened by the short- 
sighted policy of the Portuguese Govern- 
ment, and turned its attention to Hong Kong, 
opening offices there in 1842, a year after the 
island had been opened. From that day to 
the present Hong Kong has been the head- 
quarters of the great business, and history 
records how much the progress of the colony 
owes to the enterprise of Jardine, Matheson 
& Co. The enterprise and pioneer spirit 
which the old firm displayed at Hong Kong 
has actuated the operations of the house 
ever since, and there is not a commercial 
centre in the Orient that does not claim them 
amongst its earliest traders and benefactors. 
Jardine, Matheson & Co. were pioneers in 
Shanghai, after that jiort was opened to 
foreign trade by the signing of the treaty of 
October 24, 1842, and later on they were 
among the first British business houses to 
turn to Japan. 

For the ten years from 1842 on, the firm 
grew in strength and prosperity, pursuing a 
simple policy of enterprise and fair dealing, 
ever expanding along new lines, and asso- 
ciating its fortunes with those of commercial 
centres the future of which only the greatest 
foresight could have imagined. The founder 
of the firm passed away, and with him went 
his early associates. Sir Alexander Matheson 
retired from business in 1852, and the suc- 
cessive heads of the business were Andrew', 
Oaviil, Joseph, and Sir Robert Jardine, 
Bart., whose death took place in 1905. 
These gentlemen were all nephews of the 
founder of the house, and all were men of 






K7m Mi' 



WINDING SILK ONTO B.XMBOO STICKS FOR CROSS-WE.WING PREPARING 

HEMP BR.\ID FOR EXPORT HEMP BR.\ID MIl-L 



240 



I' R K S K N T - D A ^• I M P li IC S S I O N S OF J A P A N 



business in the best sense of tlic word, types 
of the merchant princes who in the eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth centuries did so much 
to Iniild up British trade and prestige in all 
parts of the world. After the death of Sir 
Robert Jardine in 1905 the firm, for family 
reasons, was turned into a private limited 
liability company with the following direc- 
torate: Sir R. A\'. Buchanan- Jardine, Gov- 
erning-director; Messrs. William Keswick, 
M. P., W. J. Gresson, and Henry Keswick 
(who succeeded his father, Mr. William Kes- 
wick, on the latter's decease). Managing- 
directors. During the most prosperous part 
of its career the old firm was under the con- 
trol of Mr. William Keswick, M. P., who for 
forty years was its guiding hand, and under 
him it spread its branches in all the leading 
centres of trade in the Far East. Mr. Kes- 
wick it was who opened the Yokohama 
branch in 1859, almost as soon as the port 
was thrown open to foreign trade. 

As to the activities of the company dtuing 
its long existence, it would be almost like 
writing the history of the Far East to attempt 
to give in sequence the story of Jardine, Ma- 
theson & Co., Ltd., and to write of its oper- 
ations is to write of the whole trade of the 
Orient in its varied phases. The enterprise 
of the company has been witnessed in prac- 
tically every direction in which trade and 
commerce have expanded, and has been 
associated with every great movement tend- 
ing to open up and develop new avenues of 
business. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ltd., 
has done much in this latter direction, and 
the name is to-day inseparably linked with 
the progress of the East. The company is 
looked upon to take the lead in every new 
development, because its history has demon- 
strated its keen interest in all that pertains 
to the welfare of British trade generally, 
and the good of the centres in which its 
energies are in force. In Hong Kong and 
elsewhere Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ltd., 
has covered every field of enterprise, asso- 
ciating itself with the opening of harbours, 
construction of docks and wharves, railways, 
new industries, and many another movement 
tending to increase the general prosperity 
and make progress possible for all. 

As stated above, the Japanese business 
was opened in 1859 W'hen the outlook for the 
foreigner at Yokohama was not a very 
encouraging one in view- of the attitude of the 
Japanese toward the newcomers. With 
customary foresight Mr. Keswick selected a 
business site that in after years was to be 
the threshold and centre of foreign commerce 
in the port. Appropriately enough the 
address is No. i, the site of one and a half 
acres being situated close to the landing 
stage, on the Bund, and demarking the main 



business artery of Yokoham;i. This site is 
held on perjietual lease, and in point of value 
there is none to exceed it. Here are estab- 
lished the offices, counting-house, and the 
raw silk inspecting rooms and godow^ns. 
The waste silk department is on Lot 21 and 
the shipping and insurance offices on Lot 22. 
The Kobe branch is at Xos. 83-85 Kyo- 
machi, and from this centre is handled the 
export of hemp braid, Panama hats, copper, 
and many other lines comprised under the 
heading of general merchandise. At Shi- 
monoseki the export of Japanese coal is 
principally dealt with. There are also 
branches at Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Nagasaki. 
Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ltd., act as 
General Managers and General Agents for 
the following, among others: Indo-China 
Steam Navigation Co., Ltd.; the Glen Line, 
trading between British and Continental 
ports and Japan; the Indra Line, between 
New York and the Philippine Islands and 
Japan; the Waterhouse Steamship Line; the 
China Sugar Refining Co., Ltd.; the Hong 
Kong Cotton Spinning, Weaving and Dyeing 
Co., Ltd.; the Ewo Cotton Spinning and 
Weaving Co., Ltd.; the Shanghai and Hong- 
kew Wharf Co., Ltd.; the Canton Insurance 
Office, Ltd.; and the Hong Kong Fire Insur- 
ance Co., Ltd. The following British insur- 
ance companies are also represented in Japan 
by the company: Alliance Assurance Co., 
Ltd., Royal Insurance Co., Ltd., and the 
London Insurance Co., Ltd. Jardine, Ma- 
theson & Co., Ltd., are selling agents for the 
New York Lubricating Oil Co., the Bombay- 
Burmah Trading Corporation, exporters of 
teak and hard woods, and the Mercantile 
Bank of India is another of their general 
agencies. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Ltd., 
are importers to Japan of machinery, metals, 
chemicals, drugs, raw- cotton, wool and other 
requirements for the mills and factories of the 
country. They are exporters of raw and 
waste silk, braids and general produce of all 
kinds. 

Apart from the London house, and the 
head offices for the Orient at Hong Kong, 
branches in addition to those mentioned for 
Japan are maintained at New York, Canton, 
Wuchow, Samshui, Swatow, Amoy, Foochow, 
Shanghai, Chinkiang, Nanking, Wuhu, Kiu- 
kiang, Hankow, Ichang, Changsha, Peking, 
Tientsin, Neuchuang, Vladivostock, Harbin, 
Tsingtau, and Taipeh. 

The Manager for Japan is Mr. F. H. Bug- 
bird, who in addition to the extensive inter- 
ests which he has to control, still finds time 
to associate himself in many ways with the 
general welfare of the British trading and 
social interests of Yokohama. He is Vice- 
Chairman of the Foreign Board of Trade and 
Chairman of the Yokohama United Club 



MASfDA AND CO.MPANY 
The foundations of the enormous business 
controlled by Messrs. Masuda & Co., of 
Yokohama, were laid as far back as 1862, 
by Mr. Kahei Masuda, shortly after the port 
had been opened to foreign trade, but the 
firm as it is to-day was actually started in 
1884 when Mr. Masuzo Masuda, jointly 
with Mr. Fusajiro Nakamura, succeeded his 
father, and commenced trading in sugar, 
petroleum, and flour. Since that time the 
business has grown to control vast enter- 
prises, and the operations of the firm now 
cover a very wide range, branches being 
established all over the world (directly by the 
Masuda Trading Company, Limited). Ori- 
ginally a merchant house, dealing only in 
certain lines of imports and exports, Messrs. 
Masuda & Co. are to-day general exporters 
and importers, shipping brokers and ship 
ow-ners, factory owners and manufacturers, 
proprietors of a sugar refinery, and interested 
widely in a variety of industrial and trading 
enterprises. They control the Masuda Saw 
Mill at Yokohama, the Masuda Flour Mill, 
Kobe, the Masuda Sugar Refinery, Yoko- 
hama, the Matsuo Sulphur